Indian pariah dog
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Indian pariah dog
|Breed status||Not recognized as a standardized breed by any major kennel club.|
|Domestic dog (Canis lupus familiaris)|
The Indian Pariah Dog (Canis lupus familiaris) is the aboriginal landrace, or naturally selected dog, of the Indian sub-continent. With a heritage going back 15,000 years, the breed is thought to be one of the oldest in the world and the progenitor of the Australian dingo. Its place of origin has not been determined.
The term is not derogatory in the canine context but refers to a class of primitive dogs that is not commercially bred or recognized.
Often erroneously used to refer to all urban Indian street dogs, some free-ranging dogs in India do not match the 'pariah type' and may not be pure indigenous dogs but mixed breeds, especially around locations where European colonists historically settled in India, due to admixtures of European dog breeds.
This breed is known as "naadan" in malayalam(kerala).
In Assamese language these native dogs are termed as bhotua (ভতুৱা কুকুৰ) kukur.
The pariah dog of India is an ancient autochthonous landrace that is found all over India, Bangladesh and even beyond in South Asia. It was featured on National Geographic Channel's film, Search for the First Dog along with the other related ancient types such as the Canaan Dog of Israel and the Australian dingo. This is the original dog of the country, found free-living as a commensal of human all over the Indian subcontinent. Where not mixed with the blood of European dogs or other breeds and types, it is similar in appearance all across the entire country.
The type represents one of the few remaining examples of humans' original domestic dog and its physical features are the same as those of the dogs whose fossil remains have been found in various parts of the world, from very early remains in Israel and China to later ones such as those found in the volcanic lava at Pompeii, near Naples in Italy.
In India these were the hunting partners and companion animals of the aboriginal peoples of India and are still found within such forest dwelling communities. Since these dogs have never been selectively bred, their appearance, physical features and mental characteristics are created by the process of natural selection alone. The breed has not been recognized by any kennel club but has been recognized by the Primitive and Aboriginal Dog Society (PADS), a worldwide grouping of enthusiasts based in the USA.
It is an extremely alert, very social dog. Its rural evolution, often close to forests where predators like tigers and leopards were common, has made it an extremely cautious breed, but this caution is not to be mistaken for a lack of courage. They make excellent watch dogs and are very territorial and defensive of their pack/family. They need good socializing as pups and do well with families and children if provided with such socialization. They are highly intelligent and easily trainable, but can get bored equally easily, and not want to play typical, repetitive dog games like "fetch".
They are modest eaters and will rarely overeat. A very active breed, thriving on regular exercise, they bark at the slightest doubt or provocation and can hence be noisy.
Being a naturally evolved breed, they have very few health concerns and thrive with minimal "maintenance", especially in tropical weather.
The skin needs very little grooming and the dogs themselves are relatively clean. They have no body odour. Genetic health ailments like hip dysplasia and so on are extremely rare since there is no inbreeding and the dominant genes that aid their survival are naturally selected over time
They are generally very healthy and average life expectancy is over 15 years under good care.
It is a medium-sized dog of square to slightly rectangular build and short coat. The dog has a double coat, a coarse upper coat and a soft undercoat. The most commonly observed colours are brown, range from dark to reddish-brown, with or without white markings. Solid blacks are rare but some dogs are pied. Shaded coats, brindles, solid white and dalmatian-type spotting are never seen in pure populations. These may be a sign of mixing with modern breeds as they are only seen in dogs in cities and other sites where non-native dogs have been introduced.
The head is medium-sized, wedge shaped. The muzzle is pointed and is of equal or slightly greater length than the head. The neck is noble and the forequarters are erect. Hind quarters are minimally angled. The trot is short. The eyes are almond shaped and dark brown in colour. The ears are held erect and are pointed at the tips, with a broad base, set low on the head and the tail is curled and held high, when excited.
The dogs are found throughout the Indian subcontinent, often kept as pets in remote villages. Many are ownerless scavengers, as generally found in cities and often mongrelized with modern breeds. They are territorial to a particular area, though a certain amount of immigration occurs to maintain population levels and also for the purpose of mating. They are more active and engage in play during mornings and evenings.
The pariah group of dogs tend to breed once a year. During the mating season, the oestrous female may mate with several males. During the breeding season (August to January), they become more aggressive during the evening and late night hours to prevent other male dogs entering into their territory for extra-group mating  and to protect the pups from humans and other animals. Most of the aggression from alpha males is directed at young males, but they are not driven away. When the young males fail in the mating competition, they disperse and, as a result, the pack size is maintained.
In areas close to protected areas free-ranging dogs are threat to wild species either as interspecific competition or as predator of wild ungulates.
- Canaan dog
- New Guinea singing dog
- Carolina Dog (Yellow Dog)
- Sinhala Hound
- Wozencraft, W.C. (2005). "Order Carnivora". In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 575–577. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0. OCLC 62265494.
- Corbett, L.K. (1995). The Dingo in Australia and Asia, University of New South Wales Press.
- Proceedings of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. Royal Asiatic Society of Bengal, Asiatic Society (Calcutta, India), 1876
- Merriam-Webster Dictionary
- Kipling, Rudyard. (1894) The Jungle Book.
- Pathak, Arun (1995). Handicrafts in the Indus Valley Civilization. Janaki Prakashan. ISBN 8185078874.
- "INDog, The Indian Pariah Dog Project". October 2010.
- Pal, S. K.; Ghosh, B.; Roy, S. (1998a). "Agonistic behaviour of free-ranging dogs (Canis familiaris) in relation to season, sex and age". Applied Animal Behaviour Science. 59 (4): 331–348. doi:10.1016/S0168-1591(98)00108-7.
- Pal, S. K.; Ghosh, B.; Roy, S. (1998b). "Dispersal behaviour of free-ranging dogs (Canis familiaris) in relation to age, sex, season and dispersal distance". Applied Animal Behaviour Science. 62 (2): 123–132. doi:10.1016/S0168-1591(98)00185-3.
- "Importance of native grassland habitat for den-site selection of Indian foxes in a fragmented landscape.". PloS one.
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