Indianapolis 500 traditions

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Jim Nabors performed "Back Home Again in Indiana" before the start of the race nearly every year from 1972 to 2014.

Due to the longevity of the Indianapolis 500, numerous traditions surrounding the race have developed over the years. Traditions include procedures for the running of the race, scheduling, and pre-race and post-race festivities. For many fans, these traditions are an important aspect of the race, and they have often reacted quite negatively when the traditions are changed or broken.

As part of the Memorial Day holiday weekend, the pre-race ceremonies of the Indianapolis 500 feature several patriotic songs. The most noteworthy and most popular traditions are the annual singing of "Back Home Again in Indiana," and the victory lane bottle of milk.

Month of May[edit]

Memorial Day[edit]

The race has always been scheduled in conjunction with Memorial Day. Through 1970, the race was held on Memorial Day proper (May 30), regardless of the day of the week, unless it fell on Sunday. In those cases it was scheduled for Monday May 31. After the Uniform Monday Holiday Act took effect in 1971, the race was scheduled as part of the three-day Memorial Day weekend instead, either the Saturday, the Sunday, or the Monday. Since 1974, the race has been scheduled for the Sunday of Memorial Day weekend, and has been held on Sunday with only two exceptions due to rain delays.

Sundays were avoided for scheduling race activity dating all the way back to pre-500 races in 1909 and 1910. In early decades, Sundays were occasionally used for practice and/or qualifying, but were used sparingly in pre-World War II years. In some early years, practice may have been permitted on Sundays, but the gates might not be open to the public. When Tony Hulman bought the Speedway after World War II, Speedway management continued to refuse to schedule the race on a Sunday, a policy that stayed in place through 1973. Qualifying and practice, however, were regularly held on Sundays during those years, with no days closed to spectators.

  • From 1971-1972, the race was scheduled for the Saturday of Memorial Day weekend.
  • In 1973, the race was scheduled for Memorial Day Monday. However, rain delayed it until Wednesday.
  • Since 1974, the race has been scheduled for the Sunday of Memorial Day weekend.
  • The 1986 race was held the weekend after the official federal holiday because of two rainouts. The race was held the following Saturday, May 31, the pre-1971 date of the race if May 30 was a Sunday.
  • The 1997 race was similar to 1973 in having two rain delays, nearly as unique as 1986. It was scheduled for Sunday, May 25, but heavy rain washed out the day. The race began the next day, on Memorial Day (Monday May 26), but rain showers moved back into the area. The race was halted after 15 laps, and could not be restarted. Short of the 101 laps needed for an official race, track officials elected to resume the race on the following day (Tuesday May 27). The race was run to completion, as laps 16-200 were completed on Tuesday.

Armed Forces Day also falls during the month of May, and usually coincides with one of the weekends of time trials. Since 1978 at the Speedway, that weekend is often filled with activities honoring the U.S. military, including an oath of enlistment ceremony.

Days and Dates[edit]

Day Total Years
Sunday 41 1974, 1975, 1976, 1977, 1978, 1979, 1980, 1981, 1982, 1983, 1984, 1985, 1987, 1988, 1989, 1990, 1991, 1992, 1993, 1994,
1995, 1996, 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015, 2016
Monday 15 1915, 1920, 1921, 1926, 1927, 1932, 1937, 1938, 1948, 1949, 1954, 1955, 1960, 1965, 1966
Tuesday 8 1911, 1916, 1922, 1933, 1939, 1950, 1961, 1997
Wednesday 8 1923, 1934, 1940, 1951, 1956, 1962, 1967, 1973
Thursday 8 1912, 1928, 1929, 1935, 1946, 1957, 1963, 1968
Friday 8 1913, 1924, 1930, 1941, 1947, 1952, 1958, 1969
Saturday 12 1914, 1919, 1925, 1931, 1936, 1953, 1959, 1964, 1970, 1971, 1972, 1986
Date Total Years
May 24 6 1981, 1987, 1992, 1998, 2009, 2015
May 25 5 1975, 1980, 2003, 2008, 2014
May 26 6 1974, 1985, 1991, 1996, 2002, 2013
May 27 8 1972, 1979, 1984, 1990, 1997, 2001, 2007, 2012
May 28 5 1978, 1989, 1995, 2000, 2006
May 29 8 1971, 1977, 1983, 1988, 1994, 2005, 2011, 2016
May 30 53 1911, 1912, 1913, 1914, 1916, 1920, 1921, 1922, 1923, 1924, 1925, 1927, 1928, 1929, 1930, 1931, 1932, 1933, 1934, 1935,
1936, 1938, 1939, 1940, 1941, 1946, 1947, 1949, 1950, 1951, 1952, 1953, 1955, 1956, 1957, 1958, 1959, 1960, 1961, 1962,
1963, 1964, 1966, 1968, 1969, 1970, 1973, 1976, 1982, 1993, 1999, 2004, 2010
May 31 9 1915, 1919, 1926, 1937, 1948, 1954, 1965, 1967, 1986

Practice and Qualifying[edit]

  • The two to three weeks of practice and qualifying leading up to the race is known in racing circles simply as "the month of May [at Indianapolis]." In early years, the track traditionally opened for practice on May 1 (regardless of the day of the week). This practice dated back to 1911. The policy was typically to make the track available for practice no later than May 1, although in most years, few if any competitors would be on the grounds yet. In some years, the track would be available for practice/testing as early as April. For instance, in 1932, cars began to arrive on April 6, and in 1969, the first day of practice was April 28. In very early years, it was not uncommon for the track to be closed on Sunday during practice, or be open for only competitors with the gates were closed to the public.
  • In 1974, due to the energy crisis, the schedule was reduced, and the track opened instead three weeks before race day. The change was well-received, and the new schedule was made permanent, with various tweaks over the years. In 2014, the Grand Prix of Indianapolis was added to the schedule as part of "doubleheader" of IndyCar Series races on both the infield road course and oval during the month of May.
Hélio Castroneves makes his pole-winning qualification run in 2007 during "Happy Hour." Note the shadows cast on the racing surface.
  • The final hour of practice and qualifying each day is referred to as "Happy Hour." Due to the large double-decker grandstands on the frontstretch, large shadows are cast over a good portion of the track, cooling the asphalt surface. A lower ambient air temperature, along with a lower track surface temperature usually translates into faster speeds. Since Indiana began observing Daylight Saving Time in 2006, this phenomenon has been somewhat diminished.
  • The final practice session before pole day qualifying is nicknamed "Fast Friday." The fastest speeds of the month are commonly observed on Fast Friday, as teams and drivers make their final preparations and look for final "bragging rights" before the run for the pole position. Since the current engine formula was adopted in 2012, elevated turbocharger "boost" levels have been permitted on Fast Friday, reflecting the increased level allowed during time trials. Drivers who have been "sandbagging" during the week may chose to reveal their speed, in an effort to distance themselves from the competition. Sometimes the speeds turned in on Fast Friday are overachieved by the respective drivers' due to a tow. Though "Fast Friday" has been a fixture since the 1950s-1960s, the nickname was not coined until about 1996.[1] Track records set on Fast Friday (as well as other practice sessions) are considered unofficial. The sanctioning body only recognizes speeds set during the officially competitive sessions of qualifying and the race.
  • The first day of time trials is referred to as "Pole Day." The fastest qualifier on pole day wins the highly coveted pole position. Over the years, the "race for the pole" was often regarded as a race in itself, a speed contest, and was advertised as the second-largest single day sporting event (second only to race day itself). Though crowds have diminished for pole day as of late, and rules changes have curtailed speeds, the nickname "The Fastest Day in Motorsports" is still used.
  • The final day of qualifying, when the final starting field is set is known as "Bump Day" (or "Bubble Day"). Drivers who are removed from the starting grid of 33 by being out-qualified by faster cars are said to have been "bumped." The driver with the slowest speed in the field of 33, the first in line to be bumped, is said to be "on the bubble."[2] Unqualified drivers attempt to bump their way into the field and "burst the slower driver's bubble." Prior to World War II, the term typically used for drivers being knocked out of the field was "crowded out."
Townsend Bell goes up against Will Power during the Pit Stop Challenge at the 2015 Carb Day
  • With the reduced practice time for the 2014 race as part of the overhaul of the month (only four and a half days of practice), a 3 1/2 hour practice after qualifying was added on the Monday after qualifying, should time suffice. In the rare case qualifying cannot be held on Saturday or Sunday, Monday would be used for qualifying according to the INDYCAR rule book. This Monday practice will also feature 2 1/2 hours of Indy Lights testing for the Freedom 100 support race, primarily for the lesser experienced drivers to gain their first laps at the track.
  • When the final practice session moved from Thursday to Friday in 2005, the Thursday became the practice and qualifying day for the Freedom 100. Three hours of practice, followed by qualifying for the Indy Lights cars, will be the only on-track action, although pit stop practice for INDYCAR teams are also included.
  • The final practice session before the race, currently held on the Friday before race day, is called "Carburetion Day" (shortened to "Carb Day" since 2000). The name originally came from the fact that it was the final session where teams could tune their carburetors in conditions similar to those that may be encountered on race day. The name has remained despite the fact that no qualified car has used a carburetor since 1963.[3] The day is now similar to most motorsport weekends, as the final practice is now joined by both a pit stop competition among top pit crews and the support series, currently Indy Lights, feature race, Freedom 100, along with a concert at the circuit afterwards.[4] From 1969-1972, Carb Day was held the Wednesday before the race. From 1973 to 2004, Carb Day was held the Thursday before the race. It was moved to Friday beginning in 2005 when the Indy Lights race was moved to this weekend. Prior to 1969, Carb Day was not on a fixed day of the week, instead simply scheduled for a nondescript day midway between the final day of time trials and race day, and was sometimes closed to the public.


The longtime flagship of the IMS Radio Network is WFNI AM 1070 (formerly 1070 WIBC). The network dates back to 1952, and was initially launched using WIBC talent. Since the late 1960s and early 1970s, the station has featured extensive daily coverage of practice, qualifications, as well as pre-race and post-race coverage on race day.

Since 1971, the most popular and most traditional daily show during the month of May has been Donald Davidson's The Talk of Gasoline Alley.[5]


Since 1998, a concert featuring a top act(s) have been held the weekend of the race. Numerous other local bands, indie bands, garage bands, and smaller musical acts perform at other times during the month on days featuring track activity. Since 1998, a headlining concert has been held on Carb Day. Starting in 2014, a second headlining concert has been held on Legends Day. The performers have been as follows:

Last Row Party[edit]

A few days before the race, the "Last Row Party" has been held for charity since 1972. It is a scholarship benefit organized by the Indianapolis Press Club Foundation, and is usually held the Thursday evening or Friday evening before the race. Currently it is held at one of the suites in the Pagoda, and previously it was held at the Speedway Motel. The event is conducted as a roast and cocktail party for the final three qualifiers in the 500, who will be starting on the eleventh and final row (positions 31, 32, and 33). Due to the complex qualifying procedure for the race, these three drivers are usually, but not always, the slowest three cars in the field.[7] Like Mr. Irrelevant, many of these drivers are often obscure, but seven former or eventual race winners have participated in the honor at some time during their career.

In addition to being on the receiving end of numerous good-natured jokes and jabs, the three drivers are presented with a special jacket, various gifts, and checks for 31¢, 32¢, and 33¢, respectively. The group becomes known as the "11th Row Society", an enjoys apéritif, cocktails, and hors d'oeuvre with attendees. Later they may sign autographs and pose for pictures, in what is generally a fun and laid-back environment. The emcee for the event is usually a media figure, and past hosts include Bob Jenkins, Robin Miller, Jack Arute, Dave Wilson, and Laura Steele. The 2015 and 2016 co-emcees were Curt Cavin (Indianapolis Star) and Chris Hagen (WXIN). The 2013 reception was not held but a brief ceremony was held on Carb Day to recognize the honorees.

Recent honorees include:

Public Drivers Meeting / Legends Day[edit]

2014 Legends Day honoree Mario Andretti
2008 Drivers Meeting
Legends Day in 2012.

The day before the race, a ceremonial drivers meeting is held at the track, which is open to the public, and is popularly attended. This tradition dates back many decades. During the meeting, the 33 starting drivers are presented with their starter's ring and various awards and trophies are handed out (such as trophies from the previous year's race, qualifying awards, lifetime achievement awards, etc.) The drivers are usually seated on a platform situated in the eleven rows of three, and numerous other celebrities and special guests may be honored or give remarks. Rules clarifications, instructions for the race, and other pertinent information is also discussed in the open forum. Drivers who can not attend due to scheduling conflicts (e.g., participating in another race) will usually have another team member of family member participate on their behalf.

This drivers meeting is separate from the official drivers meeting, organized by race stewards. That meeting, held the morning of the race, is strictly closed to the public and the media.

Starting in 1998, the days leading up to the race have included ceremonies and activities honoring former drivers. In some years, each day during the week would have a featured Indy legend, and might feature the driver taking ceremonial laps around the track in one of his winning race cars, or in a pace car. Other years utilized Opening Day as an opportunity to honor Indy legends. In addition, the day before the race was expanded to include an autograph session featuring the 33 starting drivers, former drivers, Q&A sessions, car displays, a "fanfest" midway, a memorabilia show, and other festivities. Starting 2011, the events of the day before the race have been officially themed "Legends Day," and features a designated honoree.

Legends Day Honorees

500 Festival Parade[edit]

The 500 Festival is a non-profit organization founded in 1957 to organize various civic events in the city of Indianapolis leading up to the race.[11] The two largest events are the OneAmerica 500 Festival Mini-Marathon in early May, and the 500 Festival Parade the day before the race. Other events include "Community Day" at the track and the annual Snake Pit Ball, a black tie socialite gathering downtown.

In many years, the parade grand marshal has been a celebrity with ties to Indiana or the Indianapolis area, particularly Indianapolis-area sports figures. In many cases, the grand marshal of the parade is also honored during pre-race festivities on race morning. The organizing committee boast the parade as one of the largest in the nation. The grand marshals for the annual parade have been as follows:

Navy Adm. James A. Winnefeld, Jr. at the 500 Festival Parade.
Former President Gerald Ford was the grand marshal in 1979
Vice-President Dan Quayle was the grand marshal in 1990
The 1955 Crispus Attucks High School State Champion Basketball Team were the grand marshals in 2015

Track lore[edit]

Gasoline Alley in 1984.
The new Gasoline Alley opened in 1986.

The atmosphere at the track during the month of May and on race day has long been a source of traditions.

Gasoline Alley[edit]

The garage area at the Indianapolis Motor Speedway is known as "Gasoline Alley." The nickname dates back to the early decades of the race, and for a time, referred specifically to a particular spot in the back where cars would refuel. Though the exact origin of the name is unclear, it may be loosely linked the eponymous comic strip. Later, the nickname was used for the main corridor of the garage area, and eventually was used colloquially for the entire garage complex. The use of gasoline at the Indy 500 was phased out in favor of methanol beginning in 1965 (and later ethanol in 2006), but the nickname nonetheless remained. Gasoline was not used again at Indy until NASCAR arrived for the Brickyard 400 in 1994.

The original Gasoline Alley consisted of two banks of garages, running east-west. The original garages were known for their signature green and white barn doors, and had a nostalgic quaintness admired by participants and fans. A fire swept through the garage area on the morning of the 1941 race, and burned down a significant portion of the south bank of garages. They were replaced, and eventually the complex expanded to 88 stalls. As the sport grew, and the cars and teams became larger and more sophisticated, work space was increasingly limited in the garages. Amenities were simple, corridors were heavily congested, and by the 1980s, the cars and teams had outgrown the aging facility.

Following the 1985 race, the original Gasoline Alley garage area was torn down and replaced with a state-of-the-art, multimillion dollar garage complex. The nickname "Gasoline Alley" remained when the new complex opened in 1986. In 2000, an additional bank of garages was constructed along the mainstretch, in preparations for the U.S. Grand Prix. Although the pitside garages are used now for the Crown Royal 400 for NASCAR inspection and top teams for the NASCAR Sprint Cup Series (lower teams and the Xfinity Series teams use Gasoline Alley), and other various uses, they are specifically not considered part of Gasoline Alley.

The Snake Pit[edit]

The Turn 4 infield ("Snake Pit II") seen on pole day in 1988.

The infield of the track in the vicinity of turn one was known as the "Snake Pit." Long known for a reputation of rowdiness, heavy alcohol consumption, bikers, streaking, flashing, and an overall Woodstock/Mardi Gras-esque atmosphere, the Snake Pit was a popular location for college-age fans to spend time at the track, many of whom had little or no interest in the actual racing activities. Like the infield at the Kentucky Derby, the Snake Pit was often considered a rite of spring, and an excuse to party with abandon. Arrests for public intoxication, disorderly conduct, fights, and drug possession were frequent and common.

In periods of rain, the area usually became overwhelmed with mud, and mud wrestling was commonly observed. Bonfires and burned cars were also noted.

In 1980, a fatality occurred in the area after a Jeep flipped over.[14] Around that time, track management decided to take steps to curtail the revelry. For the 1981 race, bleachers were erected in the turn one infield. In addition, capital improvements that included the new Gasoline Alley, a place for competitors to park motor homes, new support buildings, new restroom buildings, and other changes to the site, deliberately scaled back the size of the area. As a result, for the better part of the 1980s, the patrons migrated to the infield of turn four, and the less-intense Snake Pit II emerged. By the 1990s, the intensity of the rowdiness had dropped substantially, due largely in part to third-generation management at the Speedway (Tony George) and beefed up law enforcement. The Snake Pit eventually became more of a festive party zone, and by the end of the 20th century, almost disappeared completely.

The turn four infield was razed in 1999 to make room for the infield road course. The race day party scene migrated again, this time to its current location, the turn three infield. Later, the original turn one location was also razed to make room for road course modifications, a section sometimes referred to as the "Snake Pit" section. In 2010, the turn three infield was officially named the New Snake Pit, and began to be embraced and officially marketed by management. On race day, a concert stage is erected, and popular music acts and DJ's perform to entertain the infield crowd in a controlled and festive environment. For 2014, the Snake Pit section of the road course will be part of the Grand Prix of Indianapolis, the first time cars have used the Snake Pit section in competition (motorcycles have used it since 2008).

Snake Pit concerts (race day)

Coke Lot[edit]

Similar to the aforementioned "Snake Pit," the Coke Lot which is located outside the track, is the most noteworthy and popular camping location on the grounds of the Speedway. Officially designated Lot 1C, it has been nicknamed the "Coke Lot" for decades due to the presence of a Coca-Cola bottling plant located on an adjacent property.

The lot is an open field situated just to the northwest of the track, outside of turn 4 of the oval, off of Georgetown Road. Long known for intense revelry and all-night partying (particularly on the night before the race), the Coke Lot is a festive area and party scene for RVs and campers, as well as tent campers. The lot typically opens a few days before the race and allows fans to stay through the entire race weekend.

While the Coke Lot is the most notorious camping area, several other camping lots are also situated around the vicinity of the Speedway, some focusing on family-friendly environments, while others are considered premium lot for high-end RV'ers.

In years past, another camping area called the "North 40" (named due to its size of approximately 40 acres) was another scene of intense overnight revelry. In the 1970s, its revelry surpassed that of the Coke Lot. Located directly north of the track off of 30th Street, in close proximity to the Speedway's golf course, and backed up against a neighborhood of homes, it is no longer used for camping. Currently it is only utilized for daytime car parking, and employee parking. During its peak, security had to begin using giant searchlights to keep North 40 campers from illegally wandering onto the golf course property late into the night.


A traditional food of choice at the Indianapolis Motor Speedway is the pork tenderloin sandwich.[15][16] The sandwich is a well-known midwestern creation, and is sold at the track concessions.

Beer (largely domestic) is consumed in considerable amounts at the track. Unlike most sports stadiums and arenas, at Indianapolis (and most speedways), spectators are allowed to bring their own alcoholic beverages into the track for consumption. Beer is also sold at concessions. Glass bottles, however, are strictly prohibited at the track. Broken glass is considered an extreme hazard to the race cars (cut tires) on the track.

Peanuts are considered bad luck. An ambiguous, long-standing superstition against eating peanuts at the race track has dominated Indianapolis dating back to at least the 1940s. Legend says, though unconfirmed, that a crashed car was found with peanut shells in the cockpit. As of 2009, however, peanuts are sold at trackside concessions, and the myth has lost a lot of its following.

From the mid-1960s until her death in 1975, Mary Catherine "Mom" Unser (mother of Jerry, Bobby, and Al) was a well-known fixture at the race. She became famous for her spicy chili.[17] Each year, she would treat the participants to a cook-out in the garage area.

Curse of the Smiths[edit]

Mark Smith failed to qualify.

Among the over 761 drivers who have participated in the Indy 500, none have had the last name Smith, the most common surname in the United States. Several Smiths have attempted to make the race, the last being Mark Smith who failed to qualify in 1993 and 1994,[18] despite finishing 5th at the Michigan Superspeedway in a 1994 CART race. By contrast there have been seven different drivers with the last name Jones, and four with the last name Johnson.

Only two drivers with the surname Smith have ever competed at the Indianapolis Motor Speedway, albeit in different events. Regan Smith has driven in the Brickyard 400 from 2008 until 2013, and has been a regular in the Lilly Diabetes 250. Motorcyclist Bradley Smith has competed in the Red Bull Indianapolis GP in either the 125 cc, Moto2, & MotoGP classes since 2008. Neither driver has won any of the events at Indianapolis. Regan has come in 3rd in the 2011 Brickyard 400, and is currently a competitive driver for JR Motorsports; while Bradley finishes 2nd in the 2009 Indianapolis motorcycle Grand Prix when he is still racing in the 125cc class, and is currently competing in the MotoGP class with Monster Yamaha Tech 3 team.

A German language translation of Smith has participated, with Sam Schmidt making three starts.

Pre race ceremonies[edit]

Purdue University Band "World's Largest Drum" at the 2011 Indianapolis 500
  • At 6 a.m., and in some years as early as 5 a.m., an explosive is set off to signal the opening of the gates.
  • At 8 a.m., the "Parade of Bands" marches around the racing circuit. Numerous marching bands from nearby and neighboring high schools and universities entertain the early arriving fans. This tradition dates back to 1922, and celebrated its 90th anniversary in 2015.[19] Most of the bands in attendance also participate in the 500 Festival Parade downtown the day before. Traditional participants include the Purdue All-American Marching Band (along with the World's Largest Drum which is driven around the track) and Speedway High School.
  • The Purdue University All-American Marching Band plays several pre-race songs, including "On the Banks of the Wabash" and "Stars and Stripes Forever."
  • In 1991, and in most years since about 2002, a special military appreciation lap has been held. Military personnel who have recently returned from active service overseas are honored in a parade around the track. In 1991, hundred of troops who had returned from Operation Desert Storm marched around the course on race morning. In the 2000s, troops (namely from Iraq and Afghanistan) have been paraded around in trucks and saluted by fans.
  • About an hour or two before the race, there is a parade around the track (typically in convertible festival cars) of the 500 Festival Queen and her court of 500 Festival Princesses. Likewise, a similar parade of former race winners, celebrities in attendance, and other VIPs is conducted.
  • In many years, a ceremonial lap of vintage race cars and/or vintage pace cars is conducted. In some cases, the original drivers (or surviving relatives) are behind the wheel.
  • Starting in 2016, a new tradition was introduced, the "march to the bricks." The Borg-Warner Trophy is paraded through the infield to the start/finish line.
  • Finally, driver introductions take place. They are usually in reverse starting order with the front row being introduced last. This is followed by the drivers being paraded around the track similar to the Festival Queen, her court, and other VIPs.

The pre-race ceremonies usually go in the following order:

Grand Marshal[edit]

In some years, a Grand marshal has been named for the race. The duties of the grand marshal may include greeting drivers and dignitaries during pre-race ceremonies, delivering the "drivers to your cars" message, and riding in the pace car. This person may or may not be the same grand marshal as the 500 Festival Parade. Unlike other races, the grand marshall does not give the starting command.

National anthem[edit]

The Star-Spangled Banner has been performed before the start of the Indy 500 in most years. Up through the 1970s and early 1980s, the song was typically played by the Purdue All-American Marching Band without a vocalist. However, in some rare occasions, a vocalist was used. In 1976, Tom Sullivan and Up with People were invited to sing, as a gesture to the U.S. Bicentennial.

By the mid-1980s, the Speedway began inviting notable artists to perform the national anthem. In nearly all cases, they would be backed by the Purdue Band. In 1983, James A. Hubert flubbed the lyrics.[20] He omitted the line "O'er the ramparts we watched, were so gallantly streaming?" and instead repeated the second line "What so proudly we hailed at the twilight's last gleaming", stumbling on the word "twilight" the second time around.

After the national anthem is performed, the public address announcer gives the command "Drivers, to your cars!"

In 2001, Steven Tyler of Aerosmith caused a controversy[21] after he changed the lyrics of the song. Recent performers include:

Other songs[edit]

In most years since 1991, the songs "America the Beautiful" and/or "God Bless America" have been performed. Florence Henderson, a native Hoosier, was a friend of the Hulman-George family that owns the Speedway. Henderson performed one of the two songs numerous times, book-ending years when she performed the national anthem instead. Her performances were usually not televised.

The performance of "America the Beautiful" was introduced for the race's 75th anniversary running in 1991, in part due to Operation Desert Storm. Henderson switched to the national anthem for 1993–1997, then resumed "America the Beautiful" in 1999. In 2003, her performance was switched to "God Bless America," which became more popular in the post-9/11 era. She continued through 2015, then served as grand marshal for her final race in 2016. Henderson died six months after the 2016 race.

By 2009, "America the Beautiful" was re-added to the ceremonies, with a different artist each year. In 1999, Lee Greenwood did a special performance of "God Bless the USA", and in 2003, Darryl Worley performed "Have You Forgotten?".

"America the Beautiful"[edit]

"God Bless America"[edit]


Starting in 1974, the Indy 500 was moved to the Sunday of Memorial Day weekend. As a gesture, the Speedway added an invocation to the pre-race ceremonies. Since 1978 (except in 1999), the Speedway has invited a representative of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Indianapolis. In selected years, others have been invited including nationally famous clergymen Oral Roberts[23] and Billy Graham.[24]

The Most Reverend Archbishop Edward T. O'Meara participated several times until his death in early 1992. Archbishop Daniel M. Buechlein took over as the traditional clergy in 1993. Buechlein customarily ended his invocation with the word "Godspeed" in the languages of all of the participating drivers. In 2011, Buechlein fell ill, and resigned from the archdiocese. Since 2011, new Archbishop Joe Tobin, or Auxiliary bishop Christopher J. Coyne has delivered the invocation.


In remembrance of Memorial Day, "Taps" is played, and a U.S. military aircraft does a fly-by. In some years, multiple aircraft participate, executing the missing man formation. Traditionally, a member of the public address announcing team recited a preamble honoring those who have died in combat, and those who have perished in automobile racing. The preamble dated back to at least 1965. Jim Philippe recited the preamble until he died in 2003. Dave Calabro said it in 2006, and Jerry Baker reprised it in 2012. Since 2000, a notable military or government official has also offered a tribute or remarks.

The traditional preamble goes as follows:

"On this Memorial Day weekend, we pause in a moment of silence, to pay homage to those individuals who have given their lives--unselfishly, and unafraid--so that we may witness as free men and women, the world's greatest sporting event. We also pay homage to those individuals, who have given their lives--unselfishly, and without fear--to make racing, the world's most spectacular spectator sport."

In the 1960s and 1970s, "Taps" was typically rendered by a combined U.S. Armed Forces Color Guard. Then from the about 1980 through 2005, it was usually played by the full Purdue Band. Since 2006, it has been a trumpet solo. In 2016, the trumpeter moved from the trackside victory podium to the starter's stand on the mainstretch.

Rendering of "Taps"



Stealth Bomber flyover at the 2005 Indianapolis 500

"Back Home Again in Indiana"[edit]

Jim Nabors at the 2000 Indianapolis 500

The most traditional performance is the singing of "Back Home Again in Indiana". Jim Nabors, accompanied by the Purdue Marching Band, notably performed the song in most years from 1972-2014. During the line "...the new mown hay..." thousands of multicolored balloons are released from an infield tent. This tradition has accompanied the race since 1946. Racers stay in their cars during the entire song. The song has long been the last event in the order of the day, immediately preceding the command to start engines.

The song, which was first published in 1917, is reported to have been first played at the race in 1919. A trackside brass band played the song as Indiana-born Howdy Wilcox was finishing the final laps to victory.[27]

In 1997, the race was rained out on Sunday, and the start was rescheduled for Monday. Nabors (as well as the Purdue band), had left the grounds by Monday morning. Rather than find a last-minute replacement, Nabors suggested that the Speedway utilize a recording of one of his previous performances. The Speedway replayed his 1993 rendition, and it was well received by the fans. Two days before the 2007 race, Nabors canceled his appearance due to an illness. On race morning, Nabors recorded a special video greeting to the fans from his Hawaii home, which was streamed over the internet. Fans were invited to sing along with the Purdue band,[3] and a "get well soon" message was displayed for Nabors. In 2008, Nabors made a well-received return, and received a standing ovation at the public driver meeting.

Nabors again missed the race in 2012 due to an illness. This time, the Speedway sent a television crew to his home in Maui, and recorded a performance that was played on the video boards on race morning. In March 2014, Nabors announced that the 2014 race would be his final performance.[28] The Speedway announced on December 22, 2014 that Straight No Chaser, started by former Indiana University students, will perform the song for the 2015 race.

Starting command[edit]

The call for the engines to start is made by stating "Gentlemen, start your engines!" When female drivers are competing, the call has been amended to "Lady and Gentlemen..." or "Ladies and Gentlemen..."

The exact origin of the phrase is unclear, and there have been several conflicting accounts of who was the first to recite it, and what the exact wording of it was.[30] Prior to World War II, it was commonplace for an aerial bomb to signal the start of the engines.[30] Seth Kline was the official starter of the "500" from 1925-1926 & 1934-1953. Kline is thought to have made an informal "Gentlemen, start your motors!" command as early as 1948 to accompany the bomb.[30] The first documented case was in 1950, and that was recited by prolific public address announcer John Francis "Irish" Horan.[30][31] Kline was again reported as saying it in 1951,[32] (though some report it was Horan[31]) Either Kline[30] or Horan said it again in 1952.[31] It was around that time the command was changed from "...motors!" to "...engines!" The participants and officials alike, preferred the more technical term "engines" to describe their machines. Sid Collins stated that chief steward Harlan Fengler explained to him "there are no motors in the race, just engines."[32]

Wilbur Shaw, president of the Speedway from 1946–1954, was believed to be the person who coined the phrase, and it was erroneously claimed in his autobiography that he recited it in all the post-World War II years until his death.[33] Speedway historian Donald Davidson, however, believes Shaw only recited it twice, in 1953 and 1954.

After Shaw's death, Tony Hulman started reciting the command, and made it popular and famous. The normally soft-spoken and shy Hulman had a proud and vociferous version of the command annually. After Hulman's death in 1977, his widow Mary F. Hulman or his daughter, Mari Hulman George has done the honor.

In 1977, Janet Guthrie became the first female driver to qualify for the Indy 500. Controversy surrounded the command, because the Speedway management did not want to alter the traditional phrase.[34] During the week before the race, the management announced that they would not change the wording of the command. Looking for an excuse, they insisted that the cars were actually started by male crew members with an electric hand-held starter from behind the car. Guthrie and her crew were quite displeased by the stubbornness of the Speedway management, considering her unprecedented accomplishment. The crew reacted by assigning Kay Bignotti[34] (wife of George Bignotti) as the crew member to operate the inertial starter at the back of Guthrie's car. The Speedway's argument fell apart, and they decided upon a special amended command for that year. They did not announce beforehand what the special command would be,[34] and Hulman's highly anticipated phrase was the following:

In 1978-1979, when Guthrie again qualified for the race, it was simply amended to "Lady and..." In 1992, Lyn St. James became the second female to qualify for the race. She publicly requested, albeit not contentiously, that the command be changed to "Drivers, start your engines." The request was dismissed, and the command used was the now customary "Lady and..." variation.

For many years, the traditional location for giving the command was at the pace car in the front of the starting grid. Public address announcer Jim Philippe normally introduced the command, describing it as the "traditional command" or the "famous four words." Phillippe's final 500 was 2003. Likewise, for many years through 1989, Luke Walton traditionally introduced the command on the radio network broadcast. Since 2004, Dave Calabro introduces the command normally by calling it the "most famous words in motorsports."

In most cases, Hulman would give the command, then ride in the pace car during the pace laps. Mary F. Hulman would give the command near the pace car, but rarely rode in the pace car due to her age and declining health. Eventually, the location was moved to near the start/finish line, and in 2001, it was moved to the new Victory Podium stage adjacent to the Pagoda. In 2011, however, Mari George moved back to the front of the starting grid to give the command, and she rode in the pace car with A. J. Foyt. In 2014, as a special gesture to Jim Nabors's final performance at Indy, the starting command was given together by both Mari Hulman George and Nabors, the first time a non-member of the Hulman-George family had given the command for the 500 since 1954.

Starting command

On occasions when an accident or rain has halted the race, a second command has typically been given. Years include: 1967, 1973, 1982, 1986, 1997, 2004, 2007. The amended command, "gentlemen, re-start your engines," has usually been used. In 1986, this restart command was given by Tony George. In 1997, it was given by Mari Hulman George. In 1982 and 2004 the command was given by public address announcer Tom Carnegie.

Over the years, the starting command has been adopted to start all sorts of auto racing in the United States, including but not limited to NASCAR. However, in many venues outside of Indy, the phrase "Drivers, start your engines" appears to be the preferred version.

Honorary starter[edit]

Reggie Miller in the starter's stand in 2005

A recently-added tradition is the use of an honorary starter. A special guest has been invited in recent years to wave the green flag to start the race. Starting in 2013, the tradition was expanded where another celebrity arrives on race morning by helicopter to ceremoniously deliver the green flag.

Celebrity guests[edit]

Since the early years of the race, celebrities from all walks of fame have been invited to the race, some have returned for many years or even decades. Television and movie stars, recording artists, sports figures, politicians, and military, are among the many dignitaries invited. During the pre-race, a parade of stars is conducted around the track, usually in convertibles. In numerous years, celebrities have been invited to drive the pace car at the start of the race.

Clark Gable is seen in a famous photograph of the 1947 race. Among the many celebrities who attended or have attended multiple Indy 500s include Jim Nabors, James Garner (who drove the pace car in 1975, 1977 and 1985), David Letterman, Tim Allen, Florence Henderson, Linda Vaughn, and many others. Paul Newman, who starred in the Indy-related film Winning, attended the race many times, and from 1983-1995, and again in 2008, was at the race as co-owner of Newman/Haas Racing. Joyce DeWitt, who grew up in the Town of Speedway, and graduated from Speedway Senior High School, once worked at the Indianapolis Motor Speedway ticket office.[40]

At least three former U.S. Presidents (and one future President) has attended the Indianapolis 500. Gerald Ford attended the 1979 race, serving also as the grand marshal of the 500 Festival Parade.[41] Both George H. W. Bush and Bill Clinton attended the 2003 race, the first time in Indy history that two former presidents were at the same race.[42] It was the elder Bush's second visit to the Speedway; he previously presided over the opening ceremonies of the 1987 Pan American Games, which was held at the track. Future President Donald Trump attended the race in 2002.[43] Trump was selected to drive the pace car for the 2011 race, but withdrew the duty after drawing controversy from fans.

At least two presidential candidates have visited the Speedway during their respective election campaigns, owning much to the fact that the Indiana primary is usually held May. Ronald Reagan visited the track during the month of May 1976, while he was in town campaigning for the 1976 Indiana Republican primary.[44][45] Likewise, Hillary Clinton visited the track while campaigning for the 2008 Indiana primary and met with driver Sarah Fisher.

At least three former vice presidents have attended the race. The aforementioned Gerald Ford, George H. W. Bush, and Indiana native Dan Quayle. Qualye has attended the race numerous times, including three times as sitting Vice President (1989-1991). Current Vice President Mike Pence has attended the race multiple times, most recently in 2016, while he was the sitting Governor of Indiana.

David Letterman worked as a reporter for ABC Sports during the 1971 race, and attended the race many times as a spectator. Since 2002, he has attended the race as co-owner of Rahal Letterman Racing. The team won the race in 2004 with driver Buddy Rice. At the 2015 race, Letterman was honored on the famous scoring pylon during the pre-race; just four days after he retired from the Late Show.

During the 1960s and early 1970s, several NASA astronauts from the Apollo program were among invited guests.


Indianapolis 500, 1994
  • The cars begin the race in a rolling start, traditionally in eleven rows of three, for a field of 33 total cars. Most other automobile races have two cars per row. The 33-car field derives from a 1919 AAA mandate of one car for every 400 feet (120 m) of track. Early races, however, saw varying numbers of starters, from as low as 21, to as high as 42. The number of cars in each row also varied, with as many as five abreast. Since 1933 there have only been the following exceptions to having a field of 33 racers:
    • In 1941, 33 cars initially qualified for the field during time trials. Sam Hanks was injured in a practice crash the day before the race and withdrew. Then on the morning of the race, George Barringer's car was destroyed in a fire that swept through the garage area, thus only 31 cars lined up to start the race.
    • In 1947, only 30 cars qualified. A boycott over the purse led to the smaller field.
    • In 1979, after a rules dispute over turbocharger inlets, and after controversy regarding the refusal of some entries from members of the CART series, a special fifth day of qualifying was added. However, only two cars ran sufficient speeds to be added to the field, and 35 cars lined up to start the race. Heavy attrition early on saw one car fail to complete a lap, and 7 cars out by lap 22.
    • In 1997, which used an "all exempt tour" concept similar to the PGA Tour since 1983, the top 25 teams headed in Indy Racing League team entry points standings earned exemptions into the field, with the top nine non-exempt cars making the race on speed. Some exempt teams bumped out other non-exempt cars that had actually qualified with faster speeds, but their teams were not in the top 25 of League points. Two bumped cars were restored to the field to ensure that the "33 fastest entries" were part of the field, for a total of 35 starters. Ironically on the pace lap, three cars crashed out together, while two suffered mechanical problems, and only 30 cars took the green flag. (A similar rule was used at the Crown Royal presents the Your Hero's Name Here 400 from 2005 to 2012 and the Lilly Diabetes 250 from 2012 to 2014. Both were NASCAR races which guaranteed a position for the top 35 drivers in the owners standings in the Sprint Cup Series and top 30 drivers for the Xfinity Series.)
  • Tom Carnegie announced on June 9, 2006 that the previous month's race, would be his last as official track announcer. Having called the race since 1946 on the public address system, he is best known for his lines, "He's on it!" (signaling the start of a qualifying attempt), "It's a new track record!" (when a driver surpasses either a one- or four-lap track record in qualifications), and "He's slowing down on the backstretch!" or "Andretti's slowing down!" (The latter for the Andretti family's historical misfortune at Indianapolis.).[46] Indianapolis television personality David Calabro became the second PA announcer in the Hulman-George era after Carnegie's retirement for the 2007 race.


Victory lane bottle of milk[edit]

The Borg-Warner Trophy on display at the Indianapolis Motor Speedway Hall of Fame Museum prior to the 2008 Indianapolis 500.

A long-standing tradition of the Indianapolis 500 is for the winner to drink a bottle of milk immediately after the race. This tradition dates back to 1936 after victor Louis Meyer asked for a glass of buttermilk, something his mother had encouraged him to drink on hot days. Meyer also reportedly drank milk after his victory in 1933, as did a few others in the immediate years afterward. The young tradition quickly went away, and for a time after World War II, was replaced by "Water From Wilbur" - a silver jug (resembling an ice bucket) filled with icy-cold water, presented by then-Speedway president, and three-time former winner Wilbur Shaw.

By 1956, the milk returned as a ritual as milk companies became sponsors of the race purse and handed a bottle of milk to the winner to promote their product.[3] A sponsorship of currently $10,000 now paid out by the American Dairy Association if the winner sips the milk in victory lane. In 1993, Emerson Fittipaldi drank orange juice instead of milk after his victory. The snub drew considerable ire from fans. Later he took a sip of milk, at the urging of his car owner Roger Penske. Fittipaldi owned citrus farms in Brazil, and wished to promote his industry. As a result, he was booed in driver's introductions the following week by the crowd in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, in the heart of "America's Dairyland." In 1981, Bobby Unser also did not drink the milk in victory lane.[47] After Unser was tentatively stripped of his victory, Mario Andretti sipped from a bottle of milk the next morning during the traditional photo shoot.

Borg-Warner Trophy[edit]

A bas-relief sculpture of the winner's face, along with his name, average speed, and date of victory is added to the Borg-Warner Trophy. The trophy has been in use since 1936.[3] A smaller replica of this trophy has been officially presented to the winner after the race since 1988 and team principal since 1997, usually in a press conference either at the Speedway or in Detroit at the North American International Auto Show at the BorgWarner exhibit, except for the 2011 race because of extenuating circumstances (the winning driver had died in a crash at an aborted INDYCAR race; the winning team principal and the driver's widow were presented with the respective trophies in the ensuing January). Prior to that, winners received a replica mounted on a chestnut plaque.

Selected awards[edit]

  • The winner has been awarded one of the pace cars, or a replica, almost every year since 1936. In 1941, there were only six copies of the special Chrysler Newport Phaeton, and no production models created. The co-winners did not receive it. In 1946, an oil painting and a trip[48] was substituted as the award, but winner George Robson died in a motor sports accident before he received it. In 1971, Al Unser received a Dodge Charger from Palmer Dodge in the Indianapolis area, after the Dodge Challenger safety car was damaged in the start crash. Palmer repaired the car and kept it until selling in 2006 to local car collector Steven Cage.[49] In 1991, the Dodge Viper was still a prototype vehicle, and only two were in existence. Winner Rick Mears was awarded instead a Dodge Stealth, which was to be the original pace car but after protests by the UAW (because the Stealth was a captive import built by Mitsubishi in Japan), they were instead used at the track for festival cars.[3]
  • Among the numerous awards presented to the winner is the traditional Winner's Quilt. Since 1976, Jeanetta Holder has hand-crafted a special quilt blanket for the winner, which features an Indy-related design. She presents the quilt to the winning driver the morning after the race, during the traditional winner's photo shoot.[50]
  • The morning after the race, the winning driver and team participates in the traditional winner's photo shoot at the start/finish line. The 1981 photo shoot is notable in that race winner Bobby Unser was stripped of the victory when official results were posted. Second place Mario Andretti was elevated to the win, and Andretti actually took part in the photo shoot. Later in the year, Unser was reinstated the victory. In 2009, heavy rain on Monday morning forced Helio Castroneves' photo shoot to take place indoors.
  • The night after the race, the prizes are distributed at the annual 500 Victory Banquet. The traditional awards banquet dates back many decades. In 1972, the black-tie gala was moved to the Indiana Convention Center, and was held there until the mid-2000s. In more recent years, it has been held at a pavilion on the grounds of the Speedway. The 1973 banquet was cancelled due to the rain delay and tragic circumstances surrounding the event. For a brief time (2000-2001), the banquet was held on Sunday night, a few hours after the conclusion of the race. The 2000 race did not end until nearly 6 p.m. due to a rain delay, and participants had to rush downtown to make the banquet on time. In 2002, the banquet was moved back to Monday night. In 1986, the race was delayed until the following Saturday due to rain, and the banquet was cancelled due to scheduling concerns. A private victory luncheon for the top three finishers was held the day after the race at the Speedway Motel.

Other post-race traditions[edit]

  • The Indianapolis 500 notably does not utilize a podium for the top-three finishers as is customary in other forms of racing, as well as at most other IndyCar events. Only the winning driver and team participate in victory lane celebrations, an homage to horse racing's Winner's Circle.
  • The tradition of the winning driver and crew kissing the yard of bricks that mark the start/finish, started by Dale Jarrett at the 1996 Brickyard 400, appears to have carried over to the Indy 500, starting with Gil de Ferran in 2003.[51]

Official standings[edit]

For many years, the results of the race were considered unofficial until the following day. Immediately after the race, the sanctioning body, namely USAC, would begin reviewing the scoring serials, as well as examine video tapes and film, in order to review and correct scoring errors, make judgements on rules infractions, and assess penalties (or rescind penalties) if necessary. It was not unusual for the vetting process to go late into the evening, beyond midnight, and into the early hours of the morning. Traditionally, the official results would be posted at 8 a.m. local time the morning after the race. Revisions were not unusual, as assessed penalties and scoring corrections would announced in the official standings. A brief protest period would open for the teams to voice complaints, and if there were no protests, the official results would stand.

This policy was often a source of controversy, as in earlier years, this made officials apt to document rules infractions as they occurred, but not assess penalties until after the race - rather than during the race. Drivers and teams were sometimes not made aware of rules infractions until after they were issued the penalty the next morning. In some cases, the penalty dropped them one or more positions in the final standings. This prevented drivers from being able to strategize and make up the penalty deficits during the race itself. In later years, in-race penalties became more common, namely the stop & go penalty and the drive-through penalty.

The most famous instances of protest occurred in 1981 and 2002.

Starting in 1990, a new electronic scoring system was implemented, simplifying the scoring process. In that year, officials were done compiling the official standings very early Sunday evening, but still withheld the official release until 8 a.m. the next day. By 1993, the rules were amended such that the official standings would be released approximately six hours following the conclusion of the race (rather than the next morning). This was largely due to the fact that computer and GPS-based scoring systems had automated the process, and barring any equipment malfunctions (like what happened at Texas in 1997), serial scoring errors were almost non-existent; and in fact significantly more accurate and reliable than previous hand-scoring methods. Manually-assessed penalties (such as 1-lap penalties assessed for violations that occurred very late in the race) are occasionally a focus of post-race analysis and scoring revision, as those penalties are typically unable to be served before the race concluded.

Related events[edit]

During the days leading up the race, numerous other related and unrelated events are held in and around Indianapolis.


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