Individual events (speech)
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Individual events in speech generally span the areas of public speaking, acting, reading, and interpretation. Competitive speech competitions, combined with debate, comprise the area of forensics. Different forensics leagues exist, each having a select number of speech events—these are generally determined by geographical region or league preference. Well-known forensics leagues include the National Forensics League, the American Forensics Association, the National Forensics Association, and the National Christian Forensics and Communications Association. Organized competition takes place both on the high school and collegiate level.
- 1 Public-Speaking Events
- 1.1 Original Oratory
- 1.2 Persuasion
- 1.3 Informative
- 1.4 Declamation / Memorize Speech / Oratorical Interpretation / Great Speeches
- 1.5 Communication Analysis/Rhetorical Criticism
- 1.6 Special Occasion Speaking
- 1.7 After Dinner Speaking
- 1.8 Limited Preparation Events
- 1.9 Acting and interpretation events
- 1.9.1 Dramatic Interpretation
- 1.9.2 Humorous Interpretation
- 1.9.3 Original Comedy
- 1.9.4 Serious Interpretation
- 1.9.5 Duo Interpretation
- 1.9.6 Duet Acting
- 1.9.7 Prose / Poetry Interpretation / Read Speech / Literary Reading/ Oral Interpretation / Verse
- 1.9.8 Improvisational Acting Pairs/Dual Improvisation
- 1.9.9 Original Performance
- 2 Individual events tournaments
- 3 References
- 4 External links
Original Oratory, or simply Oratory, is one of the most common speech events, and is the only public speaking event offered as a main event at the National Forensic League (NFL) National Tournament. In Original Oratory, a competitor prepares a speech on a topic of his or her choosing, and can be informative or persuasive in nature. Often, a competitor may use only one speech for the entire season. The purpose of Oratory is to inspire belief or reinforce conviction.
On the high school level, the speech is generally delivered without the use of visual aids or notes. In many leagues (including the two national tournaments listed below), the number of directly quoted words from other sources in the speech is limited (at NFL nationals, for example, the limit is 150 words). Speeches are generally between eight and ten minutes in length, with a warning often given when time has expired, although most tournaments give a 30-second grace period before a competitor's rank is dropped.
Persuasion is often considered the college corollary to Oratory. The focus of the event is to change, reinforce, or instill the attitudes, beliefs, and values of the audience. Although there are rarely rules that dictate what topics or formats are permissible in Persuasion, most persuasions are policy-based: speakers advocate a specific policy proposal to address some need and offer their recommendation in a problem/cause/solution or cause/effect/solution format. In 2006, for example, the winning Persuasion topics at the American Forensics Association (AFA) and National Forensics Association (NFA) concerned ways to improve teacher retention and to encourage citizens to correspond with their Congresspersons, respectively.
Informative Speaking is a speech meant to inform the audience. This speech can take on topics ranging from the newest, high-tech inventions from around the world that hope to cure cancer, to more light-hearted topics such as Wikipedia itself. The topic should be one that is timely and interesting, making it something that the general audience doesn't readily understand. It is the job of the speaker to make the complex topic easier to understand. In intercollegiate competition, the speech time limit is ten minutes and typically memorized. In high school competition, the time limits vary among different states. Informative Speaking is also referred to as Expository Speaking. Some forms of Expository Speaking utilize Visual Aids, though they are optional. Expository Speaking in California emphasizes greatly the usage of visual aids and puns/wordplay, though neither are required.
Major Competitions featuring Info: High School – NFL (Expository is offered as a supplemental event), Stoa USA, NCFCA (National Christian Forensics and Communications Association) College – AFA (American Forensics Association), NFA (National Forensics Association), California Invitational at the University of California, Berkeley, PSCFA, CCFA, Griffin Invitational, and Phi Rho Pi (the national community college tournament).
Declamation / Memorize Speech / Oratorical Interpretation / Great Speeches
Declamation, or Oratorical Declamation, or Memorize Speech is the interpretation and presentation of a non-original speech. These speeches may be historical (e.g., Martin Luther King Jr.'s "I Have a Dream" speech), adapted from magazine articles, commencement addresses, or any number of other adaptations of non-original material, including forensics speeches from previous years. Declamations tend to be persuasive, and competition is similar to Original Oratory. As in Oratory, the length of a speech is generally about eight minutes. Memorization is usually a requirement in Declamation. It is also termed 'Oratorical Interpretation'. This is not a college event.
Communication Analysis/Rhetorical Criticism
Communication Analysis (CA), or Rhetorical Criticism (Rhet Crit) is an individual event in which the speaker (or rhetor) has ten minutes to present the speech. The speech structure usually consists of: an introduction, presenting a rhetorical artifact, a discussion of a communication theory or model, application of the communication theory to the artifact, implications of that analysis, and a conclusion.
The artifact may be anything that has rhetorical significance: a book, a speech, an advertising campaign, a protest movement, etc. The rhetor identifies the goals the artifact seeks to accomplish. He or she then selects a model form of analysis – typically borrowed from communication scholars – to determine the effectiveness of the artifact in reaching its goals. For instance, in analyzing an anti-smoking campaign, the rhetor might opt for a model discussing the most effective methods of employing fear in persuading a mass audience.
The rhetor would then apply the model to the artifact and draw various conclusions about the artifact's strengths and weaknesses, the success or failure of the model as an analytical tool and other insight gained from the analysis.
Most high school competitions do not include these events.
Major Competitions featuring CA/Rhet Crit: College – AFA (American Forensics Association) where it is referred to Communication Analysis, NFA (National Forensics Association) where it is referred to as Rhetorical Criticism, Phi Rho Pi, where it is referred to as CA.
Special Occasion Speaking
Special Occasion Speaking is similar to Oratory, but focuses on lighter subjects, and addresses a specific audience. Comedy is seen frequently in Special Occasion Speaking, but should not detract from the message the speaker is trying to relate. The speech is not as strictly persuasive as in Oratory, but can be designed to inform. Speeches typically run about six to eight minutes. This event is limited to some high schools and is not a collegiate event.
After Dinner Speaking
After Dinner Speaking (ADS) is a public address event similar to Speech to Entertain meant to take an important topic and make greater sense of it through the use of humor. It can take the form of any of the accepted public speaking structures but often takes the form of an Informative or Persuasive speech. This event covers a variety of topics, but the use of humor is central to the execution of the event. The After-Dinner speech should not resort to the base forms of humor. The humor should be topical and relevant to the idea presented. This type of speech is found at the collegiate level and is typically six to eight minutes long. Generally, it is a humorous speech with a serious undertone and/or an actual point.
Major Competitions featuring ADS: College – AFA (American Forensics Association), NFA (National Forensics Association)
Limited Preparation Events
A limited preparation event, as opposed to prepared events, is an event in which the speakers have no prior knowledge of the speech they will give, with a set amount of preparation time to write a short speech. Preparation times vary per event, ranging from two minutes to an hour, after which time the competitors perform their speeches.
A radio speech is a prepared event that includes news stories, and a commercial. A packet is given to you with several stories. Generally there are two international, two national, and two local. You must edit and compile these stories into a 5-minute news cast. You normally will be given anywhere from 15 to 45 minutes to prepare depending on state. You are expected to provide your own smooth transitions, and be within a close range of 5 minutes. You are scored on ability to read clearly, stay in the time provided, and appeal of the stories chosen.
Extemporaneous Speaking, Extempore Speaking, or simply Extemp, is a speech given at a tournament with little preparation. Extemp is a mainstay at most speech competitions. At the beginning of any round of extemp, competitors are usually given 3 questions relating to current events, and asked to choose one on which to prepare a speech. The competitors have a preparation period, usually referred to as "prep time", during which they use periodicals they brought to the tournament to prepare the speech. This "prep time" is usually thirty minutes, and at the end of this time, competitors must present their speech with or without the aid of notes. Extemp speeches range from four to seven minutes in length.
Certain high school competitions subdivide Extemp into Domestic and International categories. Few collegiate-level competitions practice this subdivision.
In Extemp Duo, pairs are given three prompts that must be worked into a scene. The items must be a key element in the scene and not just mentioned in passing without any effect on the story. Competitors have 20 minutes of prep and 3–5 minutes to perform. Duo interp rules apply, and partners may not acknowledge each other in any way. Extemp Duo is not a common event.
In Impromptu speaking, competitors are given a topic, usually a single word or phrase that may be a person, thing, well-known saying, a less well-known quotation, current event, or an object. They then compose a speech based on the prompt. Impromptu speeches generally run about four (the minimum required speaking time at most tournaments) to six minutes in length, with anywhere from 15 seconds to seven minutes of "prep time". However, at many other tournaments, there is neither a set limit to how much time you may use to prep nor a minimum to how long one speaks. Judging typically focuses on overall speaking ability (enunciation, pace, vocal variety, etc.), creativeness (pre-made or "canned" speeches are generally frowned upon), and overall balance of the speech (points of roughly equal length, appropriate length of intro, conclusion, etc.). In many states, impromptu speaking is often a contest combining wit and humor with actual insight; speeches should be funny but also must deliver a point. Acting out characters, as in drama events is generally frowned upon.
Competitors in Extemporaneous Commentary are given a topic of national, regional or local importance, and then prepare a speech on that topic during a preparation period. Judging often focuses on the quality of the vocal presentation, organization of the speech and the use of sources to back up assertions. The speech is usually presented sitting down. According to the National Forensic League, the event imitates the work of media commentators who speak about trends or community problems.
Extemporaneous Programmed Reading
In high school tournaments, Extemporaneous Programmed Reading is also represented strongly. It is more likened to interpretation than limited preparation events, in that every round is an interpretation. However, the difference lies in that each competitor receives the piece for each round in an hour draw, in which time they read and cut the piece for interpretation. Three kinds of interpretation are represented in the different rounds, one of which is for finals. These three types are Humorous, Serious, and Poetry interpretation. Each competitor has eight minutes to deliver the cut interp before the judge. All other rules are generally the same as an interpretation event. This event is typically only represented in North Dakota.
In this high school event, storytelling competitors are given a children's book, fairy tale, fable, myth, legend, or ghost story to read. The competitors have a half-hour to read the given piece and put it into their own words. At that time, the speakers give their version of the tale to the judge, in under eight minutes. Its only limits are no stage make-up, costumes, or props. Different voices and characters are used. Each character should be easily distinguished.
In this NCFCA and Stoa USA event, apologetics competitors are given four minutes to prepare a six-minute speech upon a question relating to the Christian faith. These questions are published online ahead of time. All other rules are generally the same as Impromptu Speaking.
Acting and interpretation events
Dramatic Interpretation (DI) is an event in which the competitor interprets a selection from a dramatic theatrical script. A single competitor plays several parts, which are differentiated using "pops" between various positions and voices, each representing a different character. "Pops" are supposed to be as clean as possible, and each character should be clearly distinguishable from any other character. One can also play one character.
Major Competitions featuring DI: Middle School – NFL (National Forensic League), High School – NFL (National Forensic League), Stoa USA, NCFL (National Catholic Forensic League) College – AFA (American Forensics Association), Phi Rho Pi (the national community college tournament)
Humorous Interpretation (often shortened to HI or humorous) is the humorous alternative to DI. In this event the competitor will perform an eight- to ten-minute selection of a literary work of a humorous nature. It is sometimes combined with DI (taking the name of DI). As in DI, characters are distinguished through the use of "pops" and voice work. HI is not an event at the collegiate level, as collegiate DI is not intended as a distinction between comedy and drama, but instead as a literary form distinction from prose and poetry.
Major Competitions featuring HI: High School – NFL (National Forensic League), NCFL (National Catholic Forensic League), Stoa USA, and NCFCA (National Christian Forensics and Communications Association).
Original Comedy, or OC as it is called by its competitors, is a public speaking event similar to Humorous Interpretation, involving pops and voices for individual Characters. The main time frame is about 8–10 minutes. Competitors write their own piece of comedy (most often in theatrical style as opposed to an event like SOS) with an introduction, three points (or more or less) and a conclusion. However, the introduction, points, and conclusion are not directly stated, as in events such as Special Occasion Speaking. Usually, the main storyline is about the competitor himself/herself but it is more often about made up characters with a made-up problem dealing with it in a humorous way. There is usually a moral to be learned by the end of the performance. The main difference between Original Comedy and Humorous Interpretation is that in OC one must write their own speech whereas in HI one performs a published work.
Serious interpretation (SI) is another alternative to the above events. However, it is not limited to a theatrical script, but any literary work. It follows the same rules as humorous and dramatic, except for material. This is a high school event.
Much like DI and HI, Duo Interpretation pieces have at least two parts, to be performed by two people. The principles are generally the same, except there are two performers instead of just one. In Duo, the actors are not allowed to make physical or eye contact, or use props. They are also not permitted to touch the ground with anything but their feet. Remember that rules will vary with district regulations. Many High school districts, in many states, have yet to add the event for competitors. Some states such as Texas (TFA) are altering duo for duet as a permanent change.
In some states an event similar to Duo acting is offered, the major distinction being that the performers are allowed eye and physical contact. While virtually all governing organizations stipulate rules that disallow the use of props and costumes, organizations' rules do vary when concerning the use of sets, sometimes including tables and/or chairs. Some states divide this event into Dramatic and Humorous Duet Acting.
Prose / Poetry Interpretation / Read Speech / Literary Reading/ Oral Interpretation / Verse
Prose Interpretation, Poetry Interpretation, Read Speech, Literary Reading, Oral Interpretation and Verse are events that consist of an interpretation of another author's work. Competitors read the material from a small binder or book they use in performance. This binder is traditionally black and has a height of about 10 inches (250 mm). While books are not required to fit this description, competitors who utilize a different style of book are often ranked down for it.[why?] Because competitors interpret the literature via facial expressions and eye contact, memorization is generally helpful. In most cases, the literature is memorized and competitors are merely pretending to read the material. However, points may be deducted if a speech is "too memorized" and the competitor does not look at his/her binder enough. Time limits for these events range from four to ten minutes, depending on the organization hosting the event.
A common practice for Poetry Interpretation of late is to find a published piece of slam poetry (online or physical) and perform that. However, it is common for performers to use a wide range of literature including classic works. The challenge to this event is combining different poetic works to create a story under a unifying theme. This, unfortunately, leads to many teams recycling the same poetry for their novices and the event is flooded with pieces that all look and feel the same because larger teams, which have a much larger student to teacher ratio, are trained to perform the poetry exactly the same way as the previous member of the team did through other members of the team. Notable examples include poetry written by J.J.Jonas, and Poetri Williams.
Improvisational Acting Pairs/Dual Improvisation
Improvisational Acting Pairs/Dual Improvisation is an event where two competitors team up and are given a scene on a small piece of paper. After two minutes of planning, they perform their scene.
This event, offered in high school state tournaments such as the Indiana High School Forensic Association, allows competitors to write and perform their own prose, poetry, or dramatic work.
Individual events tournaments
Individual events tournaments usually take from six to twelve hours to complete, with the longest tournaments lasting multiple days. One model of a tournament schedule usually starts around 8:00 or 9:00 A.M. (typically on Saturday), at which time competitors are given schematics for the day, which tell them which rooms they are competing in for each round. Another model begins the tournaments on the first day between 3:00 and 5:00 P.M. (typically on Friday) and continues through the next night (Saturday); there is typically no scheduled competition between 11:00 P.M. Friday and 7:00 A.M. Saturday. This model is typically used when an Individual Events tournament is hosted simultaneously with a Debate tournament.
A model usually followed by some Stoa and NCFCA tournaments is to start 7:00 AM on Thursday, Holding preliminary rounds on the first day. Breaks to semi-finals are announced in the evening (5:30) on Thursday. Friday and Saturday have the same schedule announcing breaks to finals and awarding contestants respectively.
There are several preliminary rounds in a tournament, which then cut to a final round, and sometimes semi- or quarter- final rounds as well. The tournament ends in an awards assembly, in which medals and/or trophies are presented to the finalists in each event, and team awards are given to teams which get the most points all day. (See Scoring, below).
A speech round consists of the performances of between five and eight competitors, who are then ranked by a judge that watches the entire round. Competitors from the same school usually do not compete against each other in preliminary rounds (although this situation can occur if a school enrolls numerous contestants in an event or participation in a tournament is low), and competitors should not know what schools their opponents are from, as codes are randomly assigned to each school at the beginning of the tournament. For example, if a competitor's school code is "L", they may be "L3", "L38", or "L308", depending on how many competitors are at the tournament, and how the schematic is set up. This system is designed to help prevent bias on the part of judges. After the preliminary rounds, the top speakers are tabulated and a list of speakers who have "broken" (advanced) to the next level is posted. A normal speech round has six competitors, and final rounds are "broken" with the goal of having six speakers in the round.
Performers compete individually and for their teams during Individual Events competitions. In any given round, a competitor earns points for themselves and their team according to their rank from the judge. Usually, a competitor receiving a rank of "1" scores 6 points, a "2" earns 5 points, a "3" earns 4 points and so on, with any rank of "6" or below scoring 1 point (This can vary for each tournament although). The top two competitors from each team in each event score points for their team. Usually, only preliminary rounds count toward a team's point totals to increase the importance of team participation, and for logistic reasons. Sometimes final rounds may be included, or preliminary rounds may be excluded altogether. In the case of a tie some schools will use speaker points to break the tie. However, speaker points are not counted towards a contestant's place or a school's overall ranking. Speaker points very greatly from school to school, so they are often considered unreliable for comparison to other tournaments.
At the awards ceremony, medals or trophies are given to individuals, and team awards are given to the top teams. If there were no final rounds at the tournament, then the individuals scoring the most points for themselves in the preliminary rounds are each given medals – usually the top three competitors in each event. In tournaments with final rounds, the finalists in each event are called on stage, where they are given their medals. Team awards are also given for the five teams with the most points.
- http://www.nflonline.org/Rostrum/SupplementalConsolation Archived August 5, 2007, at the Wayback Machine.
High School Links
- National Catholic Forensic League
- Stoa USA
- National Christian Forensics and Communications Association
- National Forensic League