Indianapolis

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This article is about the capital city in the U.S. state of Indiana. For other uses, see Indianapolis (disambiguation).
Indianapolis, Indiana
Consolidated city-county
City of Indianapolis
Clockwise from top: Downtown Indianapolis viewed from IUPUI, the Indiana Statehouse, Lucas Oil Stadium, Indianapolis Motor Speedway, the Indiana World War Memorial Plaza, and the Soldiers' and Sailors' Monument.
Flag of Indianapolis, Indiana
Flag
Official seal of Indianapolis, Indiana
Seal
Nickname(s): "Indy"; "Circle City"; "Crossroads of America"; "Naptown"; "Racing Capital of the World"; "Amateur Sports Capital of the World"
Location in the state of Indiana and Marion County
Location in the state of Indiana and Marion County
Indianapolis, Indiana is located in USA
Indianapolis, Indiana
Indianapolis, Indiana
Location in the United States
Coordinates: 39°46′N 86°9′W / 39.767°N 86.150°W / 39.767; -86.150
Country United States
State Indiana
County Marion
Townships See Marion Co. Townships
Founded 1821
Government
 • Type Mayor-council
 • Body Indianapolis City-County Council
 • Mayor Joseph H. Hogsett (D)
Area
 • Consolidated city-county 372 sq mi (963.5 km2)
 • Land 365.1 sq mi (945.6 km2)
 • Water 6.9 sq mi (17.9 km2)
Elevation 715 ft (218 m)
Population (2010)[1][2]
 • Consolidated city-county 820,445
 • Estimate (2015[3]) 853,173
 • Rank 1st in Marion County
1st in Indiana
2nd largest State Capital
(in 2010)
14th in the United States
 • Density 2,273/sq mi (861/km2)
 • Urban 1,487,483 (US: 33rd)
 • Metro 1,756,241 (US: 33rd)
 • CSA 2,080,782 (US: 26th)
Demonym(s) Indianapolitan
Time zone EST (UTC-5)
 • Summer (DST) EDT (UTC-4)
ZIP Codes
FIPS code 18-36003[4]
Website www.indy.gov

Indianapolis (/ˌɪndiəˈnæpəlɪs/[5][6][7]) is the capital of the U.S. state of Indiana and the seat of Marion County. It is located in the East North Central region of the Midwest, near the confluence of the White River and Fall Creek. The city covers 372 square miles (963.5 km²) and had an estimated population of 853,173 in 2015, making it the largest city in Indiana, second largest in the Midwest, and 14th largest in the U.S.[8] Approximately 1,988,817 people live in the Indianapolis metropolitan area (MSA), the 34th most populous MSA in the U.S. Its combined statistical area (CSA) ranks 26th, with a population of 2,372,530.

Founded in 1821 as a planned city for the new seat of Indiana's state government, Indianapolis was platted by Alexander Ralston and Elias Pym Fordham on a 1-square-mile (2.6 km2) grid. The city grew beyond the Mile Square, as the advent of the railroad and completion of the National Road solidified the city's position as a manufacturing and transportation hub. Indianapolis continues to be a distribution and logistics center, as more interstate highways intersect with the city than any other in the U.S.[9][10] This has led to the city's nickname as the "Crossroads of America."[11] Three Fortune 500, four Fortune 1000 companies, and a robust sport tourism and convention industry, contributed to a gross domestic product (GDP) of $125.8 billion in 2014.[12][13][14] Indianapolis hosts many notable events annually, including the largest single-day sporting event in the world, the Indianapolis 500 automobile race.[10][15] As headquarters for the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA), the city frequently hosts the Men's and Women's Final Four basketball tournaments.[10] It hosted Pan American Games X in 1987 and Super Bowl XLVI in 2012.[16]

The city's philanthropic community has been instrumental in the development of its most well-known cultural institutions, including The Children's Museum of Indianapolis, Indianapolis Museum of Art, Indianapolis Zoo, Eiteljorg Museum of American Indians and Western Art, Indiana State Museum, and Indiana Landmarks.[10][17][18] Indianapolis-based Lilly Endowment is among the largest foundations in the U.S., with nearly $10 billion in assets.[19] The city maintains the largest collection of monuments dedicated to veterans and war dead in the U.S., outside of Washington, D.C.[20][21] Since the 1970 city-county consolidation, known as Unigov, local government administration has operated under the direction of an elected 25-member city-county council, headed by the mayor. Indianapolis is considered a "high sufficiency" global city.[22]

History[edit]

Founding and early years[edit]

A depiction of 1820 Indianapolis.
The Third Indiana Statehouse (1835–1877).

In 1816, the year Indiana gained statehood, the U.S. Congress donated four sections of federal land to establish a permanent seat of state government.[23] Two years later, under the Treaty of St. Mary's (1818), the Delaware relinquished title to their tribal lands in central Indiana, agreeing to leave the area by 1821.[24] This tract of land, which was called the New Purchase, included the site selected for the new state capital in 1820.[25]

The availability of new federal lands for purchase in central Indiana attracted settlers, many of them descendants of families from northwestern Europe. Although many of these first European and American setters were Protestants, a large proportion of the early Irish and German immigrants were Catholics. Few African Americans lived in central Indiana before 1840.[26] The first European Americans to permanently settle in the area that became Indianapolis were either the McCormick or Pogue families. The McCormicks are generally considered to be the town's first permanent settlers; however, some historians believe George Pogue and family may have arrived first, on March 2, 1819, and settled in a log cabin along the creek that was later called Pogue's Run. Other historians have argued as early as 1822 that John Wesley McCormick, his family, and employees became the first European American settlers in the area, settling near the White River in February 1820.[27]

On January 11, 1820, the Indiana General Assembly authorized a committee to select a site in central Indiana for the new state capital.[28] The state legislature appointed Alexander Ralston and Elias Pym Fordham to survey and design a town plan for Indianapolis, which was platted in 1821.[29] Indianapolis became a seat of county government on December 31, 1821, when Marion County, was established. A combined county and town government continued until 1832, when Indianapolis incorporated as a town. Indianapolis became an incorporated city effective March 30, 1847. Samuel Henderson, the city's first mayor, lead the new city government, which included a seven-member city council. In 1853, voters approved a new city charter that provided for an elected mayor and a fourteen-member city council. The city charter continued to be revised as Indianapolis expanded.[30] Effective January 1, 1825, the seat of state government relocated to Indianapolis from Corydon, Indiana. In addition to state government offices, a U.S. district court was established at Indianapolis in 1825.[31]

Growth occurred with the opening of the National Road through the town in 1827, the first major federally funded highway in the U.S.[32] The first railroad to serve Indianapolis, the Jeffersonville, Madison and Indianapolis Railroad, began operation in 1847, and subsequent railroad connections fostered growth.[33] Indianapolis Union Station was the first of its kind in the world when it opened in 1853.[34]

American Civil War[edit]

Confederate POWs at Camp Morton in 1864.

During the American Civil War, Indianapolis was loyal to the Union cause. Governor Oliver P. Morton, a major supporter of President Abraham Lincoln, quickly made Indianapolis a rallying place for Union army troops. On February 11, 1861, president-elect Lincoln arrived in the city, en route to Washington, D.C. for his presidential inauguration, marking the first visit from a president-elect in the city's history.[35] On April 16, 1861, the first orders were issued to form Indiana's first regiments and establish Indianapolis as a headquarters the state's volunteer soldiers.[36][37] Within a week, more than 12,000 recruits signed up to fight for the Union.[38]

Indianapolis became a major logistics hub during the war, establishing the city as an crucial military base.[39][40] Between 1860 and 1870, the city's population more than doubled.[33] An estimated 4,000 men from Indianapolis served in 39 regiments, and an estimated 700 died during the war.[41] On May 20, 1863, Union soldiers attempted to disrupt a statewide Democratic convention at Indianapolis, forcing the proceedings to be adjourned, sarcastically referred to as the Battle of Pogue's Run.[42] Fear turned to panic in July 1863, during Morgan's Raid into southern Indiana, but Confederate forces turned east toward Ohio, never reaching Indianapolis.[43] On April 30, 1865, Lincoln's funeral train made a stop at Indianapolis, where an estimated crowd of more than 100,000 people passed the assassinated president's bier at the Indiana Statehouse.[40][44]

Civic development and racial tensions[edit]

The Soldiers' and Sailors' Monument, built from 1888 to 1901.

Following the Civil War, Indianapolis experienced tremendous growth and prosperity, much attributed to the Indiana gas boom. By 1890, the city's population surpassed 100,000.[33] Some of the city's most notable businesses were founded during this period of growth and innovation, including L. S. Ayres (1872), Eli Lilly and Company (1876), Madame C.J. Walker Manufacturing Company (1910), and Allison Transmission (1915). Once home to 60 automakers, Indianapolis rivaled Detroit as a center of automobile manufacturing.[45] With railroads leading out of the city in all directions, the city became a national transportation hub, connecting to booming manufacturing centers like Chicago, Cincinnati, Detroit, Louisville, and St. Louis. The Soldiers' and Sailors' Monument, dedicated on May 15, 1902, would later become an iconic symbol of the city.[46] Ray Harroun won the inaugural running of the Indianapolis 500, held May 30, 1911 at Indianapolis Motor Speedway.

The inaugural Indy 500 in 1911.

Indianapolis was one of the hardest hit cities in the Great Flood of 1913, resulting in five known deaths[47][48][49] and the displacement of 7,000 families.[50]

Indianapolis was a focus of labor organization.[33] The Indianapolis Street Car Strike of 1913 and subsequent police mutiny and riots led to the creation of the state's earliest labor-protection laws, including a minimum wage, regular work weeks, and improved working conditions.[51] The International Typographical Union and United Mine Workers of America were among several influential labor unions to be based in the city.[33]

Indianapolis served as a stop on the Underground Railroad, and up to the time of the Great Migration in the early 20th century, the city had a higher black population (nearly 10%) than any other city in the Northern States.[52] Led by D. C. Stephenson, the Indiana Klan became the most powerful political and social organization in Indianapolis from 1921 through 1928, controlling City Council, the Board of School Commissioners, and the Board of County Commissioners. More than 40% of native-born white males in Indianapolis claimed membership in the Klan. Race relations would continue to be problematic throughout the 20th century. Though Indianapolis abolished segregated schools before Brown v. Board of Education, the later action of court-ordered desegregation busing by Judge Samuel Hugh Dillin proved controversial. On April 4, 1968, Robert F. Kennedy delivered a speech from the city, urging calm after the assassination of civil rights leader Martin Luther King, Jr.[53][54]

Unigov[edit]

Under the mayoral administration of Richard Lugar, the city and county governments restructured, consolidating most public services into a new entity called Unigov. The plan removed redundancies, captured increasingly suburbanizing tax revenue, and created a Republican political machine that dominated Indianapolis politics until the 2000s.[55] Unigov went into effect on January 1, 1970, increasing the city's land area by 308.2 square miles (798 km2) and population by 268,366 people.[56][57]

The RCA Dome, home to the Indianapolis Colts from 1984 to 2008.

Amid the changes in government and growth, the city invested in an aggressive strategy to brand Indianapolis as a sport tourism destination. Under the administration of the city's longest-serving mayor, William Hudnut (1976–1992), millions of dollars were poured into sport facilities.[16] Throughout the 1980s, $122 million in public and private funding built the Indianapolis Tennis Center, Major Taylor Velodrome, Indiana University Natatorium, Carroll Track and Soccer Stadium, and RCA Dome.[16] The latter project secured the 1984 relocation of the NFL Baltimore Colts and the 1987 Pan American Games.[16] The economic development strategy succeeded in revitalizing the central business district through the 1990s, with the openings of the Indianapolis Zoo (1988), Circle Centre Mall (1995), Victory Field (1996), and Bankers Life Fieldhouse (1999).

During the 2000s, the city and state continued investing heavily in infrastructure projects, including two of the largest building projects in the city's history: the $1.1 billion Colonel Harvey Weir Cook Terminal and $720 million Lucas Oil Stadium.[58][59] Construction began in 2011 on DigIndy, a $1.9 billion project to correct the city's combined sewer overflows (CSOs) by 2025.[60]

Geography[edit]

A simulated-color satellite image of the Indianapolis metropolitan area, taken on NASA's Landsat 7 satellite.

Indianapolis is in the East North Central region of the Midwestern United States, in Central Indiana. According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the Indianapolis (balance) encompasses a total area of 368.2 square miles (954 km2), of which 361.5 square miles (936 km2) is land and 6.7 square miles (17 km2) is water. The consolidated city boundaries are coterminous with Marion County, with the exception of the autonomous municipalities of Beech Grove, Lawrence, Southport, and Speedway.[33][61] Indianapolis is situated on flat to gently sloping terrain within the Eastern Corn Belt Plains, as defined by the U.S. EPA.[62] The city has a mean elevation of 717 feet (219 m) above sea level. Indianapolis lies in the Southern Great Lakes forests ecoregion, as defined by the World Wildlife Fund. Two navigable in law waterways dissect the city: the White River and Fall Creek.

Cityscape[edit]

Alexander Ralston's "Plat of the Town of Indianapolis," today known as the Mile Square.

Indianapolis is a planned city. On January 11, 1820, the Indiana General Assembly authorized a committee to select a site in central Indiana for the new state capital, appointing Alexander Ralston and Elias Pym Fordham to survey and design a town plan for Indianapolis. Ralston had been a surveyor for the French architect Pierre L'Enfant, assisting him with the plan for Washington, D.C. Ralston's original plan for Indianapolis called for a town of 1 square mile (2.6 km2), near the eastern bank of the White River.[63]

The original plan, known as the Mile Square, is bounded by East, West, North, and South streets, centered on a traffic circle, called Monument Circle.[64] Originally, four diagonal streets radiated a block from Monument Circle: Massachusetts, Virginia, Kentucky, and Indiana avenues.[65] The city's street numbering system begins at Washington and Meridian streets. Before its submersion into a sanitary tunnel, Pogue's Run was included into the plan, disrupting the rectilinear street grid to the southeast.

After completion of the Soldiers' and Sailors' Monument, an ordinance was passed in 1905 restricting building heights on the traffic circle to 86 feet (26 m) to protect views of the 284 feet (87 m) monument.[66] The ordinance was revised in 1922, permitting buildings to rise to 108 feet (33 m), with an additional 42 feet (13 m) allowable with a series of setbacks.[66] A citywide height restriction ordinance was instituted in 1912, barring structures over 200 feet (61 m).[67] Completed in 1962, the Indianapolis City-County Building became the first skyscraper in the city, surpassing the Soldiers' and Sailors' Monument in height by nearly 100 feet (30 m).[68] A building boom, lasting from 1982 to 1990, saw the construction of six of the city's ten tallest buildings.[69] The tallest is Chase Tower, completed in 1990 at 811 feet (247 m).[70]

Chatham Arch, one of the city's earliest neighborhoods, was platted starting in 1836.[71]

The city is divided into 99 community areas, though many smaller neighborhoods exist within these areas.[72] The Indianapolis Historic Preservation Commission recognizes several neighborhoods as historic districts, including: Central Court, Chatham Arch, Cottage Home, Golden Hill, Herron-Morton Place, Lockerbie Square, Old Northside, and Oliver Johnson's Woods. Expansion of the interurban system at the turn of the 20th century facilitated growth of several streetcar suburbs, including Broad Ripple, Irvington, University Heights, and Woodruff Place.[73] The post–World War II economic expansion and subsequent suburbanization had a profound impact on the physical development of the city's neighborhoods. From 1950 to 1970, 97,000 housing units were built in Marion County.[74] Most of this new construction occurred outside Center Township, expediting out-migration from the city's urban neighborhoods to suburban areas, such as Castleton, Eagledale, and Nora. Between 1950 and 1990, over 155,000 residents left Center Township, resulting in urban blight and disinvestment.[75]

Since the 2000s, downtown Indianapolis and surrounding neighborhoods, like Fountain Square, have seen increased reinvestment attributed to nationwide demographic trends, driven by empty nesters and millennials.[76] By 2020, downtown is projected to have 30,000 residential units, compared to 18,300 in 2010.[77] Renewed interest in urban living has been met with some conflict regarding gentrification and affordable housing.[78][79][80]

Panorama of downtown Indianapolis at night, looking east. IUPUI (left), White River, (center), and Lucas Oil Stadium (right).
Panorama of downtown Indianapolis from White River State Park, looking east.

Climate[edit]

Indianapolis
Climate chart (explanation)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
 
 
2.7
 
 
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2.3
 
 
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3.6
 
 
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33
 
 
3.8
 
 
63
43
 
 
5.1
 
 
73
53
 
 
4.3
 
 
82
62
 
 
4.6
 
 
85
66
 
 
3.1
 
 
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3.1
 
 
78
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3.1
 
 
65
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3.7
 
 
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3.2
 
 
39
24
Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
Precipitation totals in inches
Fall foliage (top) and bicycles parked in late-winter snow (bottom) on the Butler University campus.

Indianapolis is in the humid continental climate zone (Köppen: Dfa) using the 0 °C (32 °F) isotherm, experiencing four distinct seasons.[81] The city is in USDA hardiness zones 5b and 6a.[82]

Typically, summers are hot, humid, and wet. Winters are generally cold with moderate snowfall. The July daily average temperature is 75.4 °F (24.1 °C). High temperatures reach or exceed 90 °F (32 °C) an average of 18 days each year,[83] and occasionally exceed 95 °F (35 °C). Spring and autumn are usually pleasant, if at times unpredictable; midday temperature drops exceeding 30 °F or 17 °C are common during March and April, and instances of very warm days (80 °F or 27 °C) followed within 36 hours by snowfall are not unusual during these months. Winters are cold, with an average January temperature of 28.1 °F (−2.2 °C). Temperatures dip to 0 °F (−18 °C) or below an average of 4.7 nights per year.[83]

The rainiest months occur in the spring and summer, with slightly higher averages during May, June, and July. May is typically the wettest, with an average of 5.05 inches (12.8 cm) of precipitation.[83] Most rain is derived from thunderstorm activity; there is no distinct dry season, although occasional droughts occur. Severe weather is not uncommon, particularly in the spring and summer months; the city experiences an average of 20 thunderstorm days annually.[84]

The city's average annual precipitation is 42.4 inches (108 cm), with snowfall averaging 25.9 inches (66 cm) per season. Official temperature extremes range from 106 °F (41 °C), set on July 14, 1936,[85] to −27 °F (−33 °C), set on January 19, 1994.[85][86]


Demographics[edit]

An ethnic distribution map of Indianapolis based on the 2000 census. Each dot represents 25 people, with red dots representing whites, blue representing Blacks, green representing Asians, orange representing Hispanics, and grey representing all other races.
Historical population
Census Pop.
1840 2,695
1850 8,091 200.2%
1860 18,611 130.0%
1870 48,244 159.2%
1880 75,056 55.6%
1890 105,436 40.5%
1900 169,164 60.4%
1910 233,650 38.1%
1920 314,194 34.5%
1930 364,161 15.9%
1940 386,972 6.3%
1950 427,173 10.4%
1960 476,258 11.5%
1970 744,624 56.3%
1980 700,807 −5.9%
1990 731,327 4.4%
2000 781,926 6.9%
2010 820,445 4.9%
Est. 2015 853,173 [3] 4.0%
[1][89][90]

Indianapolis is the largest city in Indiana, with 12.8% of the state's total population.[61] The U.S. Census Bureau considers Indianapolis as two entities: the consolidated city and the city's remainder, or balance. The consolidated city covers an area known as Unigov, coterminous with Marion County, except the independent municipalities of Beech Grove, Lawrence, Speedway, and Southport. The city's balance excludes the populations of eleven semi-autonomous municipalities that are included in totals for the consolidated city.[61] These are Clermont, Crows Nest, Cumberland, Homecroft, Meridian Hills, North Crows Nest, Rocky Ripple, Spring Hill, Warren Park, Williams Creek, and Wynnedale. The city's consolidated population for the year 2012 was 844,220.[61] The city's remainder, or balance, population was estimated at 834,852 for 2012,[1] a 2% increase over the total population of 820,445 reported in the 2010 U.S. Census.[2][91] As of 2010, the city's population density was 2,270 persons per square mile.[1]

The Indianapolis metropolitan area in central Indiana consists of Marion County and surrounding counties of Boone, Brown, Hamilton, Hancock, Hendricks, Johnson, Morgan, Putnam, and Shelby. As of 2012, the metropolitan area's population was 1,798,634, the largest in Indiana.[92]

According to the U.S. Census of 2010, 97.2% of the Indianapolis population was reported as one race: 61.8% White, 27.5% Black or African American, 2.1% Asian (0.4% Burmese, 0.4% Indian, 0.3% Chinese, 0.3% Filipino, 0.1% Korean, 0.1% Vietnamese, 0.1% Japanese, 0.1% Thai, 0.1% other Asian); 0.3% American Indian, and 5.5% as other. The remaining 2.8% of the population was reported as multiracial (two or more races).[91] The city's Hispanic or Latino community comprised 9.4% of the city's population in the 2010 U.S. Census: 6.9% Mexican, .4% Puerto Rican, .1% Cuban, and 2% as other.[91]

As of 2010, the median age for Indianapolis was 33.7 years. Age distribution for the city's inhabitants was 25% under the age of 18; 4.4% were between 18 and 21; 16.3% were age 21 to 65; and 13.1% were age 65 or older.[91] For every 100 females there were 93 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90 males.[93]

The U.S. Census for 2010 reported 332,199 households in Indianapolis, with an average household size of 2.42 and an average family size of 3.08.[91] Of the total households, 59.3% were family households, with 28.2% of these including the family's own children under the age of 18; 36.5% were husband-wife families; 17.2% had a female householder (with no husband present) and 5.6% had a male householder (with no wife present). The remaining 40.7% were non-family households.[91] As of 2010, 32% of the non-family households included individuals living alone, 8.3% of these households included individuals age 65 years of age or older.[91]

The U.S. Census Bureau's 2007–2011 American Community Survey indicated the median household income for Indianapolis city was $42,704, and the median family income was $53,161.[94] Median income for males working full-time, year-round, was $42,101, compared to $34,788 for females. Per capita income for the city was $24,430, 14.7% of families and 18.9% of the city's total population living below the poverty line (28.3% were under the age of 18 and 9.2% were age 65 or older).[94]

Whites, or European-Americans, declined as a percentage of the city's population from 81.6% in 1970 to 61.8% in 2010.[95][96]

Based on U.S. Census data from the year 2000 for the 50 largest U.S. cities, Indianapolis ranked eighth highest in a University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee study that compared percentages of residents living on black-white integrated city blocks. Latinos, Asians, and Native Americans were not factored into the rankings.[97][98][99]

In 2015, the Indianapolis metropolitan area had the 18th highest percentage of LGBT residents in the U.S., with 4.2% of residents identifying as gay, lesbian, bisexual, or transgender.[100]

Racial composition 2014[101] 2010[96] 1990[95] 1970[95]
White 62.0% 61.8% 75.8% 81.6%
—Non-Hispanic 58.6% 58.6% 75.2% 80.9%[102]
Black or African American 27.9% 27.5% 22.6% 18.0%
Hispanic or Latino (of any race) 9.6% 9.4% 1.1% 0.8%[102]
Asian 2.4% 2.1% 0.9% 0.1%

Religion[edit]

Christ Church Cathedral, built in 1857, is Indianapolis' oldest place of worship in continuous use.

Of the 42.42% of the city's residents who identify as religious, Roman Catholics make up the largest group, at 11.31%.[103] The second highest religious group in the city are Baptists at 10.31%, with Methodists following behind at 4.97%. Presbyterians make up 2.13% of the city's religiously affiliated population, followed by Pentecostals and Lutherans. Another 8.57% are affiliated with other Christian faiths.[103] 0.32% of religiously affiliated persons identified themselves as following Eastern religions, while 0.68% of the religiously affiliated population identified as Jewish, and 0.29% as Muslim.[103] According to the nonpartisan and nonprofit Public Religion Research Institute's American Values Atlas, 22% of residents identify as religiously "unaffiliated," consistent with the national average of 22.7%.[104]

Indianapolis is the seat of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Indianapolis, based from Saints Peter and Paul Cathedral. The Archdiocese of Indianapolis also operates Bishop Simon Brute College Seminary, affiliated with Marian University. Indianapolis is also the seat of the Episcopal Diocese of Indianapolis, based from Christ Church Cathedral. The Indiana-Kentucky Synod of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America and the Indiana Conference of the United Methodist Church are also based in the city.

Economy[edit]

Contributing to an annual gross domestic product (GDP) of $125.9 billion, the Indianapolis metropolitan area is the 26th largest economy in the U.S. and 42nd largest in the world.[105] The largest industry sectors by employment are manufacturing, health care and social services, and retail trade.[106] Compared to Indiana as a whole, the Indianapolis metropolitan area has a lower proportion of manufacturing jobs and a higher concentration of jobs in wholesale trade; administrative, support, and waste management; professional, scientific, and technical services; and transportation and warehousing.[106]

Pharmaceutical giant Eli Lilly and Company was founded in the city in 1876.

As of 2015, three Fortune 500 companies were based in the city, including Anthem Inc. (38), Eli Lilly and Company (151), and Calumet Specialty Products Partners (457). Fortune 1000 companies based in the Indianapolis metropolitan area included Simon Property Group (529), CNO Financial Group (608), KAR Auction Services (905), hhgregg (914), and Allison Transmission Holdings (974).[107] Other notable companies based in Indianapolis include media conglomerate Emmis Communications, retailers Finish Line, Lids, and Marsh Supermarkets, Republic Airways Holdings, and restaurant chains Noble Roman's, Scotty's Brewhouse, and Steak 'n Shake.

Like many Midwestern cities, recent deindustrialization trends have had a significant impact on Indianapolis' economy. Once home to 60 automakers, Indianapolis rivaled Detroit as a center of automobile manufacturing in the early 20th century.[45] Between 1990 and 2012, approximately 26,900 manufacturing jobs were lost in the city, including the automotive plant closures of Chrysler, Ford, and General Motors.[108] In 2016, Carrier Corporation announced the closure of its Indianapolis plant, moving 1,400 manufacturing jobs to Mexico.[109] Since 1915, Rolls-Royce Holdings has had operations in Indianapolis.[110] It is the third largest manufacturing employer and thirteenth largest employer overall in the city, with a workforce of 4,300 in aircraft engine development and manufacturing.[111]

Biotechnology, life sciences, and health care are a major sector of Indianapolis' economy. Besides the presence of Eli Lilly, the North American headquarters for Roche Diagnostics and Dow AgroSciences are located in the city.[112] A 2014 report by Battelle Memorial Institute and Biotechnology Industry Organization indicated that the Indianapolis–Carmel–Anderson MSA was the only U.S. metropolitan area to have specialized employment concentrations in all five bioscience sectors evaluated in the study: agricultural feedstock and chemicals; bioscience-related distribution; drugs and pharmaceuticals; medical devices and equipment; and research, testing, and medical laboratories.[113] The regional health care providers of Community Health Network, Franciscan St. Francis Health, Indiana University Health, and St. Vincent Health have a combined workforce of 43,700.[114]

A CSX freight train passes through downtown.

More interstate highways intersect within Indianapolis than any other city in the U.S.[10] The city is also the central hub of Indiana's 4,700-mile (7,600 km) railroad infrastructure, the ninth most extensive rail mileage in the U.S.[115][116] This distinction has allowed the city to become an international logistics center, home to 1,500 distribution firms, employing 100,000 workers.[117] Major companies include Celadon Group and United Parcel Service, with distribution centers for companies such as Amazon.com, Express Scripts, O'Reilly Auto Parts, Ozburn-Hessey Logistics, Target Corporation, and Walmart.[118] Indianapolis International Airport is home to the second largest FedEx Express hub in the world, employing 6,600.[119] The city is an important hub for CSX Transportation, home to its division headquarters, an intermodal terminal, and classification yard (in the suburb of Avon).[120] In 2011, the Indianapolis metropolitan area was ranked as the tenth largest inland port in the U.S. in terms of origin-destination freight tonnage.[108]

Tourism and hospitality is an increasingly vital sector to the Indianapolis economy. A Rockport Analytics study found that 27.4 million visitors generated a record $4.5 billion in 2015.[13] Indianapolis has long been a sport tourism destination, but has more recently relied on conventions.[121] The Indiana Convention Center is connected to 12 hotels and 4,700 hotel rooms, the most of any U.S. convention center.[122] In 2008, the facility hosted 42 national conventions with an attendance of 317,815; in 2014, it hosted 106 for an attendance of 635,701.[121] Since 2003, Indianapolis has hosted Gen Con, the largest role-playing game convention in North America.[123] USA Today named Indianapolis the best convention city in 2014.[124]

Indianapolis is the fourth fastest high-tech job growth area in the U.S., with 28,500 information technology-related jobs at such companies as Angie's List, BrightPoint, Interactive Intelligence, and Salesforce Marketing Cloud.[125][126]

Culture[edit]

Part of the "Month of May" celebrations, the 500 Festival Parade is one of the nation's largest, regularly drawing 300,000 spectators.[127]

In 1999, Indianapolis designated six cultural districts to capitalize on the city's cultural institutions within historically significant neighborhoods unique to the city's heritage. These include Broad Ripple Village, Canal and White River State Park, Fountain Square, Indiana Avenue, Mass Ave, and Wholesale.[128] A seventh cultural district, Market East, was designated in 2014.[129] After 12 years of planning and six years of construction, the Indianapolis Cultural Trail: A Legacy of Gene and Marilyn Glick officially opened in 2013.[130] The $62.5 million public-private partnership resulted in 8 miles (13 km) of urban bike and pedestrian corridors linking six cultural districts with neighborhoods, IUPUI, and every significant arts, cultural, heritage, sports, and entertainment venue downtown.[131][132][133][134]

The city is home to dozens of annual festivals and events showcasing and celebrating Indianapolis culture. Notable events include the "Month of May" (a series of celebrations leading to the Indianapolis 500), Circle City IN Pride (June), Indiana Black Expo (July), Indiana State Fair (August), and Historic Irvington Halloween Festival (October).

Visual arts[edit]

Founded in 1883, the Indianapolis Museum of Art (IMA) is the ninth oldest[135][note 1] and eighth largest encyclopedic art museum in the U.S.[137][note 2] The permanent collection comprises over 54,000 works, including African, American, Asian, and European pieces.[138] In addition to its collections, the museum consists of 100 Acres: The Virginia B. Fairbanks Art and Nature Park; Oldfields, a restored house museum and estate once owned by Josiah K. Lilly, Jr.; and restored gardens and grounds originally designed by Percival Gallagher of the Olmsted Brothers firm.[139] The IMA also owns the Miller House, a Mid-Century modern home designed by Eero Saarinen located in Columbus, Indiana.[140] The museum's holdings demonstrate the institution's emphasis on the connections among art, design, and the natural environment.[136]

The Indianapolis Art Center, located in Broad Ripple Village, was founded in 1934 by the Works Project Administration. The center opened at its Michael Graves-designed building in 1996, including three public art galleries, 11 studios, a library, auditorium, and ArtsPark along the White River.[141] The Indianapolis Museum of Contemporary Art was established in 2001, and is located in The Murphy Art Center in Fountain Square. In 2014, the museum opened a second public gallery in The Alexander Hotel at CityWay in downtown Indianapolis.[142]

Eiteljorg Museum of American Indians and Western Art opened in 1989 at White River State Park as the only Native American art museum in the Midwest.[143] Indiana University – Purdue University Indianapolis (IUPUI) contains the Herron School of Art and Design. Established in 1902, the school's first core faculty included Impressionist painters of the Hoosier Group: T. C. Steele, J. Ottis Adams, William Forsyth, Richard Gruelle, and Otto Stark. The university's public art collection is extensive, with more than 30 works.

Music, film, and performing arts[edit]

Madame Walker Theatre Center opened on Indiana Avenue in 1927 as a cultural center for the city's African American community.[144]

Indianapolis' most notable performing arts venues are located in the Mass Ave cultural district or Downtown. Located on Monument Circle since 1916, the 1,786-seat Hilbert Circle Theatre is the current home of the Indianapolis Symphony Orchestra. The Indiana Theatre opened as a movie palace on Washington Street in 1927, currently housing the Indiana Repertory Theatre, a regional repertory theatre. Madame Walker Theatre Center also opened that year on Indiana Avenue, in the heart of the city's African American neighborhood. The theater is named for Madame C.J. Walker, an African American entrepreneur, philanthropist, and activist who began her beauty empire in Indianapolis.

Mass Ave is home to the Old National Centre, Phoenix Theatre, and the Athenæum (Das Deutsche Haus). Old National Centre at the Murat Shrine is the oldest stage house in Indianapolis, opened in 1909.[145] The building is a prime example of Moorish Revival architecture and features a 2,600-seat performing arts theatre, 1,800-seat concert hall, and 600-seat multi-functional room, hosting approximately 300 public and private events throughout the year.[145] The nonprofit Phoenix Theatre focuses on contemporary theatrical productions.[146] The Athenӕum, houses the American Cabaret Theater and Young Actors Theater.

Other notable venues include the Indianapolis Artsgarden, a performing arts center suspended over the intersection of Washington and Illinois streets, Clowes Memorial Hall on the Butler University campus, and The Emerson Theater in Little Flower.

Indianapolis is home to Bands of America (BOA), a nationwide organization of high school marching, concert, and jazz bands, and the international headquarters of Drum Corps International (DCI), a professional drum and bugle corps association.[147] Annual music events include the International Violin Competition of Indianapolis, Midwest Music Summit, and Indy Jazz Fest. The Heartland Film Festival, Indianapolis International Film Festival, Indianapolis Jewish Film Festival, Indianapolis Theatre Fringe Festival, and the Indianapolis Alternative Media Festival are annual events held in the city.

Literature[edit]

Two-time recipient of the Pulitzer Prize for Fiction, Booth Tarkington on the cover of TIME in 1925.

Indianapolis was at the center of the Golden Age of Indiana Literature, from 1870 to 1920.[148] Several notable poets and writers based in the city achieved national prominence and critical acclaim during this period, including James Whitcomb Riley, Booth Tarkington, and Meredith Nicholson.[11] In A History of Indiana Literature, Arthur W. Shumaker remarked on the era's influence: "It was the age of famous men and their famous books. In it Indiana, and particularly Indianapolis, became a literary center which in many ways rivaled the East."[149] A 1947 study found that Indiana authors ranked second to New York in the number of bestsellers produced in the previous 40 years.[148] Located in Lockerbie Square, the James Whitcomb Riley Museum Home has been a National Historic Landmark since 1962.

Perhaps the city's most famous 20th century writer was Kurt Vonnegut, known for his darkly satirical and controversial bestselling novel Slaughterhouse-Five (1969). Vonnegut became known for including at least one character in his novels from Indianapolis.[150] Upon returning to the city in 1986, Vonnegut acknowledged the influence the city had on his writings: "All my jokes are Indianapolis. All my attitudes are Indianapolis. My adenoids are Indianapolis. If I ever severed myself from Indianapolis, I would be out of business. What people like about me is Indianapolis."[150][151] The Kurt Vonnegut Memorial Library opened in 2010 in downtown Indianapolis.[151]

Indianapolis is the current home to bestselling young adult fiction writer John Green, known for his critically acclaimed 2012 novel The Fault in Our Stars, set in the city.[152]

Museums and monuments[edit]

The Children's Museum of Indianapolis is the largest of its kind in the world.[153] In total, the museum has 472,900 square feet (43,933.85 m2) of floor space.[154] The museum has a collection of over 120,000 artifacts,[155] divided into three collections: Natural World, Cultural World, and American.[156] The museum's collection includes the Broad Ripple Park Carousel, a National Historic Landmark. Because of its leadership and innovations, the museum is a world leader in its field.[157] Child and Parents magazine have both ranked the museum as the best children's museum in the U.S.[158] The "institution is considered the gold standard of museums for children."[159] The museum is one of the city's most popular attractions, with 1.2 million visitors in 2014.[160]

A National Historic Landmark, the Indianapolis Motor Speedway Museum (in Speedway) exhibits an extensive collection of auto racing memorabilia showcasing various motorsports and automotive history.[161][162] The museum is the permanent home of the Borg-Warner Trophy, presented to Indianapolis 500 winners.[15] Daily grounds and track tours are also based at the museum.[162] The NCAA Hall of Champions opened in 2000 at White River State Park housing collegiate sports artifacts and interactive exhibits covering all 23 NCAA-sanctioned sports.[163][164]

The Soldiers' and Sailors' Monument is an iconic symbol of Indianapolis, depicted on the city's flag.[165]

Indianapolis is home to several museums and organizations relating to Indiana history, including the Colonel Eli Lilly Civil War Museum, the Indiana Historical Society, Indiana State Library and Historical Bureau, Indiana State Museum, Indiana Medical History Museum, and Indiana Landmarks. The Benjamin Harrison Presidential Site is open for daily tours, including thousands of books and memorabilia related to the 23rd President of the U.S. The National Historic Landmark is located in the Old Northside Historic District. The city maintains the largest collection of monuments dedicated to veterans and war dead in the U.S., outside of Washington, D.C.[20][21] Notable sites include:

Other points of interest[edit]

Sports[edit]

Professional sports teams in Indianapolis
Club Sport League Founded Venue Attendance Championships
Indiana Fever Basketball WNBA 2000 Bankers Life Fieldhouse 7,485 1 (2012)
Indiana Pacers Basketball NBA 1967 Bankers Life Fieldhouse 16,864 3 (1970, 1972, 1973)
Indianapolis Colts American football NFL 1984 Lucas Oil Stadium 66,407 1 (2006) (XLI)
Indianapolis Indians Baseball IL (AAA) 1902 Victory Field 9,331 7 (1917, 1928, 1949, 1956, 1988, 1989, 2000)
Indy Eleven Soccer NASL (D2) 2013 IU Michael A. Carroll Stadium 9,809 ——
Indy Fuel Ice hockey ECHL 2014 Indiana Farmers Coliseum 3,856 ——
Lucas Oil Stadium, home to the Indianapolis Colts since 2008.

Two major league sports teams are based in Indianapolis. The Indianapolis Colts of the National Football League (NFL) have been based in Indianapolis since relocating there in 1984. The Colts' tenure in Indianapolis has produced 11 division championships, two conference championships, and two Super Bowl appearances. Quarterback Peyton Manning led the team to win Super Bowl XLI in the 2006 NFL season.

Founded in 1967, the Indiana Pacers of the National Basketball Association (NBA) began in the American Basketball Association (ABA), joining the NBA when the leagues merged in 1976. Prior to joining the NBA, the Pacers won three division titles and three championships. Since the merger, the Pacers have won one conference title and six division titles, most recently in 2014. Founded in 2000, the Indiana Fever of the Women's National Basketball Association (WNBA) have won three conference titles and one championship in 2012. Both teams play from Bankers Life Fieldhouse.

The Indianapolis Indians of the International League (AAA) is the second oldest minor league franchise in American professional baseball, established in 1902. The Indians have won 25 division titles, 14 league titles, and seven championships. The team has played at Victory Field since 1996.

Butler University and Indiana University – Purdue University Indianapolis (IUPUI) are NCAA Division I schools based in the city. The Butler Bulldogs compete in the Big East Conference, except for Butler Bulldogs football, which plays in the Pioneer Football League FCS. The Butler Bulldogs men's basketball team were runners-up in the 2010 and 2011 NCAA Men's Division I Basketball Championship Games. The IUPUI Jaguars compete in the Summit League.

Traditionally, Indianapolis' Hinkle Fieldhouse was the hub for Hoosier Hysteria, a general excitement around the game of basketball throughout the state, specifically the Indiana High School Boys Basketball Tournament.[166] Hinkle, a National Historic Landmark, was opened in 1928 as the world's largest basketball arena, with seating for 15,000.[167] It is regarded as "Indiana's Basketball Cathedral." Perhaps the most notable game was the 1954 state championship, which inspired the critically acclaimed 1986 film, Hoosiers.[168]

Indianapolis has been called the "Amateur Sports Capital of the World."[33][169] The National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA), the main governing body for U.S. collegiate sports, and the National Federation of State High School Associations are based in Indianapolis. The city is home to three NCAA athletic conferences: the Horizon League (Division I); the Great Lakes Valley Conference (Division II); and the Heartland Collegiate Athletic Conference (Division III). Indianapolis is also home to three national sport governing bodies, as recognized by the United States Olympic Committee: USA Gymnastics; USA Diving; and USA Track & Field.

Indianapolis hosts numerous sporting events annually, including the Circle City Classic (1983–present), NFL Scouting Combine (1987–present), and Big Ten Football Championship Game (2011–present). Indianapolis is tied with New York City for having hosted the second most NCAA Men's Division I Basketball Championships (1980, 1991, 1997, 2000, 2006, 2010, and 2015).[170] The city will host the men's Final Four next in 2021.[171] Notable past events include the NBA All-Star Game (1985), Pan American Games X (1987), US Open Series Indianapolis Tennis Championships (1988–2009), FIBA Basketball World Cup (2002), and Super Bowl XLVI (2012).

Indianapolis is home to the OneAmerica 500 Festival Mini-Marathon, the largest half marathon and seventh largest running event in the U.S.[172] The mini-marathon is held the first weekend of May as part of the 500 Festival, leading up to the Indianapolis 500. As of 2013, it had sold out for 12 consecutive years, with 35,000 participants.[173] Held in autumn, the Monumental Marathon is also among the largest in the U.S., with nearly 14,000 entrants in 2015.[174]

Motorsports[edit]

The 2008 Indianapolis 500, the 92nd running of the race.

Indianapolis is a major center for motorsports. Since 1911, Indianapolis Motor Speedway (IMS) (in the enclave of Speedway, Indiana) has been the site of the Indianapolis 500, an open-wheel automobile race held each Memorial Day weekend. Considered part of the Triple Crown of Motorsport, the Indianapolis 500 is the largest single-day sporting event in the world, hosting more than 257,000 permanent seats.[15] The city is headquarters to INDYCAR, the sanctioning body for American Championship car racing, and more than 500 motorsports companies and racing teams, employing some 10,000 people in the region.[175] Indianapolis is so well connected with racing that it has inspired the name "IndyCar," used for both the competition and type of car used in it.[176]

Since 1994, IMS has hosted Super Weekend at the Brickyard, a series of automobile races leading to one of NASCAR's highest attended events, the Sprint Cup Series Brickyard 400.[177] Since 2014, IMS has also hosted the Verizon IndyCar Series Grand Prix of Indianapolis. Lucas Oil Raceway at Indianapolis, in nearby Hendricks County, is home to the National Hot Rod Association (NHRA) U.S. Nationals, the most prestigious drag racing event in the world, held annually each Labor Day weekend.[178]

Parks and recreation[edit]

Indiana World War Memorial Plaza spans five city blocks in downtown Indianapolis.

Military Park was established as the city's first public park in 1852.[179] By the 20th century, the city enlisted landscape architect George Kessler to conceive a framework for Indianapolis' modern parks system.[180] Kessler's 1909 Indianapolis Park and Boulevard Plan connected notable parks, such as Brookside, Ellenberger, and Garfield, with a system of parkways following the city's waterways.[181] In 2003, the system's 3,474 acres (1,406 ha) were added to the National Register of Historic Places.[182] Noted as one of the finest examples of City Beautiful movement design in the U.S., the five-block Indiana World War Memorial Plaza began construction in 1921 in downtown Indianapolis.[183][184] The National Historic Landmark includes the American Legion headquarters, Depew Memorial Fountain, several sculptures and memorials, and open space, hosting many annual civic events.[184]

Kayaks at Eagle Creek Park, one of the largest municipal parks in the U.S.

Indy Parks and Recreation maintains nearly 200 parks covering 11,246 acres (4,551 ha).[185] Eagle Creek Park is the largest and most visited park in the city and ranks among the largest urban parks in the U.S., covering 4,766 acres (1,929 ha).[186] Fishing, sailing, kayaking, canoeing, and swimming are popular activities at Eagle Creek Reservoir. Recreational trails, including the Canal Walk, Pleasant Run Trail, and Monon Trail, are used for walking, running, and cycling, accommodating 2.8 million users in 2012.[187] There are 13 public golf courses in the city.[188]

The Indiana Department of Natural Resources (DNR) manages two state parks in Marion County: Fort Harrison in Lawrence and White River downtown. The latter has been home to the Indianapolis Zoo and White River Gardens since 1988.[189] The campus covers 64 acres (26 ha) and is home to nearly 1,400 animals and 31,000 plants, including many threatened and endangered species.[189] The zoo is one of the city's most visited attractions, with 1.2 million guests in 2014.[160] Indianapolis has an urban forestry program that has been recognized by the National Arbor Day Foundation's Tree City USA standards since 1988. The city's Youth Tree Program plants 2,000 trees each year.[190] The city lies about 50 miles (80 km) north of two state forests (Morgan–Monroe and Yellowwood) and Hoosier National Forest.

According to the Trust for Public Land's 2016 ParkScore Index, Indianapolis ranks 95th of the 100 largest U.S. cities in accessibility to public parks and open space, with some 68% of residents under served.[191] The city's vast land area and low public funding contributed to the ranking.[191]

Government and politics[edit]

The Indiana Statehouse, seat of Indiana state government.

Indianapolis has a consolidated city-county government known as Unigov, a status it has held since 1970. Under this system, many functions of the city and county governments are consolidated, though some remain separate. The city has a mayor-council form of government. The executive branch is headed by an elected mayor, who serves as the chief executive of both the city and Marion County. The current Mayor of Indianapolis is Democrat Joseph H. Hogsett. The mayor appoints deputy mayors, department heads, and members of various boards and commissions. The legislative body for the city and county is the City-County Council, consisting of 25 members all of whom represent geographic districts. The council passes ordinances for the city and county and also makes appointments to certain boards and commissions.

As the state capital, Indianapolis is the seat of Indiana's state government. The Indiana Statehouse, located downtown, houses the executive, legislative, and judicial branches of state government, including the office of the governor, Indiana General Assembly, Indiana Court of Appeals, and the Indiana Supreme Court. Most of the state's bureaus are located in the Indiana Government Center North. The Indiana Governor's Residence is located on Meridian Street in the Butler-Tarkington neighborhood, about 5 miles (8.0 km) north of downtown. The Birch Bayh Federal Building and United States Courthouse houses the United States District Court for the Southern District of Indiana.

Most of Indianapolis is within the 7th Congressional District of Indiana, represented by Democrat André Carson. Northern portions of the city are in the 5th District, represented by Republican Susan Brooks.[192]

Tea Party protests in 2007. The city has a history of political conservatism.[55]

Until the late-1990s, Indianapolis was considered one of the most conservative metropolitan areas in the U.S., but this trend has reversed recently. Unigov's absorption of Republican-leaning townships outside the city proper is considered the reason for this shift.[55] Republicans held the majority in the City-County Council for 36 years and the mayor's office for 32 years (1967–1999).[55] More recently, Republicans have generally been stronger in the southern and western parts of the county (Decatur, Franklin, Perry, and Wayne, townships), whereas Democrats have been stronger in the central and northern parts of the county (Center, Pike, and Washington townships). Republican and Democratic prevalence is split in Warren and Lawrence townships.[193] As of 2014, the city is regarded as politically moderate.[194]

Republican Greg Ballard chose not to run for re-election in the 2015 mayoral election.[195] Republican Chuck Brewer and Democrat Joe Hogsett were the candidates to replace him. The candidates had similar plans for addressing the city's issues, and the commonality between them contributed to a very low voter turnout.[196] Hogsett previously held public office as Indiana Secretary of State, and had served in government for over 30 years, giving him greater name recognition than Brewer, a local restaurateur.[197] Hogsett was elected with 63% of the vote, officially taking office on January 1, 2016.[197] The 2015 City-County Council elections also left Democrats in control of City-County Council, holding a 13–12 majority over Republicans, only the second time since the creation of Unigov that Democrats controlled both the mayor's office and council.[198]

Public safety[edit]

The Indianapolis Fire Department (IFD) provides fire protection services for 278 square miles (720 km2) of Marion County. IFD operates 44 stations, including 1,205 sworn firefighters. IFD responded to nearly 100,000 incidents in 2014.[199] As of 2016, Ernest Malone was the fire chief.[200] Indianapolis Metropolitan Police Department's (IMPD) jurisdiction covers most of Marion County, with the exception of Beech Grove, Lawrence, Speedway, and the Indianapolis Airport Authority.[201] In 2009, IMPD operated six precincts, including 1,617 sworn police personnel.[201] As of 2016, Troy Riggs was the chief of police.[202]

Indianapolis was ranked as the 33rd most dangerous city in the U.S. in the 2008–2009 edition of CQ Press's City Crime Rankings and the 22nd most dangerous city according to Yahoo! Finance in 2012.[203][204] Yahoo! Finance also reported that the city averaged 52.2 forcible rapes per 100,000 people, double the national average of 26.8 forcible rapes per 100,000 people.[204] Between 2012 and 2014 the murder rate increased by 44%. There were 138 homicides in 2014 and 60% of victims were young black men.[205]

Education[edit]

Indiana University – Purdue University Indianapolis has the city's largest higher education enrollment.

Indianapolis has nine unified public school districts: Franklin Township Community School Corporation, MSD Decatur Township, MSD Lawrence Township, MSD Perry Township, MSD Pike Township, MSD Warren Township, MSD Washington Township, MSD Wayne Township, and Indianapolis Public Schools (IPS). IPS is the largest public school district in Indiana, serving nearly 30,000 students.[206] A number of private primary and secondary schools are operated through the Archdiocese of Indianapolis, charters, or other independent organizations.

Indiana University – Purdue University Indianapolis (IUPUI) was founded in 1969 after merging the branch campuses of Indiana University and Purdue University.[207] IUPUI's current enrollment is 30,105, the third largest university campus in the state.[208] IUPUI has two colleges and 18 schools, including the Herron School of Art and Design, Robert H. McKinney School of Law, School of Dentistry, and School of Medicine.[209] The city is home to the largest campus for Ivy Tech, Central Indiana Region, a state-funded community college serving nearly 100,000 students across Indiana.[210]

Central Library is the hub of Indianapolis Public Library's 22-branch system.

Three private universities are based in Indianapolis. Established in 1855, Butler University is the oldest higher education institution in the city, with an enrollment of about 4,000.[211] Marian University was founded in 1936 when St. Francis Normal and Immaculate Conception Junior College merged, moving to Indianapolis in 1937. Marian is affiliated with the Roman Catholic Church. Marian has an enrollment of about 2,137 students.[212] Founded in 1902, the University of Indianapolis is affiliated with the United Methodist Church. The school's current enrollment is 4,169 students.[213] Martin University was founded in 1977 and is the state's only predominately black university.[214]

Satellite campuses located in the city include Ball State University College of Architecture and Planning's Indianapolis Center, Grace College, Indiana Institute of Technology, Oakland City University, and Vincennes University's Aviation Technology Center at Indianapolis International Airport.

Public library services are provided to the citizens of Indianapolis and Marion County by the Indianapolis Public Library. Founded in 1873, the public library system includes the Central Library and 22 branches throughout the county. The Indianapolis Public Library served 4.2 million patrons in 2014, with a circulation of 15.9 million materials.[215]

Media[edit]

Main article: Media in Indianapolis

Indianapolis has one primary daily newspaper, The Indianapolis Star. Notable weeklies include NUVO, an alternative weekly newspaper, the Indianapolis Recorder, a weekly newspaper serving the local African American community, and the Indianapolis Business Journal. Monthly local lifestyle publications include Indianapolis Monthly, Indianapolis Women's Magazine, and Indy Men's Magazine. Indianapolis is the corporate headquarters of media conglomerate Emmis Communications.

Broadcast television network affiliates include WTTV (CBS),[216] WRTV (ABC),[217] WISH-TV (CW),[218] WTHR-TV (NBC),[219] WXIN-TV (Fox),[220] WFYI-TV (PBS),[221] WNDY-TV (MyNetworkTV),[222] WDNI-CD (Telemundo),[223] and WIPX-TV (Ion). In 2009, the Indianapolis metropolitan area was the 25th largest media market in the U.S., with over 1.1 million homes.

Popular nationally syndicated radio program The Bob & Tom Show has been based at Indianapolis radio station WFBQ since 1983.[224]

Infrastructure[edit]

Transportation[edit]

Clock tower of Indianapolis Union Station, the first union station in the world.

Indianapolis was founded on the White River under an incorrect assumption that it would serve as a major transportation artery, but the river proved difficult to navigate and too shallow during much of the year.[32] After the steamboat Robert Hanna ran aground along the river in 1831, no steamboat successfully returned to Indianapolis. Flatboats continued to transport goods along a portion of the river until new dams impeded their ability to navigate its waters.[225] The first major federally funded highway in the U.S., the National Road, reached Indianapolis in 1836,[32] followed by the railroad in 1847. By 1850, eight railroads converged in the city, ending its isolation from the rest of the country and ushering in a new era of growth.[226] Indianapolis Union Station opened in the Wholesale District on September 20, 1853 as the world's first union station.[34] Citizen's Street and Railway Company was established in 1864, operating the city's first mule-drawn streetcar line.[227][228] By 1890, electric-powered streetcars began running.[229] Opened in 1904, the Indianapolis Traction Terminal was the largest interurban station in the world, handling 500 trains daily and 7 million passengers annually.[230] Ultimately doomed by the automobile, the terminal closed in 1941, followed by the streetcar system in 1957.[231]

"One of the busiest corners in the world," Illinois at Washington streets in 1904.

Indianapolis is intersected by four Interstates: Interstate 65, Interstate 69, Interstate 70, and Interstate 74. An auxiliary beltway, Interstate 465, encircles the city. More interstate highways intersect with the city than any other in the U.S., lending to the city's moniker as the "Crossroads of America."[10] The predominant mode of transportation is the automobile, with 92.6% of Indianapolis–Carmel–Anderson MSA residents commuting by car, most traveling alone (83.4%).[232] This reliance on the automobile has had a major impact on the city's development patterns, with Walk Score ranking Indianapolis as one of the least walkable large cities in the U.S.[233] Only 2.7% of residents walk or bike to work.[232] Despite this reliance, the city has encouraged enhanced bicycle and pedestrian infrastructure in recent years. Indianapolis includes some 75 miles (121 km) of trails, 90 miles (140 km) of on-street bike lanes, and a 25-station bike sharing system.[234][235]

The Indianapolis Public Transportation Corporation, branded as IndyGo, has operated the city's public transportation system since 1975. Recent efforts to expand mass transit in the metropolitan area have been initiated through a $1.2 billion regional bus rapid transit plan called Indy Connect.[236] The first segment to be constructed is Phase I of the Red Line, traveling 14 miles (23 km) from Broad Ripple Village to the University of Indianapolis.[237] In 2011, a private company called the Downtown Indianapolis Streetcar Corporation began studying the feasibility of a streetcar circulator for downtown Indianapolis.[231] Despite only 1% of residents commuting via public transportation,[232] IndyGo had a 2014 ridership of 10.3 million, the highest in 23 years.[238] In 2016, the Julia M. Carson Transit Center opened, the downtown hub for 27 bus routes.[239]

Indianapolis International Airport's Colonel Harvey Weir Cook Terminal.

Indianapolis International Airport (IND) is the busiest airport in the state, serving nearly 8 million passengers in 2015. The $1.1 billion Colonel Harvey Weir Cook Terminal opened in 2008 as the largest development initiative in the city's history.[240] The midfield terminal includes 40 gates connecting to 47 major domestic and international destinations.[241] As home to the second largest FedEx Express hub in the world, IND ranks as the sixth busiest U.S. airport in terms of air cargo, handling over 1 million metric tons in 2015.[242][243] The Indianapolis Airport Authority also owns and operates Eagle Creek Airpark and the only public-use heliport in the state, the Indianapolis Downtown Heliport.[244]

Amtrak currently provides two intercity rail lines to Indianapolis via Union Station. The Cardinal makes three weekly trips between New York City and Chicago, while the Hoosier State operates on the four days the Cardinal does not operate, running to Chicago. Indianapolis is a proposed connection on the Chicago Hub Network, a high-speed rail line that would run between Chicago and Cincinnati. Three intercity bus service providers stop in the city: Greyhound Lines and Burlington Trailways (via Union Station), and Megabus (via City Market).[245] The Indiana University Health People Mover opened in 2003 connecting Indiana University Health's medical centers with related facilities on the IUPUI campus. It is currently the only example of commuter rail in Indianapolis and is also notable for being the only private transportation system in the U.S. elevated above public streets.[246][247]

In 2015, the city introduced BlueIndy, an electric carsharing program that will ultimately include 500 electric cars at 200 charging stations throughout the city.[248]

Health care[edit]

Indianapolis Emergency Medical Services (IEMS) covers six townships within the city (Center, Franklin, Lawrence, Perry, Warren, and Washington) and the town of Speedway. IEMS responded to nearly 100,000 emergency dispatch calls in 2014.[249]

Indiana University Health's Academic Health Center encompasses Marion County, with the medical centers of University Hospital, Methodist Hospital, and Riley Hospital for Children. The Academic Health Center is anchored by the Indiana University School of Medicine, the second-largest medical school in the U.S.[111][250] Riley Hospital for Children is among the nation's foremost pediatric health centers, recognized in all ten specialties by U.S. News and World Report, including top 25 honors in orthopedics (23), nephrology (22), gastroenterology and GI surgery (16), pulmonology (13), and urology (4).[251] The 430-bed facility also contains Indiana's only Pediatric Level I Trauma Center.[252]

Indianapolis' public medical center, the Sidney and Lois Eskenazi Hospital, reopened in 2013 after a $754 million project to replace Wishard Memorial Hospital on the IUPUI campus. Eskenazi includes an Adult Level I Trauma Center, 315 beds, and 275 exam rooms, annually serving 1.2 million outpatients.[253] Adjacent to Eskenazi, the Richard L. Roudebush VA Medical Center is Central Indiana's flagship Veterans Affairs hospital. Located on the city's far north side, St. Vincent Indianapolis Hospital is the flagship medical center of St. Vincent Health's 22-hospital system. St. Vincent Indianapolis includes Peyton Manning Children's Hospital, St. Vincent Heart Center of Indiana, St. Vincent Seton Specialty Hospital, and St. Vincent Women's Hospital. Franciscan St. Francis Health's flagship medical center is located on Indianapolis' far south side.

Community Health Network includes four medical centers in Marion County, including Community Westview Hospital, Community Hospital South, Community Hospital North, and Community Hospital East. Community Hospital East is currently replacing its 60-year-old facility with a $175 million, 150-bed hospital to be completed in 2019.[254] The campus will also include a $120 million, 159-bed state-funded mental health and chronic addiction treatment facility. The Indiana Neuro-Diagnostic Institute will replace the antiquated Larue D. Carter Memorial Hospital in 2018.[255]

According to Indianapolis-based American College of Sports Medicine's 2016 American Fitness Index Data Report, the city scored last of the 50 largest U.S. metropolitan areas for health and community fitness.[256] Higher instances of obesity, coronary heart disease, diabetes, smoking, and asthma contributed to the ranking.[257]

Utilities[edit]

Electricity is provided by Indianapolis Power & Light (IPL), a subsidiary of AES Corporation.[258] IPL generates 3,343 MW of electricity at four power stations, two wind farms,[259] and 34 solar farms,[260] covering a service area of 528 square miles (1,370 km2).[261] Despite a portfolio comprised 100% of nonrenewable energy sources in 2007, IPL ended coal-firing operations at its Harding Street Station in 2016.[259] In 2016, Indianapolis had the second highest number of photovoltaics (PVs) per capita in the U.S.[260] Citizens Energy Group, a public charitable trust, operates five divisions: natural gas, water, thermal, oil, and resources.[262][263] Covanta Energy operates a waste-to-energy plant in the city, processing solid waste for steam production.[263][264] Steam is sold to Citizens Thermal Energy's Perry K. Generating Station for the downtown Indianapolis district heating system, the second largest in the U.S.[265] Republic Services provides curbside solid waste and recycling removal.

Notable people[edit]

Sister cities[edit]

Indianapolis has six sister cities and two friendship cities as designated by Sister Cities International.[266]

Sister cities

Friendship cities

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Mean monthly maxima and minima (i.e. the expected highest and lowest temperature readings at any point during the year or given month) calculated based on data at said location from 1981 to 2010.
  2. ^ Official records for Indianapolis kept at downtown from February 1871 to December 1942, and at Indianapolis Int'l since January 1943. For more information, see Threadex
  1. ^ The nine oldest museums in the U.S. are: Peabody Essex Museum, 1799; Wadsworth Atheneum, 1842; Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1870; Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, 1870; Philadelphia Museum of Art, 1876; Columbus Museum of Art, Ohio, 1878; Art Institute of Chicago, 1879; Cincinnati Art Museum, 1881; Portland Museum of Art, 1882; Indianapolis Museum of Art, 1883.[136]
  2. ^ At 669,484 square feet (62,197.1 m2), the IMA is eighth largest in the U.S. in Main Museum Building space among the 130 respondents in the Association of Art Museum Directors 2010 Statistical Survey.[137]

References[edit]

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  2. ^ a b "U.S. Census Bureau Delivers Indiana's 2010 Census Population Totals". Archived from the original on February 13, 2011. Retrieved February 11, 2011. 
  3. ^ a b "American FactFinder – Results (Indianapolis city (balance), Indiana)". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved May 27, 2016. 
  4. ^ "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on September 11, 2013. Retrieved 2008-01-31. 
  5. ^ Jones, Daniel (2003) [1917]. Peter Roach, James Hartmann and Jane Setter, eds. English Pronouncing Dictionary. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 3-12-539683-2. 
  6. ^ "Indianapolis". Merriam-Webster Dictionary. 
  7. ^ "Indianapolis". Dictionary.com Unabridged. Random House. 
  8. ^ "American FactFinder – Results". United States Census Bureau, Population Division. Retrieved May 29, 2016. 
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External links[edit]

Coordinates: 39°47′28″N 86°08′53″W / 39.791°N 86.148°W / 39.791; -86.148