In the history of the European colonization of North America, an atrocity termed "Indian massacre" is a specific incident wherein a group of people (military, mob or other) deliberately kill a significant number of relatively defenseless or innocent people—usually civilian noncombatants or to the summary execution of prisoners-of-war. The term pertains to the killings of people of European descent by indigenous people of the North American continent (Indians) or killings of indigenous people by people of European descent and/or other indigenous people.
It is difficult to determine the total number of people who died as a result of Indian massacres. However, one book, The Wild Frontier: Atrocities during the American-Indian War from Jamestown Colony to Wounded Knee presents an estimate by counting every recorded atrocity in the area that would eventually become the continental United States, from first contact (1511) to the closing of the frontier (1890). The parameters were limited to the intentional and indiscriminate murder, torture, or mutilation of civilians, the wounded, and prisoners. The results revealed that 7,193 people died from atrocities perpetrated by those of European descent, and 9,156 people died from atrocities perpetrated by Native Americans.
List of massacres
This is a listing of some of the events reported then or referred to now as "Indian massacre". This list only contains incidents that occurred in the United States or territory presently part of the United States.
|1325||Crow Creek massacre||486 known dead were discovered at an archaeological site near Chamberlain, South Dakota. The location is U.S. National Historic Landmark number 66000710 and was the site of an internal Native American massacre involving unknown parties.|||
|1539||Napituca Massacre||After defeating resisting Timucuan warriors, Hernando de Soto had 200 executed, in the first large-scale massacre by Europeans on what became American soil.|||
|1540||October 18||Mabila Massacre||The Choctaw retaliated against Hernando de Soto's expedition, killing 200 soldiers, as well as many of their horses and pigs, for their having burned down Mabila compound and killed c. 2,500 warriors who had hidden in houses of a fake village.|||
|1541–42||Tiguex Massacres||After the invading Spaniards seized the houses, food and clothing of the Tiguex, and raped their women, the Tiguex resisted. The Spanish attacked them, burning at the stake 50 people who had surrendered. Francisco Vásquez de Coronado's men laid siege to the Moho Pueblo, and after a months-long siege, they killed 200 fleeing warriors.|||
|1599||January 22–24||Acoma Massacre||Juan de Oñate led a punitive expedition against the natives in a three-day battle at the Acoma Pueblo, killing approximately 800. King Philip III later punished Oñate for his excesses.|||
|1601||Sandia Mountains||Spanish troops destroyed 3 Indian villages in the Sandia Mountains, New Mexico. According to Spanish sources, 900 Tompiro Indians were killed.|||
|1622||March 22||Jamestown Massacre||Powhatan (Pamunkey) killed 347 English men, women and children throughout the Virginia colony, almost one-third of the English population of the Jamestown colony, in an effort to push the English out of Virginia.|||
|1623||May 12||Pamunkey Peace Talks||The English poisoned the wine at a "peace conference" with Powhatan leaders, killing about 200; they physically attacked and killed another 50.|||
|1637||April 23||Wethersfield Attack||During the Pequot War, Wongunk chief Sequin attacked the Puritan town Wethersfield, Connecticut with Pequot help. About 30 settlers were killed, including women and children.|||
|1637||May 26||Mystic Massacre||In the Pequot War, English colonists commanded by John Mason, with Mohegan and Narragansett allies, launched a night attack on a large Pequot village on the Mystic River in present-day Connecticut, where they burned the inhabitants in their homes and killed all survivors, for total fatalities of about 600–700.|||
|1643||February 25||Pavonia Massacre||In 1643 the Mohawk attacked a band of Wappinger and Tappan, who fled to New Amsterdam seeking the protection of New Netherland governor, William Kieft. Kieft dispersed them to Pavonia and Corlears Hook. They were later attacked, 129 being killed. This prompted the beginning of Kieft's War, driven by mercenary John Underhill.|||
|1643||August||Hutchinson Massacre||As part of Kieft's War in New Netherland, near the Split Rock (now northeastern Bronx in New York City), local Lenape (or Siwanoy) killed Anne Hutchinson, six of her children, a son-in-law, and as many as seven others (servants). Susanna, one of Hutchinson's daughters, was taken captive and lived with the natives for several years.|||
|1644||March||Pound Ridge Massacre||As part of Kieft's War in New Netherland, at present day Pound Ridge, New York, John Underhill, hired by the Dutch, attacked and burned a sleeping village of Lenape, killing about 500 Indians.|||
|1655||September 11–15||Peach Tree War||In retaliation for Director-General of New Netherland Peter Stuyvesant's attacks to their trading partners and allies at New Sweden, united bands of natives attacked Pavonia, Staten Island, Colen Donck and other areas of New Netherland.|||
|1675||July||Swansea Massacre||Wampanoag warriors attack the town of Swansea, Massachusetts, killing 7 settlers. This attack marked the beginning of King Philip's War.|||
|1675||September 18||Bloody Brook Massacre||During King Philip's War, Indian warriors ambushed and killed 60 soldiers of Deerfield, Massachusetts.|||
|1675||December 19||Great Swamp Massacre||Colonial militia attacked a Narragansett fort near South Kingstown, Rhode Island. At least 40 warriors were killed and 300 women, children and elder men burnt in the village.|||
|1676||March 26||Nine Men's Misery||During King Philip's War, warriors subjected nine captive soldiers to ritual torture and death.|||
|1676||May 10||Turner Falls Massacre||Captain William Turner and 150 militia volunteers attacked a fishing Indian camp at present-day Turners Falls, Massachusetts. At least 100 women and children were killed in the attack.|||
|1676||July 2||Rhode Island||Militia volunteers under Major Talcott attacked a band of Narragansetts on Rhode Island, killing 34 men and 92 women and children.|||
|1680||August 10||Pueblo Revolt||Pueblo warriors killed 380 Spanish settlers, and drove other Spaniards from New Mexico.|||
|1689||August 5||Lachine massacre||1,500 Mohawk warriors attacked the small settlement of Lachine, New France and killed more than 90 of the village's 375 French residents, following widespread French attacks on Mohawk villages in present-day New York.|||
|1689||Zia Pueblo||Governor Jironza de Cruzate destroyed the pueblo of Zia, New Mexico. 600 Indians were killed and 70 survivors enslaved.|||
|1690||February 8||Schenectady Massacre||As part of the Beaver Wars, French and Algonquins destroyed Schenectady, New York, killing 60 Dutch and English settlers, including ten women and at least twelve children.|||
|1692||January 24||Candlemas Massacre||During King William's War, 200-300 Abenaki and Canadiens killed 75, took 100 prisoner and burned the town of York, Maine district of the Province of Massachusetts Bay|||
|1704||Apalachee Massacre||Former Carolina Governor James Moore launched a series of brutal attacks on the Apalachee villages of Northern Florida. They killed 1000 Apalachees and enslaved at least 2000 survivors.|||
|1704||February 29||Deerfield Massacre||During Queen Anne's War, a force composed of Abenaki, Kanienkehaka, Wyandot and Pocumtuck, led by a small contingent of French-Canadian militia, sacked the town of Deerfield, Massachusetts, killing 56 civilians and taking more than 100 as captives.|||
|1711||September 22||Massacre at Bath||The Southern Tuscarora, Pamplico, Cothechneys, Cores, Mattamuskeets and Matchepungoes attacked settlers at several locations in and around the city of Bath, North Carolina. Hundreds of settlers were killed, and many more were driven off.|||
|1712||Massacre at Fort Narhantes||The North Carolina militia and their Indian allies attacked the Southern Tuscarora at Fort Narhantes on the banks of the Neuse River. More than 300 Tuscarora were killed, and one hundred were sold into slavery.|||
|1712||May||Fox Indian Massacre||French troops and Indian allies killed around 1,000 Fox Indians men, women and children in a five-day massacre near the head of the Detroit River.|||
|1713||March 20–23||Fort Neoheroka||Militia volunteers and Indian allies under Colonel James Moore attacked Ft. Neoheroka, the main stronghold of the Tuscarora Indians. 200 Tuscaroras were burned to death in the village and 900–1000 others were subsequently killed or captured.|||
|1715||April 15||Pocotaligo Massacre||Yamassee Indians killed 4 British traders and representatives of Carolina at Pocotaligo, near present-day Yemassee, South Carolina. 90 other traders were killed in the following weeks.|||
|1724||August 24||Norridgewock Massacre||Captains Jeremiah Moulton and Johnson Harmon led 200 rangers to the Abenaki village of Norridgewock, Maine to kill Father Sebastian Rale and destroy the Indian settlement. The rangers massacred 80 Abenakis (including two dozen women and children).|||
|1729||November 29||Natchez Massacre||Natchez Indians attacked French settlements near present-day Natchez, Mississippi, killing more than 200 French colonists.|||
|1730||September 9||Massacre at Fox Fort||A French army of 1,400 soldiers and its Indian allies massacred about 500 Fox Indians (including 300 women and children) as they tried to flee their besieged camp.|||
|1747||October||Chama River||Spanish troops ambushed a group of Utes on the Chama River, killing 111 Indians and taking 206 as captives .|||
|1755||Jul 8||Draper's Meadow massacre||5 settlers killed by Shawnee Indians at Draper's Meadow, Virginia|||
|1757||August 9||Battle of Fort William Henry||Following the fall of Fort William Henry during the Seven Years' War, Indians allied with the French killed between 70 and 180 British and colonial prisoners.|||
|1758||March 16||San Saba Mission Massacre||A large party of Comanche, Tonkawa and Hasinai Indians attacked the mission of San Saba, Texas, killing 8 people and burning down the mission.|||
|1759||October 4||St. Francis Raid||During the Seven Years' War, in retaliation for the rumored murder of a captured Stockbridge man and detention of Captain Quinten Kennedy of the Rogers' Rangers, Major Robert Rogers led a party of approximately 150 English regulars, volunteers and Mahican into the village of Odanak, Quebec. They killed up to 30 Abenaki people, among them women and children, as confirmed via conflicting reports.|||
|1763||May||Capture of Fort Sandusky||During Pontiac's War, a group of Wyandots entered the British outpost Fort Sandusky under peaceful pretexts. The Wyandots then seized the fort and killed its 15-member garrison along with several British traders.|||
|1763||September 14||Devil's Hole Massacre||During the Seven Years' War, Seneca allied with the French attacked a British supply train and soldiers just south of Fort Niagara. They killed 21 teamsters from the supply train and 81 soldiers who attempted to rescue the train.|||
|1763||December||Killings by the Paxton Boys||In response to Pontiac's Rebellion, frontier Pennsylvania settlers killed 20 peaceful Susquehannock.|||
|1764||July 26||Enoch Brown school massacre||Four Lenape Indians killed a schoolmaster, 10 pupils and a pregnant woman. Two pupils were scalped but survived.|||
|1774||September||Spanish Peaks||Spanish troops surprised a large fortified Comanche village near Spanish Peaks (Raton, New Mexico). They killed nearly 300 Indians (men, women and children) and took 100 captives.|||
|1774||April 30||Yellow Creek Massacre||Daniel Greathouse killed members of Chief Logan's family.|||
|1777||September 26||The Grave Creek Massacre||A milita company under Captain William Foreman is ambushed and killed by Indians south of Wheeling, West Virginia.|||
|1778||July 3||Battle of Wyoming||During the American Revolutionary War, following a battle with rebel defenders of Forty Fort, Iroquois allies of Loyalist forces hunted and killed those who fled; they were later accused of using ritual torture to kill those soldiers who surrendered. These claims were denied by Iroquois and British leaders at the time.|||
|1778||August 31||Stockbridge Massacre||An ambush by the British during the American Revolutionary War that left nearly 40 natives dead.|||
|1778||November 11||Cherry Valley Massacre||British and Seneca forces attacked the fort and village at Cherry Valley, New York, killing 16 rebel troops and more than 30 settlers.|||
|1780||June 27||Westervelt Massacre||Seventeen Dutch settlers killed and two taken captive out of a caravan of 41. The settler caravan was traveling between Low Dutch Station, Kentucky and Harrod's Town, Kentucky. The victims were all scalped and sold to the British for a bounty.|||
|1781||September 1||Dietz Massacre||During the Revolution, Iroquois allied with the British attacked the home of Johannes Dietz, Berne, New York, killing and scalping Dietz, his wife, their daughter-in-law, four children of their son's family, and a servant girl.|||
|1781||September 1||Long Run Massacre||Thirty-two settlers killed by 50 Miami people while trying to move to safety, additionally approximately 15 settlers and 17 soldiers were killed attempting to bury the initial victims.|||
|1782||March 8||Gnadenhütten massacre||During the Revolution, Pennsylvania militiamen massacred nearly 100 non-combatant Christian Lenape, mostly women and children; they killed and scalped all but two young boys.|||
|1782||May 10||Corbly Family Massacre||During the Revolution, Indians allied with the British attacked the family of John Corbly, a Christian minister in Greene County, Pennsylvania. His wife and three of their children were killed; and two daughters were scalped, but survived. The Reverend Corbly escaped.|||
|1791||January 2||Big Bottom massacre||14 settlers were killed by an Indian war party in Stockport, Morgan County, Ohio.|
|1791||November 4||Fort Recovery Massacre||At present day Fort Recovery, Ohio, an army of 1,500 Americans led by Arthur St. Clair, was ambushed by an army of Miami Indians led by chief Little Turtle. Before retreating, 700 of the 1,500 American soldiers were killed.|||
|1805||January||Canyon del Muerto||Spanish soldiers led by Antonio Narbona massacred 115 Navajo Indians (mostly women, children and old men) in Canyon del Muerto, northeastern Arizona.|||
|1812||August 15||Fort Dearborn Massacre
(Battle of Fort Dearborn)
|During the War of 1812, Indians allied with the British killed American soldiers and settlers evacuating Fort Dearborn (site of present-day Chicago, Illinois). In all, 26 soldiers, two officers, two women and 12 children, and 12 trappers and settlers hired as scouts, were killed.|||
|1812||September 3||Pigeon Roost Massacre||During the War of 1812, twenty four settlers, including fifteen children, were massacred by a war party of Native Americans (mostly Shawnee, but possibly including some Lenape and Potawatomis) in a surprise attack on a small village located in what is today Scott County, Indiana.|||
|1812||September 10||Zimmer Massacre||During the War of 1812, four settlers were killed in an attack believed to be by aggrieved Lenape, in Ashland County, Ohio.|||
|1812||September 15||Copus Massacre||During the War of 1812, Northwest Indians attacked the Ashland County, Ohio homestead of Rev. James Copus, killing three militiamen and one settler; and wounding two militiamen and a settler's daughter; settlers killed two Indians.|||
|1813||January 22||River Raisin Massacre||During the War of 1812, Indians allied with the British killed between 30 and 60 Kentucky militia after their surrender.|||
|1813||August 18||Dilbone Massacre||During the War of 1812, an Indian allegedly killed three settlers (David Garrard and Henry Dilbone and wife) in Miami County, Ohio. Settlers later killed the Indian they suspected of the murders.|||
|1813||August 30||Fort Mims Massacre||After a Creek victory at the Battle of Burnt Corn, a band of Creek Red Sticks attacked Fort Mims, Alabama, killing 400-500 settlers, slaves, militiamen and Creek loyalists and taking 250 scalps. This action brought the US into the internal Creek War, at the same time as the War of 1812.|||
|1813||September 1||Kimbell-James Massacre||Immediately after departing Fort Mims, Red Sticks warriors led by Josiah Francis (Prophet Francis) attacked the Kimbell and James families seeking refuge near Fort Sinquefield. At least 15 were killed, mostly women and children.|||
|1813||November 3||Battle of Tallushatchee||900 Tennessee troops under General John Coffee, and including Davy Crockett, attacked an unsuspecting Creek town. About 186-200 Creek Warriors were killed, and an unknown number of women and children were killed, some burned in their houses.|||
|1813||November 18||Hillabee Massacre||Tennessee troops under General White launched a dawn attacked on an unsuspecting Creek town (the village leaders were engaged in peace negotiations with General Andrew Jackson). About 65 Creek Indians were shot or bayoneted.|||
|1813||November 29||Autossee Massacre
(Battle of Autossee)
|Georgia Militia General Floyd attacked a Creek town on Tallapoosa River, in Macon County, Alabama, killing 200 Indians before setting the village afire.|||
|1817||Late September||Scott Massacre||A supply boat under the command of Lt. Richard W. Scott was attacked by Seminole Indians on the Apalachicola River. 40-50 people on the boat were killed, including twenty sick soldiers and seven wives of soldiers. One woman was taken prisoner, and six survivors made it to Fort Scott.|||
|1818||April 22||Chehaw Affair||During the First Seminole War, U.S. troops attacked a non-hostile Muscogee village, killing an estimated 10 to 50 men, women and children.|||
|1824||March 22||Fall Creek Massacre||Six settlers in Madison County, Indiana killed and robbed eight Seneca. One suspect escaped trial and another was a witness at subsequent trial. Of those charged with murder, one man was hanged 12 January 1825, and two were hanged 2 June 1825. The last defendant was pardoned at the last minute.|||
|1826||Dressing Point Massacre||A posse of Anglo-Texan settlers massacred a large community of Karankawa Indians near the mouth of the Colorado River in Matagorda County, Texas. Between 40 and 50 Karankawas were killed.|||
|1832||May 20||Indian Creek Massacre||A party of Potawatomi, with a few Sauk allies, killed fifteen men, women and children and kidnapped two young women, who were later ransomed.|||
|1832||May 24||St. Vrain massacre||4 killed by Ho-Chunk while delivering dispatches during Black Hawk War near present-day Pearl City, Illinois during Black Hawk War|||
|1832||June 14||Spafford Farm massacre||Five men were attacked by a Kickapoo war party, four whites and one Indian died, during Black Hawk War, near present-day South Wayne, Wisconsin|||
|1832||August 1||Battle of Bad Axe||Soldiers under General Henry Atkinson and armed volunteers killed around 150 Indian men, women and children near present-day Victory, Wisconsin.|||
|1833||Exact date unknown||Cutthroat Gap Massacre||Osage tribe attacked a Kiowa camp west of the Wichita Mountains in southwest Oklahoma where one hundred and fifty Kiowa tribal inhabitants were killed in the Osage attack.|||
|1835||December 28||Dade Massacre||During the Second Seminole War, Seminole killed almost all of a command of 110 American soldiers in Central Florida. All but two of the soldiers were killed; and one survivor died a few months later from his wounds.|||
|1836||May 19||Fort Parker Massacre||Comanche killed seven European Americans in Limestone County, Texas. The five captured included Cynthia Ann Parker.|||
|1837||April 22||Johnson Massacre||At least 20 Apaches were killed near Santa Rita del Cobre, New Mexico while trading with a group of American settlers led by John Johnson. The Anglos blasted the Apaches with a canon loaded with musket balls, nails and pieces of glass and finished off the wounded.|||
|1838||October 5||Killough Massacre||Indians massacred eighteen members and relatives of the Killough family in Texas.|||
|1838 or 1839||Exact date unknown||Webster Massacre||Comanche killed a party of settlers attempting to ford the Bushy Creek near present-day Leander, Texas. All of the Anglo men were killed and Mrs. Webster and her two children were captured.|||
|1840||March 19||Council House Massacre||The 12 leaders of a Comanche delegation (65 people including 35 women and children) were shot in San Antonio, Texas, while trying to escape the local jail. 23 others including 5 women and children were killed in or around the city.|||
|1840||August 7||Indian Key Massacre||During the Seminole Wars, Spanish-speaking Indians attacked and destroyed an Indian Key settlement, killing 13 inhabitants, including noted horticulturist Dr. Henry Perrine.|||
|1840||October 24||Colorado River||Volunteer Rangers under Colonel Moore massacred 140 Comanches (men, women and children) in their village on the Colorado and captured 35 others (mostly small children).|||
|1840||Exact date unknown||Clear Lake Massacre||A posse led by Mexican Salvador Vallejo massacred 150 Pomo and Wappo Indians on Clear Lake, California.|||
|1846||March||Sacramento River||Captain Frémont's men attacked a peaceful band of Indians (probably Yanas) on the Sacramento River in California, killing between 120 and 200 Indians.|||
|1846||December||Pauma massacre||11 Californios killed by Indians at Escondido, California led to the Temecula massacre.|||
|1846||December||Temecula massacre||33 to 40 Indians killed in revenge for the Pauma Massacre at Escondido, California.|||
|1847||February 3–4||Storming of Pueblo de Taos||In response to a New Mexican-instigated uprising in Taos, American troops attacked the heavily fortified Pueblo of Taos with artillery, killing nearly 150, some being Indians. Between 25 and 30 prisoners were shot by firing squads.|||
|1847||November 29||Whitman massacre||Cayuse and Umatilla killed the missionaries Dr. Marcus Whitman, Mrs. Narcissa Whitman and twelve others at Walla Walla, Washington, triggering the Cayuse War.|||
|1848||April||Brazos River||A hunting party of 26 friendly Wichita and Caddo Indians was massacred by Texas Rangers under Captain Samuel Highsmithe, in a valley south of Brazos River. 25 men and boys were killed, only one child managed to escape.|||
|1850||May 15||Bloody Island Massacre||Nathaniel Lyon and his U. S. Army detachment of cavalry killed 60–100 Pomo people on Bo-no-po-ti island near Clear Lake, (Lake Co., California); they believed the Pomo had killed two Clear Lake settlers who had been abusing and murdering Pomo people. (The Island Pomo had no connections to the enslaved Pomo). This incident led to a general outbreak of settler attacks against and mass killing of native people all over Northern California. Site is California Registered Historical Landmark #427|||
|1851||March||Oatman Massacre||Royce Oatman's emigrant party of 7 was killed by Mohave or Yavapai Indians. The survivors, Olive and Mary Ann Oatman were enslaved. Olive escaped five years later and spoke extensively about the experience.|||
|1851||Old Shasta Town||Miners killed 300 Wintu Indians near Old Shasta, California and burned down their tribal council meeting house.|||
|1852||Hynes Bay Massacre||Texas militiamen attacked a village of 50 Karankawas, killing 45 of them.|||
|1852||April 23||Bridge Gulch Massacre||70 American men led by Trinity County sheriff William H. Dixon killed more than 150 Wintu people in the Hayfork Valley of California, in retaliation for the killing of Col. John Anderson.|||
|1852||November||Wright Massacre||White settlers led by a notorious Indian hunter named Ben Wright massacred 41 Modocs during a "peace parley".|||
|1853||Howonquet Massacre||Californian settlers attacked and burned the Tolowa village of Howonquet, massacring 70 people.|||
|1853||Yontoket Massacre||A posse of settlers attacked and burned a Tolowa rancheria at Yontocket, California, killing 450 Tolowa during a prayer ceremony.|||
|1853||Achulet Massacre||White settlers launched an attack on a Tolowa village near Lake Earl in California, killing between 65 and 150 Indians at dawn.|||
|1853||Before December 31||"Ox" incident||U.S. forces attacked and killed an unreported number of Indians in the Four Creeks area (Tulare County, California) in what was referred to by officers as "our little difficulty" and "the chastisement they have received".|||
|1854||January 28||Nasomah Massacre||40 white settlers attacked the sleeping village of the Nasomah Indians at the mouth of the Coquille River in Oregon, killing 15 men and 1 woman.|||
|1854||February 15||Chetco River Massacre||Nine white settlers attacked a friendly Indian village on the Chetco River in Oregon, massacring 26 men and a few women. Most of the Indians were shot while trying to escape. Two Chetco who tried to resist with bows and arrows were burned alive in their houses. Shortly before the attack, the Chetco had been induced to give away their weapons as "friendly relations were firmly established".|||
|1854||August 19||Grattan Massacre||After a detachment of 30 U.S. soldiers in the Nebraska Territory opened fire on an encampment of 4,000 Brulé Sioux, killing Chief Conquering Bear, warriors attacked and killed all the soldiers and their civilian interpreter.|||
|1854||August 20||Ward Massacre||Shoshone killed 18 of the 20 members of the Alexander Ward party, attacking them on the Oregon Trail in western Idaho. This event led the U.S. eventually to abandon Fort Boise and Fort Hall, in favor of the use of military escorts for emigrant wagon trains.|||
|1855||January 22||Klamath River massacres||In retaliation for the murder of six settlers and the theft of some cattle, whites commenced a "war of extermination against the Indians" in Humboldt County, California.|||
|1855||September 2||Harney Massacre||US troops under Brigadier General William S. Harney killed 86 Sioux, men, women and children at Blue Water Creek, in present-day Nebraska. About 70 women and children were taken prisoner.|||
|1855||October 8||Lupton Massacre||A group of settlers and miners launched a night attack on an Indian village near Upper Table Rock, Oregon, killing 23 Indians (mostly elderly men, women and children).|||
|1855||December 23||Little Butte Creek||Oregon volunteers launched a dawn attack on a Tututni and Takelma camp on the Rogue River. Between 19 to 26 Indians were killed.|||
|1856||June||Grande Ronde River Valley Massacre||Washington Territorial Volunteers under Colonel Benjamin Shaw attacked a peaceful Cayuse and Walla Walla Indians on the Grande Ronde River in Oregon. 60 Indians, mostly women, old men and children were killed.|||
|1856||March||Shingletown||In reprisal for Indian stock theft, white settlers massacred at least 20 Yana men, women and children near Shingletown, California.|||
|1857||Mar 8–12||Spirit Lake Massacre||Thirty-five to 40 killed and 4 taken captive by Santee Sioux in the last Native American attack on settlers in Iowa.|||
|1858-1859||Round Valley Massacres||White settlers killed 150 Yuki Indians in Round Valley, California. Massacres continued through the spring and summer of 1859. In April 1859, in revenge for the killing of 3 cows and 1 stallion belonging to a white man, California militiamen massacred 240 Indians on the Eel River. On 1 May, Major Johnson reported that six hundred Yukis had been massacred by white settlers "in the last year".|||
|1859||September||Pit River||White settlers massacred 70 Achomawi Indians (10 men and 60 women and children) in their village on Pit River in California.|||
|1859||Chico Creek||White settlers attacked a Maidu camp near Chico Creek in California, killing indiscriminately 40 Indians.|||
|1860||Exact date unknown||Massacre at Bloody Rock||A group of 65 Yuki Indians were surrounded and massacred by white settlers at Bloody Rock, in Mendocino County, California.|||
|1860||February 26||Indian Island Massacre||In three nearly simultaneous assaults on the Wiyot, at Indian Island, Eureka, Rio Dell, and near Hydesville, California white settlers killed between 200 and 250 Wiyot in Humboldt County, California. Victims were mostly women, children and elders, as reported by Bret Harte at Arcata newspaper. Other villages massacred within two days. The main site is National Register of Historic Places in the United States #66000208.|||
|1860||December 18||Pease River Massacre||Texas Rangers under Captain Sul Ross attacked a Comanche village in Foard County, Texas, killing indiscriminately a considerable number of Indians.|||
|1860||September 8||Otter Massacre||Near Sinker Creek Idaho, 11 persons of the last wagon train of the year were killed and several others were subsequently killed. Some that escaped the initial massacre starved to death|||
|1861||Horse Canyon Massacre||White settlers and Indian allies attacked a Wailaki village in Horse Canyon (Round Valley, California), killing up to 240 Wailakis.|||
|1861||Cookes Canyon Massacres||Apaches massacred hundreds of Americans and Mexicans in and around Cookes Canyon, New Mexico over the course of several months.|||
|1861||Sep 2||Gallinas Massacre||Four Confederate soldiers killed by Chiricahua Apache warriors.|||
|1862||Upper Station Massacre||California settlers killed at least 20 Wailakis in Round Valley, California.|||
|1862||Big Antelope Creek Massacre||California settlers led by notorious Indian hunter Hi Good launched a dawn attack on a Yana village, massacring about 25 Indians.|||
|1862||August–September||Dakota War of 1862||As part of the U.S.-Dakota War, the Sioux killed as many as 800 white settlers and soldiers throughout Minnesota. Some 40,000 white settlers fled their homes on the frontier.|||
|1862||October 24||Tonkawa Massacre||During the U.S. Civil War, a detachment of irregular Union Indians, mainly Kickapoo, Lenape and Shawnee, accompanied by Caddo allies, attempted to destroy the Tonkawa tribe in Indian Territory. They killed 240 of 390 Tonkawa, leaving only 150 survivors.|||
|1863||January 29||Bear River Massacre||Col. Patrick Connor led a United States Army regiment killing 280 Shoshone men, women and children near Preston, Idaho.|||
|1863||April 19||Keyesville Massacre||American militia and members of the California cavalry killed 35 Tehachapi men in Kern County, California.|||
|1863-1865||Mowry massacres||16 settlers killed in a series of Indian raids at Mowry, Arizona Territory|||
|1864||Cottonwood||20 Yanas of both sexes killed by white settlers in the town of Cottonwood, California.|||
|1864||Massacre at Bloody Tanks||A group of white settlers led by King S. Woolsey killed 19 Apaches at a "peace parley".|||
|1864||Oak Run Massacre||California settlers massacred 300 Yana Indians who had gathered near the head of Oak Run, California for spiritual ceremony.|||
|1864||Skull Valley Massacre||A group of Yavapai families was lured into a trap and massacred by soldiers under Lt. Monteith in a valley west of Prescott, Arizona (Arizona). The place was named Skull Valley after the heads of the dead Indians left unburied.|||
|1864||November 29||Sand Creek Massacre||Members of the Colorado Militia attacked a peaceful village of Cheyenne, killing at least 160 men, women and children at Sand Creek in Kiowa County.|||
|1865||March 14||Mud Lake Massacre||US troops under Captain Wells attacked a Paiute camp near Winnemucca Lake, killing 32 Indians. One soldier was slightly wounded during the attack.|||
|1865||Owens Lake Massacre||White vigilantes attacked a Paiute camp on Owens Lake in California, killing about 40 men, women and children.|||
|1865||Three Knolls Massacre||White settlers massacred a Yana community at Three Knolls on the Mill Creek, California.|||
|1865||September||Bloody Point Massacre||A wagon train of 65 settlers was massacred by Modoc Indians near Lake Tule in Oregon. One man survived and alerted the Oregon militia who buried the bodies.|||
|1866||April 21||Circleville Massacre||Mormon militiamen killed 16 Paiute men and women at Circleville, Utah. 6 men were shot, allegedly while trying to escape. The others (3 men and 7 women) had their throats cut. 4 small children were spared.|||
|1867||Aquarius Mountains||Yavapai County Rangers killed 23 Indians (men, women and children) in the southern Aquarius Mountains, Arizona.|||
|1867||July 2||Kidder Massacre||Cheyenne and Sioux ambushed and killed a 2nd US Cavalry detachment of eleven men and their Indian guide near Beaver Creek in Sherman County, Kansas. General Custer was an after-the-fact witness at the scene.|||
|1868||Campo Seco||A posse of white settlers massacred 33 Yahis in a cave north of Mill Creek, California.|||
|1868||November 27||Washita Massacre
(Battle of Washita River)
|During the American Indian Wars, Lt. Col. G.A.Custer's 7th U.S. Cavalry attacked a village of sleeping Cheyenne led by Black Kettle. Custer reported 103 – later revised to 140 – warriors, "some" women and "few" children killed, and 53 women and children taken hostage. Other casualty estimates by cavalry members, scouts and Indians vary widely, with the number of men killed ranging as low as 11 and the numbers of women and children ranging as high as 75. Before returning to their base, the cavalry killed several hundred Indian ponies and burned the village.|||
|1870||January 23||Marias Massacre||US troops killed 173 Piegan, mainly women, children and the elderly after being led to the wrong camp by a soldier who wanted to protect his Indian wife's family.|||
|1871||Kingsley Cave Massacre||4 settlers killed 30 Yahi Indians in Tehama County, California about two miles from Wild Horse Corral in the Ishi Wilderness. It is estimated that this massacre left only 15 members of the Yahi tribe alive|||
|1871||April 30||Camp Grant Massacre||Led by the ex-Mayor of Tucson, William Oury, eight Americans, 48 Mexicans and more than 100 allied Pima attacked Apache men, women and children at Camp Grant, Arizona Territory killing 144, with 1 survivor at scene and 29 children sold to slavery. All but eight of the dead were Apache women or children.|||
|1871||November 5||Wickenburg massacre||Indians attacked an Arizona stagecoach, killing the driver and his five passengers, leaving two wounded survivors.|||
|1872||Between August and October||Jordan Massacre||3 settlers killed, 1 woman abducted, apparently by Indians at Middle Fork of Walnut Creek, Kansas|||
|1872||December 28||Skeleton Cave Massacre||U.S. troops and Indian scouts killed 76 Yavapai Indians men, women and children in a remote cave in Arizona's Salt River Canyon.|||
|1873||June 1||Cypress Hills Massacre||Following a dispute over stolen horses, American wolfers killed approximately 20 Nakoda in Saskatchewan.|||
|1875||April||Sappa Creek Massacre||Soldiers under Lt Austin Henly trapped a group of 27 Cheyenne, (19 men, 8 women and children) on the Sappa Creek, in Kansas and killed them all.|||
|1877||August 8||Big Hole Massacre||US troops under Colonel John Gibbon attacked a Nez Perce village at Big Hole, in Montana Territory. They killed 89 men, women and children before being repulsed by the Indians.|||
|1879||January 9–21||Fort Robinson Massacre||Northern Cheyenne under Dull Knife attempted to escape from confinement in Fort Robinson, Nebraska; U.S. Army forces hunted them down, killing 77 of them. The remains of those killed were repatriated in 1994.|||
|1879||September 30||Meeker Massacre||In the beginning of the Ute War, the Ute killed the US Indian Agent Nathan Meeker and 10 others. They also attacked a military unit, killing 13 and wounding 43.|||
|1880||April 28||Alma Massacre||The Apache chief Victorio led warriors in an attack on settlers at Alma, New Mexico. On December 19, 1885, the Apache killed an officer and four enlisted men of the 8th Cavalry Regiment near Alma.|||
|1889||November 2||Kelvin Grade Massacre||The Apache Kid (Haskay-bay-nay-ntayl) and his gang escaped police custody, killing two sheriffs and wounding one settler near present-day Globe, Arizona.|||
|1890||December 10||Buffalo Gap Massacre||Several wagonloads of Sioux were killed by South Dakota Home Guard militiamen near French Creek, South Dakota, while visiting a white friend in Buffalo Gap.|||
|1890||December||Stronghold||South Dakota Home Guard militiamen ambushed and massacred 75 Sioux at the Stronghold, in the northern portion of Pine Ridge Indian Reservation.|||
|1890||December 29||Wounded Knee Massacre||Members of the U.S. 7th Cavalry attacked and killed between 130 and 250 Sioux men, women and children at Wounded Knee, South Dakota.|||
|1911||January 19||Last Massacre||A group of Shoshone killed four ranchers in Washoe County, Nevada. On 26 February 1911, an American posse killed eight of the Shoshone suspects and captured four children from the band.|||
- American Indian Wars
- Population history of indigenous peoples of the Americas
- List of events named massacres
- List of massacres in the United States
- List of conflicts in the United States
- Osborn, William M. (2001). The Wild Frontier: Atrocities During The American-Indian War from Jamestown Colony to Wounded Knee. Garden City, NY: Random House. ISBN 978-0-375-50374-0.
- Staff (2007-01-23). "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service.
- Duncan, David Ewing (1997). Hernando de Soto: a savage quest in the Americas. University of Oklahoma Press. pp. 286–291, 376–384.
- Clayton, Lawrence A., "Hernando de Soto: A Brief".
- Wilford, John Noble, "De Soto's Trail: Courage and Cruelty Come Alive", New York Times, 19 May 1987
- Steele, Ian Kenneth, Warpaths: Invasions of North America, Oxford University Press, 1994. pp. 15, 47, 116.
- Sauer, C., Sixteenth Century North America; the land and the people as seen by the Europeans, University of California Press, 1971, p. 141.
- Flint, R., No settlement, no conquest : a history of the Coronado Entrada, University of New Mexico Press, 2008, pp. 144–153.
- "Conquistador Statue Stirs Hispanic Pride and Indian Rage"
- Weber, David J., The Spanish Frontier in North America, Yale University Press, New Haven, 1992, pp. 85–86.
- Riley, Carroll, L., Rio del Norte: People of the Upper Rio Grande from Earliest Times to the Pueblo Revolt, University of Utah Press, 2007, p. 252, ISBN 978-0-87480-496-6
- Jamestown: Legacy of the Massacre of 1622 | Americans at War: 1500–1815 Summary
- Atwater, Elias (1902). History of the Colony of New Haven to Its Absorption Into Connecticut. The Journal Publishing Company. p. 610.
- Cave, Alfred A., The Pequot War, University of Massachusetts Press, 1996, pp. 144–154.
- Wm Kieft and Pavonia
- Winkler, David F. (1998). Revisiting the Attack on Pavonia. New Jersey Historical Society.
- Beck, Sanderson (2006). "New Netherland and Stuyvesant 1642–64".
- Churchill 1997, p. 198
- LaPlante, Eve (2004). American Jezebel, the Uncommon Life of Anne Hutchinson, the Woman who Defied the Puritans. San Francisco: Harper Collins. p. 231. ISBN 0-06-056233-1.
- Trelease, A., Indian Affairs in Colonial New York; The Seventeenth Century, pp. 79–80.
- Karnoutsos, Carmela (2007). "Peach Tree War". Jersey City A to Z. New Jersey City University. Retrieved 17 February 2013.
- Find A Grave website
- Ellis, George W., Morris, John E., King Philip's War, Grafton Historical Series, The Grafton Press, 1906, pp. 152–155
- Nine Men's Misery Marker, Joseph Bucklin Society, accessdate 17 February 2013
- Franko, Victor, Nine Men's Misery Part 2 Historical Research, 2003, Joseph Bucklin Society, accessdate 17 February 2013
- Mandell, Daniel R., King Philip's War: the conflict over New England, Chelsea House Publishers, 2007, p. 100, ISBN 978-0-7910-9346-7
- Kiernan 2007, p. 239
- Resistance and Accommodation in New Mexico
- George, Charles; Douglas Roberts (1897). A History of Canada. Boston: The Page Company. pp. 93–94.
- Preucel, Robert W., Archaeologies of the Pueblo revolt: identity, meaning, and renewal in the Pueblo world, University of New Mexico Press, 2007, p. 56, ISBN 978-0-8263-2247-0
- Konstantin 2002, p. 33
- Banks, Charles Edward, History of York, Maine, successively known as Bristol (1632), Agamentious (1641), Gorgeana (1642), and York (1652). With contributions on topography and land titles by Angevine W. Gowen. Sketches by the author. Baltimore, Regional Publishing Company, 1967 reprint of first edition: Charles E. Banks, Boston, 1931 Vol. 1
- Gallay 2003, pp. 147–148
- Konstantin 2002, p. 48
- Ashlee, Laura R. Traveling Through Time: A Guide to Michigan's Historical Markers, University of Michigan Press, 2005, p. 502, ISBN 978-0-47203-066-8
- Gallay 2003, p. 284
- Read, Milton, The tar heel state: a history of North Carolina, University of South Carolina Press, 2005, pp. 36–37, ISBN 978-1-57003-591-3
- Gallay 2003, p. 328
- Grenier, John The Far Reaches of Empire: War in Nova Scotia, 1710-1760, University of Oklahoma Press, 2008, p. 84, ISBN 978-0-80613-876-3
- Barnett, James F., The Natchez Indians: a history to 1735, University Press of Mississippi, 2007, p. 105, ISBN 978-1-57806-988-0
- Edmunds, R. Davids and Peyser, Joseph L. The Fox Wars: Mesquakie Challenge to New France, University of Oklahoma Press, 1993, pp. 151-156, ISBN 978-0-80612-551-0
- Blackhawk, Ned, Violence over the Land: Indians and Empires in the Early American West, Harvard University Press, 2006, p. 50, ISBN 978-0-67402-290-4
- "Drapers Meadow: Few traces remain of the site of a bloody 1755 Indian attack". The Roanoke Times. Retrieved 14 November 2007.
- Konstantin 2002, p. 224
- Hamalainen 2008, pp. 58-59
- Bruchac, Marge, Reading Abenaki Traditions and European Records of Rogers' Raid, August 2006, pp. 3-4
- Nester, "Haughty Conquerors", 86, gives the number of traders killed at Sandusky as 12; Dixon, Never Come to Peace, mentions "three or four", while Dowd, War under Heaven, 125, says that it was "a great many".
- Konstantin 2002, p. 260
- Taylor, Alan, American Colonies, New York: Viking Press, 2001
- "A Narrative of the Late Massacres...", Benjamin Franklin's account of the massacre and criticism of the Paxton Boys
- "A Disquisition Portraying the History Relative to the Enoch Brown Incident", Greencastle Museum
- Hamalainen 2008, p. 78
- Konstantin 2002, p. 106
- De Haas, Wills. History of the early settlement and Indian wars of Western Virginia; embracing an account of the various expeditions in the West, previous to 1795. Philadelphia: King & Baird. 1851.
- Konstantin 2002, p. 181
- Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission | The Battle of Wyoming and Hartley's Expedition
- Wallace, Paul A. W., Indians in Pennsylvania, Pennsylvania Historical & Museum Commission, 2007, 200 pages, pp. 162-164, ISBN 978-0-89271-017-1
- Konstantin 2002, p. 246
- Konstantin 2002, p. 321
- Belcher, Ronald Clay, (2011) Westervelt Massacre in Kentucky in 1780. Blue Grass Roots. Quarterly Journal of the Kentucky Genealogical Society. Frankfurt, Kentucky. Vol. 38, No. 2, pp. 30-37.
- Priest, Josiah, Stories of the Revolution with an account of the lost child of the Delaware, 1836, Hoffman and White Albany, New York, accessdate 17 February 2013
- Dietz Massacre
- Wilcox, G.T., An account of the Long Run Massacre and Floyd's Defeat as told by G. T. Wilcox, Squire Boone's Grandson in a letter to Hon. Thos. W. Bullitt. Kentucky Genealogy 28, June 2000, accessdate 28 December 2012.
- Akers, Vincent J. History of Painted Stone Station. Painted Stone Settlers Organization. 2012, accessdate 28 December 2012.
- Konstantin 2002, p. 57
- Daughters of the American Revolution Magazine, R.R. Bowker Co., 1925, Volume 59, 1925, January–June p. 234
- Fairfax Downed, Indian Wars of the U.S. Army 1776-1865 (1963), pp. 54-59
- Denetdale, Jennifer Nez, Reclaiming Diné History: The Legacies of Navajo Chief Manuelito and Juanita, University of Arizona Press; 2007, p. 56. ISBN 978-0-81652-660-4.
- Konstantin 2002, p. 231
- Allison, Harold (©1986, Harold Allison). The Tragic Saga of the Indiana Indians. Turner Publishing Company, Paducah.
- Howe, Henry., Howe's Historical Collections of Ohio, Volume 1, pp. 257–258, 1907
- Howe, Henry., Howe's Historical Collections of Ohio, Volume 1, pp. 258–259, 1907
- Konstantin 2002, p. 20
- Sutton, R., The History of Shelby County Ohio, 1883, p. 122
- Konstantin 2002, p. 245
- "Fort Sinquefield". Clarke County Historical Museum. Retrieved 27 November 2008.
- Tom Kanon. 2014. Tennesseans at War, 1812–1815: Andrew Jackson, the Creek War, and the Battle of New Orleans. University of Alabama Press p. 75-76
- Steve Rajtar. 1999 Indian War Sites: A Guidebook to Battlefields, Monuments, and Memorials, State by State with Canada and Mexico. McFarland.
- Heidler D.S., Heidler J.T., Encyclopedia of the War of 1812, Naval Institute Press, 2004, p. 239, ISBN 978-0-87436-968-7
- McKenney, T.L., Indian Tribes of America, Applewood Books, 2010, p. 307, ISBN 978-1-4290-2265-1
- Missall, John (2004). The Seminole Wars: America's Longest Indian Conflict. Florida: University Press of Florida. p. 36-37.
- Andrew Jackson Learns of the Chehaw Affair (subscription required), The Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History
- "The Fall Creek Massacre". Conner Prairie. Retrieved 2012-04-16.
- Himmel 1999, p. 50
- Konstantin 2002, p. 128
- Armstrong, Perry A. The Sauks and the Black Hawk War, in H.W. Rokker, 1887, pp. 415-416, accessdate 27 December 2012
- Lewis, James, The Black Hawk War of 1832, Abraham Lincoln Digitization Project, Northern Illinois University. Retrieved 1 August 2007.
- Konstantin 2002, p. 213
- May, Jon D., "Battle of Cutthroat Gap" Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture, retrieved 24 May 2012.
- Axelrod, Alan, Chronicle of the Indian Wars, p. 146
- Meltzer, Milton. 2004. Hunted Like A Wolf. Pineapple Press. p.89
- Konstantin 2002, p. 127
- Sweeney, Edwin R. Cochise: Chiricahua Apache Chief, University of Oklahoma Press, 1995, p. 33, ISBN 978-0806126067
- Dean, Kenneth Remembering The Killough Massacre, 21 June 2010, East Texas News, Tyler Paper, accessed February 16, 2013.
- Abbott, Peyton O., Webster massacre, Texas State Historical Association, Handbook of Texas Online, accessed 16 February 2013.
- Anderson 2005, pp. 182-183
- Knetsch, Joe., Florida's Seminole Wars 1817–1858, Arcadia Publishing (18 September 2012), p. 128
- Anderson 2005, pp. 190-191
- Perez, Vincent, Remembering the Hacienda: History and Memory in the Mexican American Southwest, Texas A&M University Press, 2006, p. 85, ISBN 978-1-58544-511-0
- Kiernan 2007, p. 352
- Parker, Horace, The Historic Valley of Temecula. The Temecula Massacre 24 pages, Paisano Press (1971), 286593
- Mcwilliams, Carey, North From Mexico: The Spanish-Speaking People of the United States, Praeger, 1990, p. 115, ISBN 978-0275932244
- Konstantin 2002, p. 336
- Anderson 2005, pp. 226-227
- Letter, Brevet Capt. N. Lyon to Major E.R.S. Canby, 22 May 1850
- Heizer 1993, pp. 244–246
- Key, Karen. Bloody Island (Bo-no-po-ti) The Historical Marker Database. 18 June 2007, accessdate 26 December 2012
- The Tucson Citizen, September 26, 1913
- Heizer, Robert, Handbook of North American Indians: California, Volume 8, William Sturtevant, General Editor, Smithsonian Institution, 1978, pp. 324–325
- Himmel 1999, p. 101
- Norton 1979, pp. 51–54
- Thrapp,Dan L, Encyclopedia of Frontier Biography, Volume 3: P-Z, University of Nebraska Press, 1991, p. 1276, ISBN 978-0803294202
- Collins, James, Understanding Tolowa Histories: Western Hegemonies and Native American Responses, Routledge, 1997, p. 35, ISBN 978-0-41591-2082
- Thornton 1990, p. 206
- Norton 1979
- Norton 1979, pp. 56–57
- Heizer 1993, Letter, Bvt. 2nd Lieut. John Nugens to Lieut T. Wright, December 31, 1853, pp. 12–13,.
- Schwartz 1997, pp. 61-62
- Schwartz 1997, p. 63
- Michno 2003, p. 27
- Oregon Trail in Idaho—Ward Massacre Site idahohistory.net
- Ward Massacre washingtonwars.net
- Michno 2003, pp. 28–29
- Heizer 1993, Crescent City Herald, quoted in Sacramento newspaper., pp. 35–36
- Sprague, Donovin A. Rosebud Sioux (Images of America: South Dakota), Arcadia Publishing, 2005, p. 21. 978-0738534473
- Schwartz 1997, pp. 86-88
- Madley 2012, p. 121
- Massacre on the Grande Ronde River in Oregon, sos.wa.gov
- Madley 2012b, pp. 21-22
- Gardner-Sharp, Abbie History of the Spirit Lake Massacre and Captivity of Miss Abbie Gardner, Des Moines: Iowa Printing, 1885 (reprinted 1892, 1910), accessdate 28 December 2012
- Madley, Benjamin California’s Yuki Indians: Defining Genocide in Native American History in Western Historical Quarterly 39 (Autumn 2008): 303-332, pp. 317-318
- Lindsay, Brendan C., Murder State: California's Native American Genocide, 1846-1873,University of Nebraska Press, 2012, p.192-193, ISBN 978-0803224803
- Madley 2012, pp. 118-119
- Madley 2012, p. 117
- Yuki Indians Killed at Bloody Rock
- Heizer 1993
- Rohde, Jerry (25 February 2010). "Genocide and Extortion: 150 years later, the hidden motive behind the Indian Island Massacre". North Coast Journal. Retrieved 26 December 2012.
- "In 1860 six murderers nearly wiped out the Wiyot Indian tribe—in 2004 its members have found ways to heal", SFGate.com
- Michno 2003, pp. 72–73
- Anderson 2005, pp. 331-332
- Owyhee County Cattlemen, pages 172 - 180
- Baumgardner 2006, pp. 204–206
- Thrapp, Dan L. (1979). The Conquest of Apacheria. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press. ISBN 0-8061-1286-7.
- Thompson, Jerry Don, Colonel John Robert Baylor: Texas Indian Fighter and Confederate Soldier. Hillsboro, Texas: Hill Junior College Press, 1971.
- Baumgardner 2006, p. 243
- Madley 2012b, p. 34
- Kunnen-Jones, Marianne (August 21, 2002). "Anniversary Volume Gives New Voice To Pioneer Accounts of Sioux Uprising". University of Cincinnati. Retrieved June 6, 2007.
- University of Cincinnati News: Tolzmann Edits Pioneer Accounts of Sioux
- Michno 2003, pp. 105–106
- Kiernan 2007, p. 356
- Hart, Newell, The Bear River Massacre. Cache Valley Newsletter Publishing Company, Preston, Idaho. 1982. ISBN 0-941462-01-3
- Keyesville Indian Massacre of April 19, 1863
- Browne, R. John, Adventures in the Apache County: a tour through Arizona and Sonora with notes on the silver regions of Nevada. 1869. New York: Harpers & Brothers Publishers.
- Madley 2012b, p. 40
- McGinnis, Ralph and Smith, Calvin, Abraham Lincoln and the western territories, Rowman and Littlefield Publishers, 1994, p. 90, ISBN 978-0-8304-1247-1
- Thrapp 1975, pp. 29–31
- Braatz 2003, pp. 89-90, p. 105
- Newton C.H., The reasons why place names in Arizona are so named, Tecolote Press, 1978, p. 40, ISBN 978-0-915030-25-5
- Michno 2003, pp. 157–159
- Smiley, Brenda "Sand Creek Massacre", Archeology magazine. Archaeological Institute of America, accessdate 26 December 2012.
- Egan, Ferol Sand in a whirlwind, 30th Anniversary Edition: The Paiute Indian War of 1860, University of Nevada Press, 1985, p. 226. ISBN 978-0-87417-097-9
- Fradkin, Philip L., The seven states of California: a natural and human history, University of California Press, 1997, p. 31, ISBN 978-0-520-20942-8
- Thornton 1990, p. 110
- Scheper-Hughes 2003, p. 55
- Modoc NF History, 1945 – Chapter I, General Description United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service.
- Knack, Martha, Boundaries Between: The Southern Paiutes, 1775–1995, University of Nebraska Press, 2004, p. 85, ISBN 0-8032-7818-7
- Thrapp 1975, pp. 37–38
- Michno 2003, pp. 201–202
- Cooper, Marilyn, Kidder Massacre, Sherman County Historical Society, retrieved 16 February 2013.
- "Kidder Massacre", photo of historic marker, Garry Owen Website, accessdate 28 December 2012.
- Thornton 1990, p. 111
- ScheperHughe 2003, p. 56
- ABC-CLIO Schools | Washita Massacre
- Andrist, Ralph K., The Long Death: The Last Days of the Plains Indians, University of Oklahoma Press, 2001, 371 pages, pp 157-162, ISBN 978-0-8061-3308-9
- Brown, Dee, Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee, Henry Holt and Co., 2007, 487 pages, pp 167-169, ISBN 978-0-8050-8684-3
- Churchill 1997, p. 236
- Colorado Humanities | Sand Creek Memorial and Washita Sites
- "Washita Battlefield, Oklahoma", ExploreSouthernHistory.com
- Giago, Tim, "Honoring Those Who Died at Washita"
- Native American Netroots | The 140th Anniversary of the Washita Massacre of Nov. 27, 1868
- "Washita", The West, PBS
- "Cherry Creek Massacre recognized in magazine", The Saint Francis Herald (St. Francis, KS), 17 November 2005
- Zeman, Scott C., Chronology of the American West from 23,000 B.C.E. through the Twentieth Century, ABC-CLIO, 2002, 381 pages, p. 155, ISBN 978-1-57607-207-3
- Michno 2003, p. 241
- Ishi in Two Worlds California State Parks Video Transcript
- Terrell, J., Land Grab, pp. 4–10.
- Colwell-Chanthaphonh, Chip, Western Apache Oral Histories and Traditions of the Camp Grant Massacre. The American Indian Quarterly - Volume 27, Number 3&4, Summer/Fall 2003, pp. 639-666., accessdate 26 December 2012
- "The Indian Attack Upon an Arizona Stage The Driver and Five Passengers Killed". The New York Times. 20 November 1871.
- "The Late Frederick W. Loring." (PDF). New York Times. 24 November 1871. Retrieved 26 December 2012.
- Congressional Record. February 3, 1873.
- Fazzini, P., "Mrs Jordan captured by Indians 1872 Kansas", GenForum, genealogy.com. 11 February 2012.
- Braatz 2003, pp. 2–3; p. 138
- Hildebrandt, Walter. "Cypress Hills Massacre". The Encyclopedia of Saskatchewan. University of Regina. Retrieved March 28, 2008.
- Churchill 1997, p. 237
- Michno 2003, pp. 322–323
- Boye, Alan, Holding Stone Hands: On the Trail of the Cheyenne Exodus, University of Nebraska Press, 2001, pp. 66–67, ISBN 978-0-8032-1294-7
- "Milk Creek battlefield". National Park Service, US Department of the Interior. Retrieved 2008-03-17.
- "Milk Creek battle (or Meeker Massacre)". Meeker Colorado Chamber of Commerce. Archived from the original on 2007-11-17. Retrieved 2008-03-16.
- "The Alma Massacre, Alma, New Mexico" from the WPA Writers Project, archived 7 October 2008 by Internet Archive
- Hayes, Jess G. Apache Vengeance: The true story of Apache Kid. (1954). University of New Mexico Press. Albuquerque, New Mexico, OCLC 834291
- Gonzalez 1998, p. 294
- Michno 2003, p. 351
- Jensen, Richard, Paul, Eli and Hanson, James, Eyewitness at Wounded Knee, University of Nebraska Press, 1991, p. 20, ISBN 978-0-8032-1409-5
- Early Native Americans nevada-history.org
- Book Review, The Last Massacre, New York Times, 17 January 1988
- "Policeman Edward Hogle, Nevada State Police" The Officer Down Memorial Page
- Anderson, Gary C., The Conquest of Texas: Ethnic cleansing in the Promised Land, 1820-1875, University of Oklahoma Press, 2005, 544 pages, ISBN 978-0-89096-867-3
- Baumgardner, Frank, Killing for Land in Early California – Indian Blood at Round Valley, Algora Publishing, 2006, 312 pages, ISBN 978-0-87586-364-1
- Braatz, Timothy, Surviving conquest: a history of the Yavapai peoples,University of Nebraska Press, 2003, 336 pages, ISBN 978-0-8032-2242-7
- Churchill, Ward, A Little Matter of Genocide: Holocaust and Denial in the Americas, 1492 to the Present, City Lights, 1997, 381 pages, ISBN 978-0-87286-323-1
- Heizer, Robert F., The Destruction of California Indians, University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln and London, 1993, 321 pages, ISBN 978-0-8032-7262-0
- Gallay, Alan, The Indian Slave Trade: The rise of the English Empire in the American South, Yale University Press, 2003, 464 pages, ISBN 978-0-300-10193-5
- Gonzalez, Mario and Cook-Lynn, Elizabeth, The Politics of Hallowed Ground: Wounded Knee and the Struggle for Indian Sovereignty, University of Illinois Press, 1998, 448 pages, ISBN 978-0-25206-669-6
- Hamalainen, Pekka, The Comanche Empire, Yale University Press, 2008, 512 pages, ISBN 978-0-30012-654-9
- Himmel, Kelly F., The Conquest of the Karankawas and the Tonkawas, 1821–1859, TAMU Press, 1999, 216 pages, ISBN 978-0-89096-867-3
- Kiernan, Ben, "Blood and Soil: a World History of Genocide and Massacre from Sparta to Darfur", Yale University Press, 2007, 768 pages, ISBN 978-0-300-10098-3
- Konstantin, Phil, This Day in North American Indian History: Events in the History of North America's Native Peoples, Da Capo Press, 2002, 480 pages, ISBN 978-0-306-81170-8
- Madley, Benjamin, Tactics of Nineteenth Century Colonial Massacre: Tasmania, California and Beyond in Philips G. Dwyer and Lyndall Ryan, eds., Theatres of Violence: Massacres, Mass Killing and Atrocity Throughout History, Berghan Books, 2012, 350 pages, ISBN 978-0-85745-299-3
- Madley, Benjamin, The Genocide of California's Yana Indians in Samuel Totten and Williams S. Parsons, eds., Centuries of Genocide: Essays and Eyewitness Accounts, Routledge, 2012, pp. 16-53, 611 pages, ISBN 978-0-415871-921
- Michno, Gregory F., Encyclopedia of Indian Wars: Western Battles and Skirmishes 1850–1890, Mountain Press Publishing Co., 2003, 448 pages, ISBN 978-0-87842-468-9
- Norton, Jack, "Genocide in Northwestern California : when our worlds cried", Indian Historian Press, San Francisco, 1979, ISBN 0-913436-26-2
- Scheper-Hughes, Nancy, "Violence in War and Peace: An Anthology", Wiley-Blackwell, 2003, 512 pages, ISBN 978-0-631-22349-8
- Schwartz, E. A, The Rogue River Indian War and its aftermath, 1850–1980, University of Oklahoma Press, 1997, ISBN 978-0-8061-2906-8
- Thornton, Russell, "American Indian Holocaust and Survival: a Population History since 1492", University of Oklahoma Press, 1990, 312 pages, ISBN 978-0-8061-2220-5
- Thrapp, Dan, "The Conquest of Apacheria", University of Oklahoma Press, 1975, 422 pages, ISBN 978-0-8061-1286-2