Indians in China
|This article needs additional citations for verification. (July 2014)|
|Mainland China: 25,000+ (2010 Census)
Hong Kong: 28,600
|Regions with significant populations|
|Related ethnic groups|
Indians in China consist of migrants from India to the People's Republic of China and their descendants. A large majority of them live in Hong Kong[clarification needed] while there are smaller populations living in other parts of China.
Indians have been migrating to China since the Middle Ages and Indian culture had a great impact on Chinese culture and history.[clarification needed]
Antiquity and Middle Ages
In the Records of the Grand Historian, Zhang Qian (d. 113 BC) and Sima Qian (145-90 BC) make references to "Shendu", which may have been referring to the Indus Valley (the Sindh province in modern Pakistan), originally known as "Sindhu" in Sanskrit. When Yunnan was annexed by the Han Dynasty in the first century, Chinese authorities reported an Indian "Shendu" community living there. After the transmission of Buddhism from India to China from the first century onwards, many Indian scholars and monks travelled to China, such as Batuo (fl. 464-495 AD)—founder of the Shaolin Monastery—and Bodhidharma—founder of Chan/Zen Buddhism.
Indians (as well as people from elsewhere in the Portuguese colonial empire) were among the crew of the Portuguese ships trading on the Chinese coast beginning in the sixteenth century. For example, Galeote Pereira, one of the Portuguese smugglers captured off the Fujian coast in 1549 and exiled to Guangxi, mentions Gujarati servants among his companions. In the same century Indians from former Portuguese Indian Colonies (notably Goa) settled in Macau in small numbers. 
The history of the Indians in Hong Kong could be drawn back since the day of British occupation. When the Union flag of the United Kingdom was hoisted on 26 January 1841, there were around 2,700 Indian troops participated. They had played an important role for the development of Hong Kong in early days. The most mentionable were the contributions of the set up of the University of Hong Kong (HKU) and the Hong Kong and Shanghai Banking Corporation (HSBC). Also, the Star Ferry was founded by Indians in 1888. In 1952, business leaders of the Indian community have founded The Indian Chamber of Commerce Hong Kong (ICCHK). It aimed at promoting and improving the image of India trade in Hong Kong and southern China.
In Guyana, many Indian women marry Chinese men due to the lack of Chinese women in the early days of settlement. Creole sexual relationships and marriages with Chinese and Indians was rare, however, more common was Indian women and Chinese men establishing sexual relations with each other and some Chinese men took their Indian wives back with them to China. Marriages between Indian women and Chinese men in 1892 numbered six as reported by Immigration Agent Gladwin.
People's Republic of China
Most Indians stepped into the fields like international companies, banking, airlines, travel agents, medical, media and insurance sector. The banking and financial sector had the strongest presence of Indian professionals. Information technology and telecommunications have also interested highly qualified Indians. In the 1950s, tailoring had become an industry that was popular with Indians and around 200 tailoring shops were owned by them at that time.
The Sixth National Population Census of the People's Republic of China recorded 15,051 Indian nationals living in mainland China as of 2010. Other sources had previously reported an upward trend in the number of Indians living in mainland China, with estimates of around 25,000 in numbers. Many Indians in China are students, traders and professionals employed with MNCs, Indian companies and banks. There are three Indian community associations in the country. In 1992, India-China Bilateral trade was only 338.5 m USD. In 2002, it had increased by 15 times and become 4945.9 m USD.
More than 50 Indian Companies have entered China and come together to launch an 'India Club' in Shanghai. Indian State Bank, ICICI Bank, Bank of India and Bank of Baroda - these four Banks have started functioning in China. The number of Indians in Mainland China is growing rapidly. Today, there are about 2,000 in Beijing alone. Indian officials feel that as the number of Indians in China grows their impact on China's perceptions of India will increase.
The Indian Embassy has been organising the Festival of India in China over the years. An important component of it has been the food festivals held in Indian restaurants, spread over nearly 45 Chinese cities. Indian fashion is also very popular among Chinese youths. There is a growing awareness about India's ancient civilisation, its religions, languages and culture in Chinese universities.
The Chinese government has invited the Swaminarayan Trust that runs the Akshardham temples in Delhi and in Gandhinagar, to build an Akshardham temple. A huge piece of land has been earmarked in the Guangdong province, which will not only house the temple but also an Indian cultural centre which will include a traditional Indian music learning centre and also various Indian language teaching centres on this temple premises.
In 2003, Chinese Medical Schools began admitting large numbers of international students, mostly from India, for medical education in English. The numbers of students has grown to about 8000 with about 5000 of the students from Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Kerala, West Bengal, Uttar Pradesh, Odisha.
- Amoghavajra - One of the most politically powerful Buddhist monks in Chinese history.
- Bodhidharma - Buddhist monk credited as the transmitter of Zen to China.
- Bodhiruci - Buddhist monk and esoteric master from India.
- Batuo - First abbot of Shaolin Monastery.
- Chen Gexin - Chinese popular music songwriter.
- Dwarkanath Kotnis - One of five Indian physicians dispatched to China during the Second Sino-Japanese War.
- Kumārajīva - Kuchean Buddhist monk.
- Hui Li - Indian Buddhist monk and founder of the Lingyin temple.
- Roy Sagnik - China based Indian-Canadian businessman.
- Gautama Siddha - Chinese translator, astronomer, astrologer and compiler.
- "Major Figures on Residents from Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan and Foreigners Covered by 2010 Population Census". National Bureau of Statistics of China. April 29, 2011. Retrieved May 3, 2011.
- Tan Chung (1998). A Sino-Indian Perspective for India-China Understanding.
- Boxer, Charles Ralph; Pereira, Galeote; Cruz, Gaspar da; Rada, Martín de (1953), South China in the sixteenth century: being the narratives of Galeote Pereira, Fr. Gaspar da Cruz, O.P. [and] Fr. Martín de Rada, O.E.S.A. (1550-1575), Issue 106 of Works issued by the Hakluyt Society, Printed for the Hakluyt Society, p. 37
- Countries and Their Cultures.
- Kwok S. T., Narain, K. (2003).Co-Prosperity in Cross-Culturalism: Indians in Hong Kong.P.18
- Kwok S. T., Narain, K. (2003).Co-Prosperity in Cross-Culturalism: Indians in Hong Kong.P.32
- Kwok S. T., Narain, K. (2003).Co-Prosperity in Cross-Culturalism: Indians in Hong Kong.P.22
- Brian L. Moore (1995). Cultural Power, Resistance, and Pluralism: Colonial Guyana, 1838-1900. Volume 22 of McGill-Queen's studies in ethnic history (illustrated ed.). McGill-Queen's Press - MQUP. p. 272-273. ISBN 077351354X. ISSN 0846-8869. Retrieved June 1, 2015.
- Brian L. Moore (1987). Race, Power, and Social Segmentation in Colonial Society: Guyana After Slavery, 1838-1891. Volume 4 of Caribbean studies (illustrated ed.). Gordon & Breach Science Publishers. p. 181. ISBN 0677219806. ISSN 0275-5793. Retrieved June 1, 2015.
- Brian L. Moore (1987). Race, Power, and Social Segmentation in Colonial Society: Guyana After Slavery, 1838-1891. Volume 4 of Caribbean studies (illustrated ed.). Gordon & Breach Science Publishers. p. 182. ISBN 0677219806. ISSN 0275-5793. Retrieved June 1, 2015.
- D. A. Bisnauth (2000). The settlement of Indians in Guyana, 1890-1930 (illustrated ed.). Peepul Tree. p. 213. Retrieved June 1, 2015.
- Kwok S. T., Narain, K. (2003).Co-Prosperity in Cross-Culturalism: Indians in Hong Kong.P.60
- : India Times - India is hot in China
- Indians in China feel left out.
- First Hindu Temple to be Built in China.
- "Indian doctors, made abroad". The Hindu (Chennai, India). 31 August 2009.
- "Medical student from Andhra Pradesh commits suicide in China university". The Hindu (Chennai, India). 21 May 2011.