Indo-European vocabulary

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The following is a table of many of the most fundamental Proto-Indo-European language (PIE) words and roots, with their cognates in all of the major families of descendants.


The following conventions are used:

  • Cognates are in general given in the oldest well-documented language of each family, although forms in modern languages are given for families in which the older stages of the languages are poorly documented or do not differ significantly from the modern languages. In addition, modern English forms are given for comparison purposes.
  • Nouns are given in their nominative case, with the genitive case supplied in parentheses when its stem differs from that of the nominative. (For some languages, especially Sanskrit, the basic stem is given in place of the nominative.)
  • Verbs are given in their "dictionary form". The exact form given depends on the specific language:
  • In place of Latin, an Oscan or Umbrian cognate is occasionally given when no corresponding Latin cognate exists. Similarly, a cognate from another Anatolian language (e.g. Luvian, Lycian) may occasionally be given in place of or in addition to Hittite.
  • For Tocharian, both the Tocharian A and Tocharian B cognates are given whenever possible.
  • For the Celtic languages, both Old Irish and Welsh cognates are given when possible. For Welsh, normally the modern form is given, but occasionally the form from Old Welsh is supplied when it is known and displays important features lost in the modern form. A Middle Irish cognate is given when the Old Irish form is unknown, and Gaulish, Cornish and/or Breton (modern) cognates may occasionally be given in place of or in addition to Welsh.
  • For the Baltic languages, Lithuanian (modern) and Old Prussian cognates are given when possible. (Both Lithuanian and Old Prussian are included because Lithuanian often includes information missing in Old Prussian, e.g. due to lack of written accent marks in the latter.) Similarly to the Celtic situation, Old Lithuanian forms may occasionally be given in place of modern Lithuanian; Latvian (modern) may occasionally be given in place of or in addition to Lithuanian.
  • For the Slavic languages, Old Church Slavonic cognates are given when possible. Forms from modern Slavic languages or other Church Slavic dialects may occasionally be given in place of Old Church Slavonic.
  • For English, a modern English cognate is given when it exists, along with the corresponding Old English form; otherwise, only an Old English form is given.
  • For Gothic, a form in another Germanic language (Old Norse; Old High German; or Middle High German) is sometimes given in its place or in addition, when it reveals important features.


PIE English Gothic Latin Ancient Greek Sanskrit Iranian Slavic Baltic Celtic Armenian Albanian Tocharian Hittite
*méh₂tēr "mother"[a][1][2] mother (< OE mōdor) mōdar "mother" māter "mother" ⇒
[note 1]
mḗtēr "mother" ⇒
[note 2]
mā́tṛ, mātṛ́ "mother" Av mātar- "mother"; NPers mādar "mother"; Kurd mak "mother" OCS mati, mater- "mother" Lith móteris "woman", motina; OPrus muti "mother" Gaul. mātīr "mother",

OIr māthir "mother"; W modryb "auntie"

mayr "mother" motër "sister" A mācar, B mācer "mother"
*ph₂tḗr "father"
father (< OE fæder) fadar "father" pater "father" ⇒
[note 3]
patḗr "father" (> patriarch) pitṛ́ "father"; Pitrs "spirits of the ancestors" (litt. "the fathers") Av pitar- (nom. also pta, ta), OPers pita "father", NPers pedar otets "father" Russian OIr athir "father"; Welsh edrydd "paternal domain" hayr "father" atë "father" A pācar, B pācer "father"
*bʰréh₂tēr "brother"[6][7][8] brother (< OE brōþor) brōþar "brother" frāter "brother" ⇒
[note 4]
pʰrā́tēr "member of a phratry (brotherhood)" (> phratry) bʰrā́tṛ "brother"; Rom phral "brother" (> pal)[9][10][c] Av brātar-, OPers brātar-, NPers brādar-, Ossetian ärvád "brother, relative", NPers barādar, Kurd bira/birader OCS bratrŭ "brother" Lith brõlis, OPrus brati "brother" Gaul Bratronos (pers. name);[11] OIr brāth(a)ir, W brawd (pl. brodyr) "brother" ełbayr (gen. ełbawr) "brother" A pracar, B procer "brother" Lyd brafr(-sis) "brother"[12]
*swésōr "sister"[13][14][8] sister (< OE sweostor, influenced by ON systir) swistar "sister" soror "sister" ⇒
[note 5]
éor "cousin's daughter" svásṛ "sister" Av x̌vaŋhar- "sister"; NPers ḫwāhar "sister";

Kurd xwişk "sister"[d]

OCS sestra "sister" Lith sesuo, seser-, OPrus sestra "sister" Gaul suiorebe "with two sisters" (dual)[15]

OIr siur, W chwaer "sister"

kʿoyr (kʿeṙ), kʿor-kʿ "sister"[e] vashë, vajzë "girl" (< *varjë < *vëharë < PAlb *swesarā) A ṣar', B ṣer "sister"
"sibling, lit. same-father(ed)"
ON samfeðra homopátōr OP hamapitar- A ṣomapacar
*dʰugh₂tḗr "daughter"[16][17][18][19] daughter (< OE dohtor) daúhtar "daughter" Oscan futír "daughter" θugátēr "daughter"; Myc tu-ka-te "daughter"[20][f] dúhitṛ "daughter" Av dugədar-, duɣδar-, NPers doḫtar "daughter" Kurd dot "daughter" OCS dŭšti, dŭšter- "daughter" Lith duktė, dukter-, OPrus dukti "daughter" Gaulish duxtir "daughter"; Celtib TuaTer (duater) "daughter"[22][23] dustr "daughter" A ckācar, B tkācer "daughter" HLuw túwatara "daughter";[24]

?Lyd datro "daughter"; CLuw/Hitt duttarii̯ata-;[g] Lyc kbatra "daughter"[h]

*suHnús "son"
(See also *sewh₁-)
son (< OE sunu) sunus "son" huiós "son" sūnú- "son" Av hunuš "son" OCS synŭ "son" Lith sūnùs, OPrus suns "son" ? Celtib EBURSUNOS "son of Eburos (?)"[i][j]

? Celt/Lus EQUEUNUBO (< *ekwei-sūnu-bʰos) "to the sons on the horse"[k]

ustr "son" çun "boy/son" A se, B soyä "son"[36]
Osc puklo-
paîs "son" putrá-
Av puθra "son"

Kurd pis, put

*(h₂)népōts "nephew, grandson"
nephew; obsolete neve "nephew, male cousin, grandson" (< OE nefa) OHG nevo "nephew" nepōs (nepōtis) "grandson, nephew" ⇒
[note 6]
népodes "descendants" nápāt- "grandson, descendant" Av napāt-, naptar-, OPers napāt-, NPers naveh-, "grandson, descendant"; Kurd nevî "grandchild" OCS netii "nephew" OLith nepotis, OPrus neputs "grandson" OIr nïæ "sister's son", W nai "nephew" nip "grandson, nephew"
*(h₂)néptih₂ "granddaughter, niece" niece; obsolete nift "niece" (< OE nift) OHG nift "niece" neptis "granddaughter" naptī́ "granddaughter" OIr necht "niece"
*deh₂iwḗr "husband's brother, brother-in-law" OE tācor "husband's brother" OHG zeihhor "husband's brother" levir "husband's brother" dāēr "husband's brother" devṛ́, devará "husband's brother" Past lewar "brother-in-law" OCS děverĭ "brother-in-law" Lith dieveris "husband's brother" W daw(f) "brother-in-law" taygr "husband's brother" dhëndër, dhëndër "son-in-law" from PAlb *ĝāmtḗr- or *dzanra or *jantura-.All ultimately from Proto-Indo-European *ǵem- (“to marry”).
*snusós "daughter-in-law" OE snoru "daughter-in-law" OHG snur "daughter-in-law" nurus "daughter-in-law" nuós "daughter-in-law" snuṣā- "daughter-in-law" Old Ir. *(s)nušáh Bactrian ασνωυο (asnōuo) NPers. sunoh / sunhār "daughter-in-law" OCS snŭxa "daughter-in-law" W gwaudd "daughter-in-law" nu "daughter-in-law" nuse "bride" B santse "daughter-in-law"[l]
*wedʰ- "pledge, bind, secure, lead"[42] wed (< OE weddian "to pledge, wed") vadhū́ "bride" OCS voditi "to lead"
*swéḱuros "father-in-law" OE swēor "father-in-law" swaihra "father-in-law" socer "father-in-law" hekurós "father-in-law" śváśura "father-in-law" Av xᵛasura "father-in-law"

Kurdish xwesûr

OCS svekrŭ "father-in-law" Lith šešuras "father-in-law" vjehërr "father-in-law"
*sweḱrúh₂ "mother-in-law" OE sweger "mother-in-law" swaihro "mother-in-law" socrus "mother-in-law" hekurá "mother-in-law" śvaśrū́- "mother-in-law" Past xwāše "mother-in-law"

Kurdish xwesû

OCS svekry "mother-in-law" Lith šešuras "father-in-law", OPrus swasri "mother-in-law" W chwegr "mother-in-law" skesur "mother-in-law" vjehrrë "mother-in-law"
*h₂éwh₂os "maternal grandfather, maternal uncle" awō "grandmother" avus "grandfather"; avunculus "maternal uncle" ⇒
[note 7]
Rus uj, vuj "uncle" (obsolete); Ukr vuyko "maternal uncle"[43] Lith avynas "maternal uncle", OPrus awis "uncle" MW ewythr, MBre eontr, MCo eviter "maternal uncle" (< PCelt awon-tīr "uncle"); OIr aue "descendant, grandchild"[44] OArm haw "grandfather" B āwe "grandfather" ḫuḫḫa-, Lyc χuga- "grandfather";

CLuw ḫu-u-ḫa-ti "grandfather" (abl.-ins.)[45]

*yemH- "twin; to hold"[46][47] ON Ymir geminus "twin";
Remus "twin, Remus"
yáma- "twin; first man to die" Av Yema OIr emon, Gaul Iemurioi "twin?"[48]
*h₁widʰéwh₂ "widow" < *h₁weydʰh₁- "to separate"[m][49] widow (< OE widwe) widuwō "widow" vidua "widow" ēḯtheos "widow" vidhávā "widow" viδauua "widow" OCS vŭdova "widow" OP widdewū "widow" OI fedb "widow"; MW gweddw "widow, widower" vejë "widow"


PIE English Gothic Latin Ancient Greek Sanskrit Iranian Slavic Baltic Celtic Armenian Albanian Tocharian Hittite
*mon- "human beings" man (< OE "Mann") manna "human beings" Amazon < *n̥-mn̥-g(w)-iōn 'man-less, without husband' (debatable) manuṣya "human being" Av manuš "human" OES/OCS mǫžĭ "man"
*dʰǵʰemṓn "person, human (litt. of the earth)"
(See also *dʰeǵʰom-)
OE guma "person, man", brȳdguma "bridegroom"[n] guma "man" homō "person" ⇒
[note 8]
khthōn "the earth" (> autochthonous);
khamai "on the ground"
kṣám, gen. gmás/jmás "ground, earth" OCS zem(l)janinъ "earthling" OLith žmuõ "person"; Lith žmoná "wife"; OPrus zmunents "human" OIr duine, W dyn "person" < *dʰĝʰom-yo- A śom "boy"; B śaumo "person"
*h₂ner- "man, hero" ON Njǫrðr (name of a God) Ner-ō (personal name), neriōsus "strong" anḗr (andros) "man" (> Andreas, Andrew) nár- (nom. ) "man, person" Av nar- (nom. ) "man, person", NPers nar-, Kurd nêr "male animal, masculine" OCS naravŭ "character, custom"; Lith nóras "wish, want", narsa; narsùs "brave;" OPrus nàrs "courage" W nêr "lord, prince, leader; hero"; Celt narto "strength" ayr (aṙn) "man, person" njer "man, person"
*wiHrós "man" werewolf (< OE wer "man") waír "man" vir "man" ⇒
[note 9]
hiérāx "a type of hawk" vīrá- "man, hero" Av vīra- "man, hero", Kurd mêr Belar (Smolensk) вір "a rite of passage for young men into adulthood"; (Mogilev) віра "a feast or meal organized by a young man, after reaching adulthood, for his companions"[p] Lith výras "man"; OPrus wirs "man, husband" OIr fer, W gŵr "man" burrë "man" A wir "young"
*gʷḗn "woman, wife" queen (< OE cwēn "queen, woman, wife") qēns (qēnáis), qinō "woman, wife" gunḗ[q] (gunaikos)[r] "woman, wife" < *gʷun-eh₂ (> gynecology);

Boet baná "woman"

gnā (gnā́s-) "wife of a god", jánis, jánī "woman, wife" Av gǝnā, γnā, ǰaini-, NPers zan "woman, wife" Kurd jin "woman, wife" OCS žena "woman, wife" OPrus gena "woman, wife" Gaul bnanom "of the women" (g. pl.);[53]

OIr ben (mná) "woman, wife" < *gʷén-eH₂ (*gʷn-eH₂-s), (neut.) "wife < *gʷén; W benyw "woman"

kin (knoǰ) "woman" zonjë "lady, wife, woman" < *gʷen-yeH₂; Gheg grue, Tosk grua "wife" < *gʷn-ōn A śäṁ (pl. śnu), B śana "woman, wife" Hitt ku(w)an(a) "woman";[54] Luw wanatti "woman, wife"; Lyd kãna- "wife",[55] "woman"[56]
*pótis "master, ruler, husband"[49] -faþs "lord, leader" potis "able, capable, possible" pósis "husband" páti "master, husband, ruler" Av paiti, Parthian pet, OPers fáti "master, lord, husband, commander" OCS gospodĭ "lord, master" Lith pats "husband" hay "husband, chief of family" pata "in possession of something"
*déms pótis "master of the house" despótēs "lord, master, owner" (> despot) dámpati "lord of the house; (dual) husband and wife"
*gʰóstis "guest, host, stranger"[57] guest (< OE giest);
host < Lat. hostis;
< Lat. hospes
gasts "guest" hostis "stranger, guest"; hostīlis "hostile"; hospes, hospit- "host, guest, visitor" < hostipotis < PIE *gʰóstipotis (*gʰóstis + *pótis) OCS gostĭ "guest"; gospodĭ "lord, master" < PIE *gʰóstipotis
*weyḱ- "settlement, to enter, settle"[42] -wick, -wich < Lat. vīcus weihs "village, countryside" vīcus "village, settlement" oîkos "house, dwelling place"; oiko·nomía "management of household administration" (> economy) viś "settlement, dwelling space" OCS vĭsĭ "hamlet, village" OLith viešė "settlement" vis "land, country, place" B īke "place,location"
"master of the household; lord, clan chief"

"chief of a tribe or settlement, lord"

Lith viēšpats "lord"
*h₃rḗǵs "king, ruler"[60] bishopric (< OE rīċe "king, dominion") reiks, -ric (in personal names) "king" rēx, rēg- "king" ⇒
[note 10]
archon "ruler, chief magistrate" rāj-, rājan "king" (> maharaja, Raj (as in British Raj)) Gaul *rīx "king" (In personal names. E.g., Vercingetorix, etc.)
*tewtéh₂ "community, people"[s][t][64][65] OE þeod "people, nation" Goth thiuda "folk"; ModGerm Deutsch < Proto-Germ *þeudō Osc touto "community"; Umbr totam "tribe" [u] Lith tautà "people"; OPru tauto "country" OIr tuath "tribe, people" (e.g., Tuatha Dé Danann "tribe of goddess Danu"); Celt Toutatis (Teutates) "name of a god" ?Hitt tuzzi- "army"; ?Luw tuta "army"
*h₁lewdʰ- "people" OE leode, lēod "a people, a group, nation", OHG liut "people, population" Proto-Italic *louðeros > Latin līber "free; name of a deity", Faliscan loiferto; Pael loufir "free man"; Ven louderos "child"; eleútheros "free", Eleutherios "the liberator (epithet of Dionysus)" ; Myc e-re-u-te-ro/a "a free allowance", e-re-u-te-ro-se "to make free, remit"[67] OCS ljudinŭ "free man"; Pol lud "people, folk" Lith liaudis "people"

Pronouns and particles[edit]

PIE English Gothic Latin Ancient Greek Sanskrit Iranian Slavic Baltic Celtic Armenian Albanian Tocharian Hittite
*éǵh₂ "I" I (< OE ) ik "I" egō "I" < *egoH₂ egṓ, egṓn "I" ahám "I" < *egH₂-om Av azǝm, OPers adam, Parth. az "I" < *egH₂-om; Kurd ez "I (direct case)" OCS azŭ "I" Lith àš, OLith , OPrus as, Latv es "I" es "I" es "I" u, unë "I" (-në possibly originally a suffix) ñuk "I" ūk "I" influenced by ammuk "me"
*h₁me "me (acc.)" me (< OE , mec < *H₁me-ge) mik "me (acc.)" mē(d) "me (acc.)" emé, me "me (acc.)" mām "me (acc.)" < *H₁mē-m, "me (acc. encl.)" Av mąm "me"

Kurd mi "me"

OCS "me (acc.)" < *H₁mē-m Lith manè "me (acc.)" OIr me-sse, mé, W mi "I" is "me (acc.)" <? *H₁me-ge mua, mue "me (acc.)" < *H₁mē-m ammuk "me (acc., dat.)" < *H₁me-ge, -mu "me (acc. encl.)"
*h₁meǵʰye "me (dat.)", *(h₁)moy "me (dat. encl.)" me (< OE ) mis "me (dat.)" mihi "me (dat.)" moi "me (dat., gen. encl.)" máhya(m) "me (dat.)", mḗ, me "me (dat. encl.)" Av maibya "me (dat.)" (? not in Pokorny), me (Old Avestan moi) "me (dat. encl.)" OCS mi (dat enc.) < *(H₁)moi Lith man "for me", OPrus maiy "me (dat. encl.)" OIr infix -m- "me"; W -'m infixed accusative first person singular pronoun "me" inj "me (dat.)" meje ammuk "me (acc., dat.)" < *h₁me-ge, -mi "me (dat. encl.)"
*h₁meme-, *h₁mene- "of me, mine"; *h₁mo-yo-, * h₁me-yo- "my" my, mine (< OE mīn < *H₁mei-no-) meins "my"; meina "of me" meī "of me"; meus "my" < *H₁me-yo- emeĩo "of me"; emós "my" máma "of me"; ma/mā "my" < *H₁mo- Av mana, OPers manā "of me"; Av ma (m/n), (f) "my", NPers az āne man-; Kurd a/ê min OCS mene "to me", moj/a/e (m/f/n) "mine" Lith mana(s), OPrus mais/maia "my" W fyn "of me, my"; Breton ma "of me, my" im "my" im "my" (article i + em) AB ñi "my" < Proto-Tocharian *mäñi miš "my" < *H₁me-yo-
*túh₂ "you" (nom. sg.) thou (< OE þū "you") þu "you" "you" Doric (standard ) t(u)vám "you"; Av "you"

NPers to "you" Kurd tu, ti

OCS ty "you" Lith , OPr tu "you" OIr tū, tu-ssu, tu-sso, W ti du "you" ti "you" A tu, B t(u)we "you" zik, zikka "you" < *tega < *te + *egō
*wéy "we"; *n̥smé, encl. *nos "us" we (< OE ), us (< OE ūs < PGerm *uns < *n̥s) weis "we", uns "us" nōs "we, us" hēm- "we, us";[v] Aeol ámme "us" < *asme < *n̥sme vay-ám "we" < *wei-óm, asmān "us" < *n̥sme + acc. -ān, encl. nas "us" < *nos Av vaēm "we", ahma "us", encl. nǝ̄, nā̊, nō "us" Bulg nìe "we", OCS gen. nasŭ "us" < *nōs-sōm Lith mès "we"; OPr gen. nōuson "ours" < *nōs-sōm OIr ni "we, us" <? *s-nēs, gen. ar n- < *n̥s-rō-m; W ni "we" < *nēs na "we" < *nŏs, ne "us" < *nōs A was, B wes "we" wēs "we" < *wei-es, anzāš "us", encl. naš "us"
*yū́ "you (nom. pl.)"; *uswé, *usmé,[68] encl. *wos "you (acc./dat. pl.)" ye (< OE "you (nom. pl.)"), you (< OE ēow[w] "you (acc./dat. pl.)") jūs "you (nom. pl.)", izwis[w] "you (acc./dat. pl.)" vōs "you (nom./acc. pl.)" hum- "you (pl.)"; Aeol úmme "you (acc. pl.)" < *usme yūyám "you (nom. pl.)", yuṣmā́n "you (acc. pl.)" < y- + *usme + acc. -ān, encl. vas "you (obl. pl.)" Av yūžǝm, yūš "you (nom. pl.)", yūšmat̃ "you (abl. pl.)", encl. vā̊ "you (obl. pl.)";

Kur Win

OCS vy "you (nom./acc. pl.)", vasŭ "yours (pl.)" Lith jũs "you (nom. pl.)", jũsų "yours (pl.)"; OPr iouson "yours (pl.)" OIr sī, sissi "you (nom. pl.)" < *sw-, uai-b "of you (pl.)" < *ō-swī, NIr far n- "your (pl.)"; W chwi "you (nom. pl.)" < *sw- ju "you (nom. pl.)" < *u < *vos A yas, B yes "you (nom. pl.)" sumes < *usme
*só "that" (demonstrative pronoun) the (< OE se) sa, þata "the", "that" "if", tum "then" ho, to "the" "that, the" Avestan ha "this" OCS "this, that" Lith tàs "that" OIr so "this" ayd "this" tërë"whole"
*s(w)e- "oneself"; (reflexive pronoun) self (< OE self, seolf) swes (ref. gn. pn.), OHG sih (ref. pn.) (ref. pn.) (ref. pn.) sva- (ref. pn.) Avestan hva- (ref. pn.)

Kurd xwe "itself, myself, etc."

Bulg sèbe "oneself", OCS svoji (ref. gn. pn.) Lith sava(s), OPrus swajs "my own, myself" OIr fein (self, himself); W hun(an) "self, myself, himself/herself etc" iwr self, himself/herself vetë A ṣn-i, B ṣañ "(one's) own" Lydian s'fa- (ref. pn.), Carian sfes (ref. pn.)
*kʷíd, kʷód "what" what (< OE hwæt) ƕa "what" quid "what?", quod "what…, that…" "what?", "what…" kím "what" NPers či, če "what" Bulg kakvò "what", OCS čь-to "what?" Lith kàd "that..."; OPrus kawids "which, what a" OIr cid "what?" *i (ēr) (< *hi), inčʿ (< *hi-nč’) "what?" çfarë "what?" kuit (?) "what", kuit-ki "whatever"; Luvian kuit "what?"
*kʷís, kʷós, kʷéy/kʷóy "who" who (< OE hwā < *kʷoi) ƕas "who?" quis "who?", quī "who..." tís, Thess kís, CyprArc sís "who?", tìs "who…" kás, kís "who?" Av kō (ka-hyā, ča-hyā) "who?, which?", čiš "who" Bulg kòj "who", OCS kъ-to (česo) "who?" Lith kàs "who?"; OPrus kas "who" OIr cia, W pwy "who" о (oyr) "who?"


"A" "B" kush acc. "who?" A kus, B kuse "who, which" kuiš "who, which"
*-kʷe "and; any" -(u)h "and", ƕaz-uh "whoever" -que "and", quis-que "each one, whoever"; Venetic -ke "and"; South Picenian -p "and" -te "and", tís te, hós-te "whoever" -ca "and", káś-ca "whoever" Av ča, OPers čā "and"; Av čiš-ca, OPers čiš-čiy "whoever" Bulg če "but, and, because"; Old Czech a-če, "if" OIr na-ch, MW nac "not" < "*and not";[x] Lepontic -pe "and" o-kʿ "whoever" Lydian -k "and"; Hitt kuis-ki, Lycian ti-ke "whoever"
*n̥- "not, un-" un- (< OE un-) un- "un-" in- (archaic en-) "un-" a-, an- "un-" a-, an-, na- "un-" Av, OPers a-, an- "un-", NPers nā- "un-"

Kurd ni/ne/nek

OCS ne- "not" < *ne- Lith ne- < *ne-, OPrus ni- "not" OIr in-, ē-, an-, W an- "un-" an- "un-" nuk "not" AB a(n)-, am-, e(n)-, em-, on- "un-"


PIE English Gothic Latin Ancient Greek Sanskrit Iranian Slavic Baltic Celtic Armenian Albanian Tocharian Hittite
*sem- "one, together" same (< ON samr); OE sam- "together"; [also German Language zusammen] sama "same" sem-el "once", sem-per "always", sim-plex "single, simple", sin-gulī "one each, single" heĩs, hén, mía "one" < *sems, *sem, *smiH₂ sam- "together", samá "same, equal, any" Av hama-, OPers hama- "any, all" OCS samŭ "self, alone, one" Lith sam-, są- "with"; OPrus sa-, sen- "with, dividing" OIr samlith "at the same time"; W hafal "equal" mi "one" gjithë “all” < PAlb *semdza A sas, B ṣe "one" < *sems
*(h₁)óynos, (h₁)óywos "one" one (< OE ān) ains "one" ūnus (archaic oinos) oĩnos "one (on a die)", oĩ(w)os "alone" (ēka- < *oi-ko-; Mitanni-Aryan aika-vartana "one turn (around a track)")[69] Av aēva-, OPers aiva-, (NPers yek- "one, only, alone") OCS inŭ "one, another" Lith víenas, OPrus ains "one" OIr ōen, W un "one" andr-ēn "right there", ast-ēn "right here" ? Gheg tânë, Tosk tërë "all" < PIE *tod-oino-; ??? një "one" < *ňân < PIE *eni-oino-[y] B -aiwenta "group" < "*unit" ās "one"
*dwóh₁ , neut. *dwóy(H₁) "two" two (< OE twā) twái (fem. twōs, neut. twa) "two" duo "two" dúō "two" dvā́(u) "two" Av dva, fem. neut. baē "two"; NPers do "two"; Kurd diwa "two (fem.)" OCS dŭva "two" Lith , OPrus dwai "two" OIr da, W dau (fem. dwy) "two" erku "two" dy "two" A wu, B wi "two"(<PTC *tuwó) dā-, ta-; HLuw tuwa/i- "two"; Lyc kbi- "two"; Mil tba "two"[z][71]
*tréyes (fem. *tisres,[72] neut. *tríH₂) "three" three (< OE þrīe) þreis "three" trēs "three" treĩs "three" tráyas (fem. tisrás) "three" Av θrayō, θrayas (fem. tisrō, neut. θri), OPers çi-, Parth hrē "three" OCS trĭje "three" Lith trỹs, OPrus tris, Latg treis "three" OIr trí (fem. téoir), W tri (fem. tair, teir) "three" erekʿ "three" tre masc., tri fem. "three" A tre, B trai "three" tri- "three"; teriyas- (gen. pl.)
*kʷetwóres (fem. *kʷétesres, neut. *kʷetwṓr) "four" four (< OE fēower) fidwor "four" (In Germanic influenced by pénkʷe "five") quattuor "four"[aa] téssares "four" masc. catvā́ras (acc. catúras), neut. catvā́ri, fem. cátasras "four" Av masc. čaθwārō (acc. čaturąm), fem. čataŋrō "four"; NPers čahār "four"; Kurd çwar OCS četyre "four" Lith keturì, OPrus ketturei "four"[ab] Gaul petuar[ios] "four"[53]

OIr ceth(a)ir (fem. cethēoir, influenced by fem. tēoir "three") "four"; W pedwar (fem. pedair) "four"

čʿorkʿ, kʿaṙ (rare) "four katër "four" A śtwar, B śtwer "four" (remodelled in Hittite and Luwian)

Lyc Teteri

*pénkʷe "five" five (< OE fīf) fimf "five" quīnque "five"[ac] pénte "five" páñca "five"; Mitanni-Aryan panza- "five"[69] Av panča "five"; Kurd pênc/pênz OCS pętĭ "five" Lith penkì, OPrus penkei "five"[ad] Gaul pinpe-, pompe "five"[53]

OIr cóic, W pum(p) "five"

hing "five" pesë "five" A päñ, B piś "five" Luw paⁿta "five"
*swéḱs "six" six (< OE siex) sáihs "six" sex "six" héx, dial. wéx "six" ṣáṣ "six" Av xšvaš "six" OCS šestĭ "six" Lith šešì, OPrus uššai "six" Celtib sues "six";[53]

Gaul suexos "sixth"; OIr , W chwe(ch) "six"

vecʿ "six" gjashtë "six" A ṣäk, B ṣkas "six"
*septḿ̥ "seven" seven (< OE seofon) sibun "seven" septem "seven" heptá "seven" saptá "seven"; Mitanni-Aryan šatta- "seven"[69] Av hapta, NPers haft-, "seven" OCS sedmĭ "seven" Lith septynì, OPrus septinnei "seven" OIr secht, W saith "seven" eawtʿn "seven" shtatë "seven" A ṣpät, B ṣukt "seven" sipta- "seven"
*h₁oḱtṓ(w) "eight" eight (< OE eahta) ahtáu "eight" octō "eight" oktṓ "eight" aṣṭā́(u) "eight" Av ašta "eight" OCS osmĭ "eight"[ae] Lith aštuonì, OPrus astonei, Latg ostoni "eight" Gaul oxtu- "eight"[53]

OIr ocht n- "eight";[af] W wyth "eight"

utʿ "eight" tetë "eight" < *H₁ok̂tō-t- A okät, B okt "eight" Lyc aitãta "eight"[75]
*(h₁)néwn̥ "nine" nine (< OE nigon) niun "nine" novem "nine" ennéa "nine" náva "nine" Av nava, NPers noh- "nine" OCS devętĭ "nine" < *newn̥-ti- (Influenced by dékm̥t "ten") Lith devynì (influenced by dékm̥t "ten"), OPrus newinei "nine" OIr noí n-, W naw "nine" inn "nine" nëntë "nine" < *newn̥-ti- AB ñu Lyc nuñtãta "nine"[76]
*déḱm̥t "ten" ten (< OE tien) taíhun "ten" decem "ten" déka "ten" dáśa "ten" Av dasa, NPers dah- "ten" OCS desętĭ "ten" Lith dẽšimt, OPrus desimtan "ten" Gaul decam- "ten";[53]

Celtib tekam- "ten";[77] OIr deich, W deg, deng "ten"

tasn "ten" dhjetë "ten" < *dék̂m̥t-i- A śäk, B śak "ten" [ag]
*wídḱm̥ti(h₁) "twenty" < *dwi-dḱm̥t-i(h₁) "two tens" (remodelled) (remodelled) vīgintī "twenty" eíkosi "twenty" viṁśatí "twenty", dviṁśatí "twenty" Av vīsaiti, Ossetian insäi "twenty" (remodelled) Lith dvidešimt "twenty" OIr fiche (fichet), OW uceint "twenty" kʿsan "twenty" zet "twenty" A wiki, B ikäṃ "twenty"
*ḱm̥tóm "hundred" < *dḱm̥tóm hundred (< OE hund, hund-red) hunda (pl.) "hundred" centum "hundred" he-katón "hundred" śatám "hundred" Av satǝm "hundred" OCS sŭto "hundred" Lith šim̃tas, OPrus simtan "hundred" OIr cét, W can(t) "hundred" qind "hundred" (possibly borrowed from Latin centum) A känt, B kante "hundred"


PIE English Gothic Latin Ancient Greek Sanskrit Iranian Slavic Baltic Celtic Armenian Albanian Tocharian Hittite
(< OE hrif)
corpus, corporis
"body" ⇒
[note 11]
"beautiful appearance, beauty"
kurm “torso” and krep
*káput ~ *kapwéts
(< OE hēafod);
OE hafela, hafola "head"
caput, capitis
"head" ⇒
[note 12]
[ah] kapā́la
"skull, cranium; bowl"

"hat" ; Latin caput

*dáḱru, *h₂éḱru "tear" tear (< OE tēar, tæhher) tagr "tear" lacrima "tear" (> lachrymose) dákru "tear" áśru "tear" Av asrū- "tear"; Kurd hêsir "tear" OPrus assara "tear", Lith ašara "tear OIr dēr, W deigr "tear"; Cornish dagr "tear" artawsr "tear" < *drak̂ur A ākär "tear", B pl. akrūna "tears" isḫaḫru "tear"
*dn̥ǵʰuh₂-, *dn̥ǵʰwéh₂ "tongue" tongue (< OE tunge) tuggō "tongue" lingua "tongue" (archaic dingua) ⇒
[note 13]
jihvā́ "tongue" < *ĝiĝʰwā, juhū́ Av hizvā < *ĝiĝʰwā, OPers hizān, Parth ezβān "tongue", NPers zabān; Kurd izman "tongue"[83] OCS języ-kŭ "tongue" < *n̥ĝʰū-k- OPrus inzuws "tongue", Lith liežuvis "tongue" teng "tongue"; W tafod "tongue, language" lezu "tongue" (influenced by lizem, "I lick") gjuhë "tongue" A käntu, B kantwo "tongue" (*kantwa < *tankwa)
*h₁ésh₂r̥, *h₁esh₂nés "blood" archaic aser, sanguis "blood" (< possibly h₁sh₂-én- obl. stem + guen) (> sanguine, etc.) éar "blood" ásṛj, asnás "blood" OP ahr̥ "blood" Lat asins, Ltg asnis (gen. ašņa) "blood" īsarnom “blood-colored, iron” ariwn "blood" A ysār "blood" ēsḫar (esḫanas) "blood"
ĝ(o)nH₂dʰos "jaw, cheek, chin" chin (< OE c̣inn) kinnus "cheek" gena "cheek" génus (génuos) "chin, jaw"; gnátʰos, gnatʰmós "jaw" < *ĝnH₂dʰ- hánu-ṣ "jaw" < *ĝʰenu-s, gaṇḍa "cheek" Av zānu- "jaw-" < *ĝʰenu-s, OPers danūg < *danu-ka-, Parth zanax "chin, jaw"; NPers gune "cheek", chune "jaw";

Kurd gup "cheek"

OPrus żauna "jaw", Lith žándas "cheek", žiaunos "gills" OIr gi(u)n "mouth"; W gên, pl. geneu "cheek, chin"; Old Cornish pl. genau < *genewes "cheeks, chins" cn-awt "jaw, cheek" A śanwe-m "jaw"
*ǵónu, ǵnéws "knee" knee (< OE cnēo) kniu "knee" genū "knee" (> genuflect) gónu (Hom gen. gounós < *gonwós) "knee", pró-kʰnu "with outstretched knee" < *pró-gʰnu jā́nu- "knee", pra-jñus "bow-legged" Av zānu- acc. žnūm, dat./abl. pl. žnubyō "knee", fra-šnu- "holding the knee forward"; Parth zānūk, NPers zānū "knee" Rus zvenó "knee" OI glún "knee" cunr, nom pl. cungkʿ "knee" gjuni "knee" < Post-PIE *ĝnu-n(o)- A kanweṃ, B keni "two knees" genu "knee"
*ǵómbʰos "tooth, row of teeth" comb (< OE camb) OHG kamb "comb" gómphos "bolt, nail"; gómphíos "molar tooth" jámbha- "tooth, tusk; set of teeth (pl.)"; jámbhya- "molar teeth" Pash žâma "jawbone"; Khot ysīmä "tooth"[84] OCS zǫbŭ, Ukr zub, Pol ząb "tooth" Latv zùobs "tooth"; Lith žam̃bas "sharp edge" dhëmb "tooth, tusk" A kam, B keme "tooth"
*h₃dónts, *h₃dn̥t- "tooth" tooth (< OE tōþ < *H₁dont-) tunþus "tooth" < *H₁dn̥t- dēns (dentis) "tooth" < *H₁dn̥t- (> dental) odṓn (odóntos) "tooth" < Proto-Greek *edónt-, cf. Aeol. édontes "teeth" (> orthodontist, etc.) dán, dántas "tooth" Av dantan-, dātā "tooth"; NPers dandân "tooth"; Kurd diran, didan, dan "tooth" Russ desná "gum" < *H₁dent-sn- OPrus dants "tooth", Lith dantis "tooth" OIr dēt "tooth", W dant "tooth" atamn "tooth"
*h₂óst- "bone" os (ossis) "bone" ostéon "bone" (osteoporosis, etc.) ásthi (asthnás) "bone" Av ast-, asti- (gen. pl. astąm, instr. pl. azdbīš) "bone" NPers ostoxan "bone"; Kurd hestî, hestû "bone" OCS kostĭ "bone" OIr asil "limb", MIr asna "rib" <? *astonyo-; MW ass-en, asseu "rib", W asgwrn "bone" < *ost-ko- os-kr "bone" asht, ahstë "bone" B āy, pl. āsta "bone" ḫastāi- "bone"
*H₂ous- "ear" ear (< OE ēare) áusō "ear" auris "ear" oũs "ear" ūṣa "cavity of the ear" Av uši "both ears"; NPers hoš "ear" OCS ucho (ušese) "ear" OPrus auss "ear", Lith ausis "ear" OIr āu, ō "ear" unkn, nom pl. akanǰkʿ "ear" vesh "ear" < *ōus, *ōs-
*h₃ókʷs "eye" eye (< OE ēage) áugō "eye" oculus "eye" < *ōkʷelo-s
[note 14]
ósse "both eyes"; ómma "eye" < *óp-mn̥; ökkon[85] "eye" ákṣi (akṣṇás) "eye" Av aši "both eyes" OCS oko "eye" OPrus aks "eye", Lith akis "eye" OIr enech, W enep "face" akn, nom pl. ačʿkʿ "eye" sy "eye" A ak, B ek "eye"
*h₁óh₃(e)s "mouth" Scot ure (< OE ōr, ōra) Nor óss "river mouth" ōs, ōris "mouth" (> oral) Ved ā́s "mouth, face" Av āh "mouth" OCS usta "mouth" Lith úostas "mouth of a river, harbor" OIr á "mouth" aiš, gen. iššāš "mouth"
*ḱerd- "heart"; *ḱred-dʰē- "to believe"
(See also ḱréd·dʰh₁eti)
heart (< OE heorte) haírtō "heart" cor (cordis) "heart"; crēdō "I believe" < *krezdō- < *ḱred-dʰē-
[note 15]
kardíā, Homeric kradíē, Cypriot korízdā "heart" < *ḱr̥d(y)ā; poetic kẽr (kẽros) "heart" < *ḱḗr (> cardiac, cardiology. etc.) hṛd "heart" < post-PIE *ǵʰr̥d; hṛdaya, hārdi "heart"; Av zǝrǝd "heart" , Pashto Zre "heart" < post-PIE *ǵʰr̥d; OCS sŭrdĭce "heart", serda "medium, core" OPrus siran "heart" (acc.), seyr "heart", serds "core", Lith širdis "heart", šerdis "core" OIr cride "heart"; W craidd "center";
Gaul crid "heart"[86]
sirt "heart" A kri "will", B pl. käryāñ "hearts" Hitt karz (kardias) "heart"; Luw zarza "heart"[87]
*h₃nebʰ- "navel, hub";
*h₃nóbʰōl "navel"[88][89]
navel (< OE nafola);
nave (< OE nafu)
umbilīcus "navel";
umbō "elbow"
omphalós "navel; umbilical cord" nā́bhi "navel, belly button; center";
nábhya "nave, center part of a wheel"
NPers nāf "navel", nāv- "deep"
*kréwh₂- "gore, blood (blood outside the body)"[90] raw "uncooked food" (< OE hræw "corpse, carrion") ON hrár "raw" cruor "thick blood, gore"; crūdus "raw, bloody", crūdēlis "cruel, rude" ⇒
[note 16]
kréas "flesh, meat"; kréa "raw flesh" krávis- "raw flesh"; kravyá "raw flesh, carrion", krūrá "bloody, raw" Av xrūra, xrūma "bloody"; vi-xrūmant- "bloodless"; xrvi.dru "of the bloody mace [of Aeshma]" YAv xrvišyant "grim, bloodthirsty"[91] OCS kry "blood"; Rus krovǐ "blood" OPrus crauyo, krawian; Lith kraũjas "blood"; Latv kreve "coagulated blood,[92] bloody scab"[93][94] OIr crúaid, MIr crū "blood"
*néh₂s "nose" nose (< OE nosu) ON nǫs "nose" nāsus, nāris "nose" (> nasal) nas- "nose" Av nāh-, nā̊ŋhan-, OPers acc. sg. nāham "nose" OCS nosŭ "nose" OPrus nasi "nose", Lith nosis "nose"
*pṓds, *ped- "foot"
(See also *ped-)
foot (< OE fōt) fōtus "foot" pēs (pedis) "foot" (> pedal, etc.) poús (podós) "foot" ⇒
[note 17]
pā́d- (padás) "foot" Av pad-, OPers pād, Parth pāδ "foot" NPers pa "foot"; Kurd OCS pěšǐ "on foot" OPrus pida "foot", Lith pėda "foot" OIr īs "below" < PIE loc. pl. *pēd-su; W is(od) "below, under; lower (than)" otn "foot", otkʿ "feet" poshtë "below" A pe "foot", B paiyye "foot" pata-, CLuw pāta-, Lyc pedi- "foot"
"heel, upper thigh"
OE fiersn "heel, calx" fairzna
Spa pierna
"heel, hoof; footstep"
"heel; rear of the army; kick"
paršna- "loins"

"arm, forequarter"
[98] [99] [100] [101]

(< OE earm)

"shoulder, forequarter"

"joint (anatomy);
link; bolt"

"arm, forequarter (of an animal)"

OCS ramo "shoulder"

"nail (finger or toe)"
(< OE næġel)
"fingernail, toenail; claw; hoof";
"hoof, claw; an aromatic spice"
"claw, nail, hoof; a kind of aromatic substance; onyx (the gem)"
"foot; foot of a seat; tree root"
Npers nâxon "nail" OCS noga "foot, leg";
nogŭtĭ "nail"
Lith nãgas "fingernail,talon" Irsh ionga "nail" ełung "nail" nyell "nail" A maku, B mekwa "nail" ša-an-ku-wa- "nail"
*yḗkʷr̥, yekʷnés "liver" jecur (jecinoris) "liver" hẽpar (hḗpatos) "liver" yákr̥t (yaknás) "liver" Av yākarǝ, NPers ǰigar, Pashto yī̆na "liver" Serbian jetra "liver", Serbian and Macedonian ikra "fish roe" OPrus jakna, Lat aknas "liver", Lith jeknos[105] W (i)afu "liver"; MIr i(u)chair (i(u)chrach) "fish roe" leard "liver" A ykär, B yakär* "liver"[106] Luwian ikkwar/n- "liver"[ai]
*ǵʰésr̥ ~ *ǵʰsrés "hand" hir "hand" (rare, anatomical) kheír "hand" (> chiropractor, surgery (chirurgy), enchiridion, etc.) hás-ta "hand" Av zas-ta "hand", NPers dast "hand" jeṙ "hand, arm" dorë "hand" A tsar, B ṣar "hand" keššar "hand",[108]

Luwian īssaris "hand"

*méh₂r̥ ~ *mh₂én- ~ *mh₂ntéh₂
"hand, the pointing one"
(< OE mund "hand, hand of protection, protector)
Ger vormund
"legal guardian"
manus, manūs
"hand" ⇒
[note 18]
*bʰeh₂ǵʰús "arm"[112] bough (< OE bōg) pêkhus "forearm" bāhú "arm" NPers bāzū "arm"
*h₃bʰrúHs "eyebrow"[113] brow, Scot broo (< OE brū) ophrū́s "eyebrow" bhrū́ "eyebrow" NPers abrū "eyebrow" OCS bry "eyebrow"
"wing, feather"
(See also *peth₂-)
(< OE feþer)
penna < *petna
"wing; feather; quill pen"
(> pen)
"feather, wing; winged creature"
"wing, pinion, feather; leaf, petal (as the plumage of a tree)"
Karšiptar (Karšift) "black-winged" trnum "to fly"


PIE English Gothic Latin Ancient Greek Sanskrit Iranian Slavic Baltic Celtic Armenian Albanian Tocharian Hittite
*éḱwos "horse", "fast animal" OE eoh "horse" aíƕa- "horse"[aj] equus "horse" híppos "horse"; Myc i-qo "horse" ( < *ïkkʷos)[117] áśva- "horse"; Mitanni-Aryan aššu- "horse" Av aspa-, OPers asa- "horse"; Ossetian yäfs "horse" < *yéḱwos; NPers asp "horse"; Kurd hesp "horse" OCS jastrębъ "hawk" (literally "a fast bird") OPrus aswīnan "mare's milk", Lith ašva "mare OIr ech; MW ebawl "horse" < PBryth *ep-ālos ēš "donkey" A yuk, B yakwe "horse" Luwian ásùwa "horse"; Lycian esbe "horse"
*gʷṓws "cattle"[i][118] cow (< OE ) Old Saxon , OHG chuo "cow" bōs (bovis) "cattle";[ak] Umbrian acc. bum "cow" boũs, Dor bõs (bo(w)ós) "cattle, cow" gáus (gṓs)[i] "cow" Av gāuš (gāuš)[i] "cow"; NPers gāv "cow"; Kurd ga "cow" Croatian gòvedo "cattle" < PSlav *govędo; OCS gu-mǐno "threshing floor" Latvian gùovs "cow" OIr bó (bóu/báu)[al] "cow";
< Proto-Celtic *bowo-windā "white cow (or) cow-finder" [an]
> Boyne[ao][119]
OW buch "cow" < *boukkā, bu-gail "cowherd" < *gʷou-kʷolyos
kov "cow" ka "ox" A ko "cow", B keu "cow" HierLuv wawa-, Lycian wawa-, uwa- "cow";[120]

?Pal kuwa(w)- "bull"[ap]

*péḱu "livestock"[122][123] fee; fief; feud (< OE feoh "livestock, property, money"); faihu "property, possessions, wealth, riches, money" pecū "cattle, domestic animals"; pecūnia "money" ⇒
[note 19]
páśu, paśú "livestock" OLith pekus "cattle" asr "wool"
(See also *h₂ōwyó·m)
"bird" (> aviary, aviation, etc.);
"bird-catcher; fowler; eavesdropper";
LL avicellus, aucellus
"little bird" > Fre oiseau;
avispex, later, auspex
"augur (from watching the flight of birds)"

[note 20]
"eagle; omen";
"large bird, bird of prey; omen; bird used in augury";
"augur (from the flight of birds)";
"place for watching bird flight; omen"

Av vīš "bird" hav "chicken"
*h₂ówis "sheep " ewe (< OE ēow "sheep", ēowu "ewe") awistr "sheepfold"; OHG ouwi, ou "sheep" ovis "sheep" ó(w)is "sheep" ávi- "sheep" Wakhi yobc "ewe" < PIran *āvi-či- Bulg ovèn "ram", OCS ovĭ-ca "ewe" OPrus awwins "ram", Lith avis "female sheep" avinas "ram" OIr ōi "sheep"; W ewig "deer" hov-iw "shepherd" B eye "sheep", ā(u)w "ewe" Luvian hāwa/i-, Lycian χawa- "sheep"
*h₂ŕ̥tḱos "bear"[128] ursus "bear" árktos "bear" ŕ̥kṣa- "bear" YAv arša, Ossetian ars "bear"; NPers xers "bear"; Kurd hirç "bear" Lith irštva "bear den" MIr art, W arth "bear" arǰ "bear" arí "bear" ḫartaqqas (name of a beast of prey)
*ḱwon- "hound, dog"[129] hound (< OE hund "dog") hunds "dog" canis "dog" kúōn (kunós) "dog"; Myc ku-na-ke-ta-i, Att/Ion kunegétes "huntsman" (litt. "those who guide dogs")[130] śvan(śunas) "dog" Av spā (acc. spānǝm, pl. gen. sū̆nam); MPers sak; Kurd kuçik, se, sey; Wakhi šač "dog" Bulg kùt͡ʃe "dog", OCS suka "bitch (female dog)" OPrus sunnis "dog", Lith šuo, šunis (acc pl.) "dog", Latv suns "dog", Ltg suņs "dog" OIr cú (con), W ci "dog"
Chulainn litt. "hound of Chulainn"
Cunobeline < Com. Britt. *Cunobelinos "strong (?) as a dog"
šun "dog" possibly qen (disputed, possible Latin loan) AB ku "dog" (acc. A koṃ, B kweṃ) Hittite kuwaš (nom.), kunaš (gen.); HierLuv suwanni "dog";[131] Pal kuwan- "dog";[132] Lyd kan- "dog"
*múh₂s "mouse" mouse, Scot moose (< OE mūs) ON mús "mouse" mūs "mouse" mũs "mouse" mū́ṣ- "mouse" OPers muš "mouse" (? not in Pokorny; Pokorny has NPers mūš "mouse"); Kurd mişk "mouse" OCS myšĭ "mouse" mukn "mouse" mi "mouse"
*uksḗn "ox, bull"[133][134] ox (< OE oxa) auhsa "ox" ukṣán "bull, ox" uxšan "bull" MW ych; MidIr oss "stag, cow"; MBret ouhen B okso "draft-ox"
*táwros "bull" ON þjórr taurus, Osc taurom (acc.) taûros stawra- "bull" OSl turŭ Lith taüras; OPr tauris "bison" Gaul tarvos (taruos) "bull"; OIr tarb tuar "cattle" tarok
*suHs- "pig" sow (< OE ) ON sýr "sow" sūs "pig" hũs, sũs "pig" sū-kara- "pig"; Hindi sūvar "pig" Av (gen. sg.) "pig" , NPers xuk "pig" Bulg svinjà "swine, sow" Latvian suvẽns, sivẽns "piglet" OIr socc sáil "sea pig"; W hwch "sow, swine" khos "pig" thi "pig" B suwo "pig" še-hu-u "pig"
*wl̥kʷos "wolf" wolf (< OE wulf) wulfs (wulfis) "wolf" lupus "wolf" lúkos "wolf" vŕ̥ka- "wolf" Av vǝhrka- "wolf"; NPers gorg "wolf"; Kurd gur "wolf" Bulg vɤ̞lk "wolf", OCS vlĭkŭ "wolf" OPrus wilks "wolf", Lith vilkas "wolf" OIr olc (uilc) "evil" aghves "fox" ujk < OAlb ulk "wolf" B walkwe "wolf" ulippana "wolf"
*wl(o)p- "fox" vulpes "fox" alṓpēx "fox" lopāśá "fox, jackal" Av urupis "dog", raopi- "fox, jackal"; Kurd rovî, rûvî "fox" Lith lãpė "fox"; Latv lapsa "fox" Bre louarn "fox" (< PCel *loɸernos) ałuēs "fox" Tosk dhelpër, Gheg dhelpen "fox" (< *dzelpina < *welpina)[135] ulipzas (ú-li-ip-za-aš) "wolf";[136] Luwian ú-li-ip-ni-eš (nom. sg.), wa-li-ip-ni (dat.-loc. sg.) "fox"[136]
*ǵʰh₂éns "goose" goose (< OE gōs), gander (< OE ganra) OHG gans "goose" (h)ānser "goose" kʰḗn, Doric khā́n "goose"; Myc ka-no, ka-si (dat. pl.) "goose"[137] haṁsá-"goose" Av zāō "goose" (? not in Pokorny); Sogdian z’γ "kind of bird" , NPers ɣaz "goose" Bulg gɤ̞ska "goose", OCS gǫsǐ "goose" OPrus zansi "goose", Lith žąsis "goose" OIr gēiss "swan" W gwydd "goose" gatë "heron" B kents- "bird (goose?)"[138][139]
*h₂énh₂t(i)s "duck" Scot ennet "duck" (< OE ened) OHG enita "duck" ānas "duck" nessa, netta "duck" ātí- "waterfowl" Ossetic acc "Wild duck" , NPers ordak "duck" , NPers ɣu "swan" Russ. utka "duck" OPrus ants "duck", Lith antis "duck" W hwyad(en) "duck" baht "duck" rosë "duck"
*h₁élh₁ēn "deer" élaphos "deer"; Hom ellós "young of the deer" OSl jeleni "deer"; Russ oleni "red deer" Lith élnis "red deer"; Lith élnė "hind" < *H₁elH₁ēniHx "hind, cow-elk" NWel elain "hind" < *H₁elH₁ēniHx "hind, cow-elk"

OIr elit "doe"[140]

ełn "hind" B yal, ylem "gazelle"[141]

B ylaṃśke "young gazelle"[142]

aliya(n)- "red deer"[143]
*h₁eǵʰis "hedgehog" OE igil "hedgehog" (< Proto-Germanic *igilaz) ON ígull "sea-urchin" MycGr e-ki-no;[144] ekhînos "hedgehog" Oss wyzyn "hedgehog" OSl jezĭ "hedgehog"; Rus "hedgehog" Lith ežȳs "hedgehog"[aq] ozni "hedgehog" esh, eshk "porcupine, hedgehog"

*bʰébʰrus "beaver"
(See also *bʰer-, bʰerH-)

beaver (< OE beofer) OHG bibar "beaver"; OIc biorr "beaver" fīber "beaver" babʰrú "mongoose" Av baβra- "beaver" Ukr bober "beaver";[145] Rus bobr "beaver" Lith bebrùs "beaver"; Pruss bebrus "beaver" Gaul bebru- ; OIr Bibar
*h₃érō "eagle"[146] erne "a sea eagle" < OE earn "eagle" ara "eagle"; OHG arn "eagle" (Avernus "entrance to the underworld" (< AncGrk áornos "birdless"))[ar] órnis "bird"; Myc o-ni-ti-ja-pi "decorated with birds(?)" OSl orǐlŭ "eagle"; Rus orël "eagle" Lith ăras, ĕras, erẽlis "eagle"; Latv ērglis, OPrus arelie "eagle" MBret erer, MW eryr, MIr irar "eagle" (< *eriro) OArm oror "gull", MArm urur "kite" orr "eagle, falcon" (rare) Hitt ḫaran- "eagle"; CLuw ḫarrani(a/i) "a type of (oracular) bird"; Pala [ḫa-]a-ra-na-aš "eagle"[45]
*h₂éngʷʰis; *h₁ógʷʰis "snake", "serpent", "eel" OHG unc "snake"; engiring "maggot" (diminutive of angar "large larva") anguis "snake, serpent, dragon"; Anguilla "eel" ópʰis "serpent, snake"; énkhelus "eel"[as] áhi "snake, serpent; name of Vrtra" Av aži "snake", Persian yağnij "grass snake" (archaic); Azhi Dahāka[at] OEstSl užĭ "snake", Rus "grass snake"; Pol węgorz "eel" OPrus angis "snake", angurgis "eel"; Lith angis "viper", ungurys "eel"; Latv odze, odzs (dialectal) "viper, adder"; OArm awj "snake", , iwž "viper" B auk "snake" Illuyanka "mythical snake foe"
*h₂eyǵ- "goat"[151] aíx "goat" eḍa "a kind of sheep" ayts "goat"
(a vṛddhi-derivative of *h₂éwis)
ey (obsolete) "egg"
(< OE ǣġ) (> Cockney "cock-egg");
(< ON egg)
"egg" (> ovum, ovary, oval, ovoid, ovulate, etc.)
"egg, seed"
*h₂egʷnós "lamb"[155] yean "to give birth to" (< OE ēanian) agnus "lamb" amnós "lamb" OCS agnę "lamb"

*laḱ-, laḱs-
"to be spotted; salmon, trout"
[156] [157] [158]

(< OE leax "salmon")

Yiddish laks
[note 21]

Russ losos "salmon"

Lith lašiša "salmon"

B laks "fish, salmon"

Food and farming[edit]

PIE English Gothic Latin Ancient Greek Sanskrit Iranian Slavic Baltic Celtic Armenian Albanian Tocharian Hittite
*ǵr̥h₂-nó- "grain"[159][160][161]
(See also *gʰreh₁-)
corn (< OE corn "grain") kaúrn "corn" grānum "grain" ⇒
[note 22]
jīrṇá-, jūrṇá- "old, worn out, decayed" OCS zrŭno "grain" OPrus zirni "grain", Lith žirnis "pea", girna "millstone" OIr grān, W grawn "grain" cʿorean "wheat, grain, corn" grurëTosk grun, gruni Gheg "grain"
"to grow"
(See also *ǵr̥h₂-nó-)
(< OE grōwan);
(< OE grēne);
grey, gray
(< OE grǣġ);
(< OE græs);
groom (young boy, servant)
(< ME grome)
"to green, grow; plant"
"grass, turf; herb";
"gray, tawny";
"grass; weed; herb";
Fre gourmet (< ME grome)
"gourmet" (similarly gourmand)
"I gnaw, eat";
"gourmand, voracious eater";
gastḗr < grastér
"belly, stomach; appetite" (> gastro-, gastronomy, etc.);
"smell of a goat";
"ulcer" (> gangrene)
"(s/he) eats, swallows, devours";
"swallowed, devoured";
"swallowing, mouthful; food, nourishment"
Kurd gewre, gir "big", gewre bûn "to grow, to get big", giran "heavy", girîng "important, major, essential" OCS grěnŭ "green"
*h₂éǵros "field" acre (< OE æcer "field") akrs "field" ager (agrī) "field" ⇒
[note 23]
agrós "field" ájra-"meadow" art "soil" arë "field"
*h₂erh₃- "to plow" OE erian "to plow" arjan "to plow" arō (arāre) "to plow", arātrum "plow" aróō "I plow" < *H₂erH₃-oH₂, árotron "plow", aroura "arable land" hala- "plow" OCS orjǫ (orati) "to plow", ralo < *ar(ə)dhlom "plow" OPrus artun "to plow", Lith arti "to plow" MIr airim "I plow", W arddu "to plow" < *arj-; MIr arathar, W aradr "plow" < *arətrom < *H₂erH₃-trom ara-wr "plow" arë "arable land" *H₂r̥H₃-uer- AB āre "plow"
*h₂melǵ- "to milk" milk (< OE meolc, mioluc) miluks (miluks) "milk" mulgeō (mulgēre) "to milk" ⇒
[note 24]
amélgō "I milk" mā́ršti, mā́rjati, mr̥játi "(he) wipes, cleans" Av marǝzaiti, mǝrǝzaiti "(he) grazes (barely touches)" Russ. CS mŭlzu (mlěsti) "to milk", Pol mleko "milk" OPrus milztun "to milk", Lith melžti "to milk" W blith "milk, dairy produce; full of milk", MIr bligim "I milk" < *mligim, melg "milk" miel, mil "I milk" A malke B malk-wer "milk"
*melh₂- "to grind"[165][166] meal (< OE melu);
malm (< OE mealm)
malan "to grind" molō (molere) "I grind";
"millstone; mill; ground meal, flour" ⇒
[note 25];
"I immolate, sacrifice (lit. sprinkling flour on animals to be sacrificed)" ⇒
[note 26];
"hammer, mallet" ⇒
[note 27];
múllō "I grind";
malthakós, malakós "soft, tender; gentle; mild";
melínē "millet"
mr̥ṇāti, mr̥nati "(he) grinds" Av mrāta- "tanned soft" OCS meljǫ (mlětĭ) "to grind";
"chalk; fine ground substance"
OPrus maltun "to grind", Lith malti "to grind" OIr melim "I grind"; W malu "grind" mał "sieve" mał-em "I grind, crush" mjell "flour" A malywët "you press"; B melye "they trample" mallai "grinds"
"to ferment, become sour"
OE hwaþerian "to roar, foam, surge" ƕaÞō "froth, foam, scum" cāseus
"cheese" (> cheese)
"it boils"
OCS kvasŭ "leaven; sour drink" > Kvass

"to blend, mix, knead"
[171] [172] [173] [174]

ON ostr "cheese";
ysta "to curdle"

"gravy, broth, soup; sauce; juice" > juice

"soup, sauce; grease"

[note 28]

"soup, broth; water in which pulses are boiled"


uxá "Ukha"

"to boil; to brew"

(< OE brēowan);
(< OE biernan, beornan);
(< OE brēad);
(< OE broþ)

"I burn, I'm hot" ⇒
[note 29];
"fermentation, leavening; ferment; anger"

(< SE bura);
"to raise bubbles, to make fuss"[177]

Borvo "Gaulish deity of healing springs"
*gʷréh₂wō "quern, millstone"[178][123] quern (< OE cwerne) *qairnus grā́van "stone, rock, stone for pressing out the Soma juice" OCS žrĭny "millstone" Bret breo, breou, W breuan "quern"[179]
*mélit, *melnés "honey" mildew (< OE mele-dēaw "honeydew") miliþ "honey" mel (mellis) "honey" (>
méli (mélit-) "honey"; Att mélitta "bee"; Myc me-ri, me-ri-to "honey"[180] milinda "honey-bee" OIr mil, W mêl "honey" mełr "honey" mjal, mjaltë "honey" milit "honey"; CLuw ma-al-li "honey";[181] Pala malit- "honey"
*médʰu "honey", "mead" mead (< OE medu) midus "mead" mēdus "a type of mead"[182] métʰu "wine" mádʰu "sweet drink, honey" Proto-Iranian mádu "honey, wine" OCS medŭ "honey"; Bulg med "honey" OPrus meddu "honey", Lith medus "honey", midus "a honey beverage";[183] Ltg mads "honey" OIr mid "mead"; W medd "mead" B mit "honey"[184] CLuw maddu- "wine" (originally "sweet drink")
*tuh₂rós "cheese"[155] butter (< Gk. boútūros "cow cheese") tūrós "cheese"
*séh₂ls "salt"[185][186] salt (< OE sealt) salt "salt" sāl (salis) "salt" ⇒
[note 30]
háls (halós) "salt" sal-ilá- "salty" OCS solǐ "salt";
OCS sladŭkŭ "sweet";
Russ sólod "malt"
OPrus sals "salt", saldus "sweet OIr salann, W halen "salt" "salt" ngjel-bëtë, ngjel-mëtë "salty", njel-m "to be salty" A sāle, B salyiye "salt"
*seh₁- "to sow (seed)", *séh₁mn̥ "seed" sow (< OE sāwan), seed (< OE sēd "that which is sown") saian "to sow"; OHG sāmo "seed" serō (serere) "to sow" < *si-sH₁-oH₂, sēmen "seed" ⇒
[note 31]
sasá- "corn, herb, grass", sasyá- "corn, grain, fruit, crop of corn", sī́ra- "Saatpflug" (seed plow?) OCS sějǫ (sějati) "to sow", sěmę "seeds" OPrus situn "to sow", simen "seed", Lith sėti "to sow", sekla "seed", semenis "linseed" OIr sīl, W hil "seed" < *seH₁-lo- sermn "seed" isḫūwāi "(he) sows"
*yugóm "yoke"
(See also *yewg-)
yoke (< OE ġeoc) juk "yoke" iugum "yoke" zugón "yoke" yugá·m "yoke" Av yaoj-, yuj- "to harness" OCS igo "yoke" OPrus jugtun "yoke", Lith jungas "yoke" W iau "yoke" luc "yoke" A yokäm "door" yugan "yoke"
*yéwos "cereal, grain; spelt, barley"[187][188] Epic zeiā́ "einkorn wheat"; Cretan deaí "barley" yáva "grain, cereal; barley" Av yauua- "cereal"; Pers jow "barley, grain"; Oss jäv "corn, grain" Rus ovín "barn, granary";[au] Pol jewnia, jownia (dialectal) "granary" Lith jãvas "a type of cereal"; javaĩ (pl.) "cereals"; Latv javs, java "infused (with fermentation)" Ir eorna "barley" B yap "dressed barley" e(u)wa(n) "cereal (a kind of barley)"
*mḗms "meat"[190][123] mimz "flesh" membrum "limb, member" < mēms-rom “flesh” ⇒
[note 32]
mā́ṃs, māmsá- "meat" OCS męso "meat" mis "meat" mish“meat”
*h₂ébōl "apple"[122][123] apple (< OE appel) apel (Osc Abella "town name") OCS ablŭ·ko "apple" Lith obuolys "apple", OPr wobalne "apple"; Latv ābols "apple (fruit)", ābele "apple tree" Gaul Aballo "place name"; OIr aball, W afall, OBr aball(en) "apple tree"

Bodily functions and states[edit]

PIE English Gothic Latin Ancient Greek Sanskrit Iranian Slavic Baltic Celtic Armenian Albanian Tocharian Hittite
*h₂enh₁- "to breathe" OE ōþian "breathe hard" < PGerm *anþōjanã *uz-anan "to expire", ON anda "to breathe" anima "breath" ánemos "wind"; Anemoi "(deified) winds" ániti "(he) breathes" Av ā̊ntya, parā̊ntya (gen.) "breathing in and out"; Kurd henase "breath"; henas dan "to breath" OCS vonja "smell" < *h₂en-yeh₂[191] OIr anāl "breath" < *h₂enh₁-tlo- ; W anadl "breath" hołm "wind", anjn "person" Gheg âj Tosk ēnj "I swell" AB āñm- "spirit", B añiye "breath", B anāsk- "breathe in"
*swep- "to sleep", *swépnos "dream (n.)" archaic sweven "dream, vision" (< OE swefn); NoEng sweb "to swoon" (< OE swebban "to put to sleep, lull") ON sofa "sleep (v.)"; Svafnir[192] "Sleep-Bringer (a name of Odin)" somnus "sleep (n.)"; sōpiō[193] (v.) "make asleep" húpnos "sleep (n.)" svápna- "sleep, dream (n.)" Av xᵛafna- "sleep (n.)" NPers xwãb- "sleep"; Kurd xew "sleep" OCS sŭpati[193] "sleep (v.)", sŭnŭ "sleep (n.), dream (n.)" OPrus supnas "dream", Lith sapnas "dream" OIr sūan, W hun "sleep (n.)" kʿnem "I sleep", kʿun "sleep (n.)" gjumë "sleep (n.)" TA ṣpäṃ, TB ṣpane "sleep (n.), dream (n.)" sup-, suppariya- "to sleep"

*der-, *drem-
"to sleep"
[194] [195] [196] [197]

"I sleep";

[note 33]

"I sleep" (epic)

"(s/he) sleeps";
"sleep, slumber, sleepiness, sloth"


drěmati "to doze, drowse, slumber"

*bʰewdʰ- "to be awake, be aware"[198] bid (< OE bēodan);
bede (< OE bēden);
bode (< OE bodian)
anabiudan punthánomai "I learn" bódhati "(s/he) is awake";
bodháyati "(s/he) awakens, arouses"; buddhá- "awake"
OCS bljusti "to watch";
buditi "to wake (someone) up";
bŭždrĭ "alert, cheerful";
Lith budėti "to stay awake"
*sweyd- "sweat" sweat (< OE swǣtan "to sweat") ON sveiti sūdor "sweat (n.)" (e)ĩdos "sweat (n.)" svḗda- "sweat (n.)" Av xᵛaēda- "sweat (n.)"; Kurd xwê, xoy "sweat" Latvian sviêdri (pl.) "sweat (n.)" W chwys "sweat (n.)" < *swidso- kʿirtn "sweat (n.)" dirsë, djersë "sweat (n.)" < *swí-drōxty- B syā-lñe "sweating" < *swid-yé-
*h₁ed- "to eat" eat (< OE etan) itan "to eat" edō (ēsse) "to eat", ēst "(he) eats" édō "I eat", Homeric athematic infinitive édmenai "to eat" ádmi "I eat", átti "(he) eats" Av subj. aδāiti "(he) should eat" OCS jamĭ "I eat" < *H₁ēd-mi, jastŭ "(he) eats" OPrus istun "to eat", ėsti, OLith ėdmi "I eat" OIr ci-ni estar "although he doesn't eat"; W ys "eats" < *H₁ed-ti utem "I eat" < *ōd- ha "to eat" ēdmi "I eat"
*peh₃- "to drink" potable (< OF potable)

imbibe (< Lat. bibere "to drink" via OF imbiber)

bibō (bibere) "to drink", pōtus "drink (n.)"; pō·culo- < pō·clo- < *pō·tlo- "beaker" [av]
(Compare Skt pā·tra-)
pī́nō, pépomai "I drink" pā́ti, píbati "(he) drinks"; pā·tra- "cup, vessel" [av] Av vispo-pitay- "alltränkend" giving water/drinks to all OCS pijǫ (piti) "to drink", Proto-Slavic pȋvo "drink, beer, beverage" OPrus putun "to drink", puja "a party", Lith puota "party" OIr ibid "drinks" < *pibeti; W yfwn "we drink" əmpem "I drink" "I drink" pāsi "he swallows"
*ǵews- "to test, to taste" choose (< OE ċēosan) Goth kiusan "to prove, to test", kausjan "taste"; OHG kiosan "choose" gustus "taste" geúomai "taste" juşate, joşati "enjoys" Av zaoś- "be pleased" OCS (vŭ)kušati "to offer a meal, to give for tasting" OIr do-goa "choose" zgjedh "choose"

desha "I loved"; dashje "liking, taste, preference" (< PAlb *dāusnja)

kukuš(-zi) "taste"
"to beget, give birth, produce"
(< OE cynn "kind, sort, family, generation") (> kindred);
kind (< OE (ġe)cynd "generation, nature, race, kind");
(< OE cyning);
OE cennan "produce"
-kunds "born";
knoþs "race, people";
OHG kind "child";
Ger könig, Dut koning "king"
(< PGmc *kuningaz = *kunją "kin" + *-ingaz "from, belonging to")
(> OCS kŭnędzĭ "prince";
Lith kùnigas "priest";
Fin, Est kuningas "king" (esp. in chess))
"I am born, begotten; grow, spring forth";
"I beget, bear, bring forth, engender" ⇒
[note 34];
"born, arisen, made" ⇒
[note 35];
"being born, arising; emerging" ⇒
[note 36];
"created; imparted by birth" ⇒
[note 37];
nātīvitās "birth" ⇒
[note 38];
"nature, quality, essence" ⇒
[note 39];
"birth; race, class; nation, folk" ⇒
[note 40];
"relating to birth, natal" ⇒
[note 41];
genus (generis)
"birth, origin; kind; species; (grammar) gender" ⇒
[note 42];
gēns (gentis)
"tribe; folk, family; Roman clan" ⇒
[note 43];
"huge, vast; extraordinary";
"begotten, engendered" ⇒
[note 44];
"inborn trait, innate character; talent, wits" (> genius);
"natural, indigenous; freeborn" ⇒
[note 45];
"innate quality, nature, disposition; natural capacity; talent" ⇒
[note 46];
indigenus = indu (inside) + genus
"native, indigenous" (> indigenous);
"product, fruit; progeny";
germen (germinis)
"shoot, sprout; germ, origin, seed; fetus" ⇒
[note 47];
"begetter, father, sire";
"begetter, mother";
"birthmark, mole" (> Lat Gnaeus);
"relation to birth, generation; productive" ⇒
[note 48]
"I am born; I beget";
"I come into being; become";
"offspring; seed" (> gonad);
"birth; race, descent; generation; offspring" (> genealogy, etc.);
"offspring, descendant, family; nation, gender";
génna, génnā
"descent, lineage; origin, offspring";
"origin, source, manner of birth" ⇒
[note 49];
"fruit, product; race, descent; begetting; seed";
genétēs, genétōr
"begetter, ancestor; father"
jánati "(she) gives birth";
"is born; becomes";
já-, -ja-
"born; born of, begotten from", e.g., dvi·já- "twice-born";
"child, offspring; creature";
"kinsman, relative";
"mother, birth-giver";
"people, person, race";
"begetting, birth";
"race, class, genus";
jánman, janmá-
"birth, life";
jániman "generation, birth, origin";
janitṛ́ "begetter, father, parent";
jánitrī "begetter, mother";
"people, folk, generation";
"birth, form of existence fixed at birth, position assigned by birth, rank, lineage, caste"
Av zīzǝnti, zīzanǝnti "they give birth"; Kurd zayîn "to give birth" OCS zętĭ "son-in-law" OPrus gamintun "to give birth", gimdyti "to give birth" OIr -gainethar "who is born" < *ĝn̥-ye-tro;[191] W geni "to be born" cnanim "I am born, bear" dhëndër, dhândër "son-in-law, bridegroom" < *ĝenH̥₁-tr-[ax] AB kän- "to come to pass (of a wish), be realized"
*sewh₁- or *sewh₃-
"to bear, beget, give birth"
(See also *suHnú-)
"(she) begets";
"born, brought forth";
"birth, production"
Av hunāhi “give birth, beget” OIr suth "produce, offspring; milk" šunnai "fills"
*h₂ewg-, h₂weg- "to grow, increase"[205] eke (< OE ēacian "to increase"); wax (of the moon) (< OE weaxan "to grow") aukan, auknan "to increase (intr.)", wahsjan "to grow" < orig. caus. *h₂wog-s-éy-onom augeō (augēre) "to increase (tr.)" ⇒
[note 50];
auctor "grower - promoter, producer, author etc" ⇒
[note 51];
augmentum "growth, increase" ⇒
[note 52];
augur < augos "aggrandizement" ⇒
[note 53];
augustus "majestic, venerable" ⇒
[note 54];
auxilium "help, aid; remedy" ⇒
[note 55]
a(w)éksō "I increase (intr.)", aúksō, auksánō "I increase (tr.)" úkṣati "(he) becomes stronger", vakṣáyati "(he) causes to grow"; ójas, ōjmán "strength, vitality, power";[206] ugrá- "immense, strong, hard"; Av uxšyeiti "(he) grows", vaxšaiti "(he) causes to grow" OCS jugъ "south" (the direction to where the Sun rises) OPrus augtwei "to grow", Lith augti " to grow" OIr fēr, W gwêr "fat" < *weg- ačem "I grow, become big" A oksiṣ "(he) grows"; A okṣu, В aukṣu "grown"
*weǵ- "fresh, strong; lively, awake"[207] wake (< OE wacian); watch (< OE wæċċan) gawaknan "wake up, arouse" vegeō (vegēre) "be alert, awake, smart"; vigor "id"; vigil "awake, watching" vā́ja- "strength, energy, vigour, spirit"; vájra- "hard; mace; thunderbolt; diamond"; vājáyati "(s/he) impels" Serbian language svež / свеж "fresh"
*gʷih₃wo- "alive", *gʷih₃woteh₂ "life" quick (< OE cwicu "alive") qius "alive" vīvus "alive"; vīta "life" bíos, bíotos "life", zoo "animal" jīvá-, jīvaka- "alive", jīvita·m, jīvā́tus, jīvathas "life" Av gayō, acc. ǰyātum "life"; Gayōmart "living mortal"; -ǰyāiti- "life-"; Av ǰva-, OPers ǰīva- "alive", NPers ǰavān- "alive"; Kurd jiyan, jîn "life" OCS živŭ "alive", žitĭ, životŭ "life"; Živa "alive, living (Polabian deity)" OPrus giws "alive", giwata "life", Lith gyvas "alive", gyvatė "snake" Gaul biuo-, bio-,[208][ay]
OIr biu, beo, W byw "alive"; OIr bethu (bethad), W bywyd "life" < Proto-Celtic *bivo-tūts
keam "I live" < *gʷi-yā-ye-mi[191] B śai- "to live" < *gweiH₃-ō ḫuišu̯ant- "living; alive"[209][210][211][212]
"to grow old, mature"
(See also *ǵr̥h₂-nó-, *gʰreh₁-)
(< OE ċeorl, ċiorl "free man")
Karl (< PGmc "free man") (> Slav korlǐ "king")[az] gérōn, gérontos
"old; elder" (> geronto-);
"old woman";
"gift of honor";
"honorable, majestic, respectable";
Graia > Graikós > Graeco-, Greek
járati, jī́ryati
"grows old; wears out; is consumed, digested";
"old, worn out; digested";
"old, infirm; decayed";
jarā́, jarás, jariman
"old age"
OCS zĭrěti "to ripen" grua “woman, wife” < PAlb *grāwā
*mer- "to die" murder (< OE morþor < *mr̥-tro-m) maúrþr "murder" morior (morī) "to die" < *mr̥-yōr, mortalis "mortal" brotós (< *mrotós), mortós "mortal" marati, máratē, mriyátē "(he) dies", mṛtá- "dead", márta-, mortal Av merə- "to die", miryeite "dies"; OPers martiya- "man (someone who dies)", NPers mordan- "to die"; Kurd mirin "to die" OCS mĭrǫ, mrěti "to die" Lith miŕštu (miŕti) "to die", merdėti "to die slowly" OIr marb, W marw "dead" < *mr̥-wós meṙanim "I die", mard "human" mert "died"
"bald, naked"
"bald, hairless" > Calvin;
"skull, scalp"
Serbian language ćelav / ћелав "bald"
"to cough"[220][221]
whoost "cough"
(< OE hwōstan)
German Hust "cough" Kurd kuxin "to cough", kuxik "cough" OCS kašĭljati "to cough" Lith kosėti "to cough" koll "cough" kollë "cough"
*perd- "fart"[222][223] fart (< OE feortan) pérdomai párdate "(s/he) farts" Russian perdétь "to fart" Lith perdžia "he farts" bert "fart" pordhë "fart"

Mental functions and states[edit]

PIE English Gothic Latin Ancient Greek Sanskrit Iranian Slavic Baltic Celtic Armenian Albanian Tocharian Hittite
*ḱlew(s)- "to hear" listen (< OE hlystan), loud (< OE hlūd) hliuma "hearing, ears (in pl.)" clueō (cluēre) "to be named" ékluon "I heard" śr̥ṇóti "(he) hears" < *ḱl̥-ne-w-; śrúti "that which is heard" Av surunaoiti "(he) hears" < *k̂lu-n- OCS
slyšati "to hear";
slušati "to listen"
OPrus klausytun "to hear", Lith klausyti "to listen" OIr ro-clui-nethar "hears"; W clywed "to hear";
Gaul cluiou "I hear"[224]
lsem "I hear" Old Tosk kluaj (standard quaj) "to call, to name" < *ḱlu(H)-eh₁- A klyoṣ-, B klyauṣ- "to hear"

*h₂ew- or *h₃ew-
"to see, perceive, be aware of"
[225] [226] [196] [227]

OE ēawis "obvious"

"I hear, listen to; pay attention to" ⇒
[note 56]

"I perceive, hear, see, obey";
"I perceive, feel, apprehend, notice" ⇒
[note 57]

"evidently, manifestly, before the eyes, openly"


aviti "to show, appear"

Lith ovytis
"to appear";
"in reality"

*weyd- "to see, find; to know" wit (OE wit "intelligence", witan "to know" < PIE perfect tense) witan "to know" videō (vidēre) "to see" é(w)ide "he saw";
perf. oĩda "I know (lit. I have seen)"
vindáti "(he) finds", ávidat "found";
vetti, vēdate, vidáti "(he) knows"; perf. véda "I know"
Av vī̆δaiti, vī̆nasti "(he) finds" OCS viždǫ (viděti) "to see" OPrus widatun "to see"; Lith veidas "face" W gweld "to see" gtanem "I find"
*woyd- "to know" Av perf. vaēδa "I know", vīdarǝ "they know" OCS věmĭ (věděti) "to know" OPrus waistun "to know", Lith vaistas "medicine", vaidila "pagan priest" OIr find, W gwn "(I) know" gitem "I know" B ūwe "learned" < PToch *wäwen- < *wid-wo-
*ǵénH₃-, *ǵnéH₃-sḱ-, *ǵn̥-né-h₃- "to recognize, know" can (< OE cann "I know, he knows"), know (< OE cnāwan < *ǵnēH₃-yo-nom), Scot ken "to know" (< OE cennan "to cause to know" < PGerm *kann-jan) kunnan "to know" < *ǵn̥-n-h₃-onom, kann "I know" (g)nōscō ((g)nōscere) "to recognize", nōvī "I know" gignṓskō (aorist égnōn) "I recognize" jānā́mi "I know" < *janā́mi < *ǵn̥-nh₃-mi Av zanā-ṯ, zanąn < *ǵn̥-ne-h₃-ti; OPers a-dānā (impf.) "he knew" < *ǵn̥-ne-h₃-mi, xšnāsātiy (subj.) "he should know"; Kurd zanîn "to know" OCS znajǫ (znati) "to know" < *ǵneh₃-yoh₂ OPrus zinatun "to recognize, know", Lith žinoti "to know"[228][229] OIr itar-gninim, asa-gninaim "I am wise"; W adnabod "(I) know" čanačʿem, aorist caneay "I recognize" njoh "I know" < *ǵnēh₃-sḱoh₂ A knā-, e.g. knānmaṃ "knowing" < *ǵneH₃-, kñas-äṣt "you have become acquainted" < *ǵnēH₃-s-
*n̥- + *ǵneh₃-tos "not" + "to know" uncouth (< OE uncūþ "unknown, strange") unkunþs "unknown" ignōtus, ignōrāntem "unknown, ignorant" agnṓs (agnõtos) "unknown" < *n̥- + *ǵnéH₃-ts ajñāta- "unknown" OPrus nezinatun "not to know", Lith nežinoti " not to know" OIr ingnad "foreign" an-can-awtʿ "ignorant, unknown" A ā-knats, B a-knātsa "ignorant"
"to love; desire, covet, want; admire, praise"[230][231]
(< OE lufu);
lief "dear, beloved"
(< OE lēof);
lofe "praise, exalt; offer"
(< OE lofian, lof)
lubō "love" libet
"it is pleasing, agreeable"
"(s/he) desires greatly; longs for, covets; is perplexed";
"(s/he) causes to desire, attract, allure; confound, bewilder";
"perplexity, confusion; impatience, eager desire, longing; covetousness";
"greedy, desirous of, longing after; covetous"
OCS ljubiti "to love";
ljubŭ "sweet, pleasant";
ljuby "love";
Russ ljubímyj "favorite"
lyp "beg"
*men- "to think"[232][233] mind (< OE (ġe)mynd "memory" < *mn̥t-ís); OE munan "to think";
munan "to think"; muns (pl. muneis) "thought" < *mn̥-is; gamunds (gamundáis) "remembrance" < *ko(m)-mn̥t-ís meminī "I remember" ⇒
[note 58];
"I recollect, remember" ⇒
[note 59]
mēns (mentis) "mind" < *mn̥t-is;
"mindful, remembering" ⇒
[note 60]
"devised, contrived; invented";
"I remind, warn";
"a divine omen; portent" ⇒
[note 61];
mémona "I think of"; maínomai "I go mad";
"I remind, recall";
"I am mindful, remember; woo, court";
"self-willed, unbidden; self-moving, automatic";
"mind; desire; anger";
Méntōr "mentor";
"I learn; know, understand; notices";
"something that is learned, lesson; learning, knowledge" ⇒
[note 62];
mányate "(he) thinks"; mántra- "thought, the instrument of thought";[234]
"thought intention; opinion, notion; perception, judgement";
"thinker, adviser";
"wisdom, intelligence" (See mazdā);
"minister, councilor, counselor" > mandarin
Av mainyeite "(he) thinks";
mazdā "wisdom, intelligence";
OPers mainyāhay "I think", NPers Došman- "Someone who has a bad mind"; Kurd mejî "brain, mind"
OCS mĭněti "to mean";
OPrus mintun "to guess", minisna "memory", mints "riddle", mentitun "to lie", Lith mintis " thought", minti "to guess", minėti "to mention" OIr do-moiniur "I believe, I mean" mendoj "I think" A mnu "thought"; B mañu "demand (n.)" memmāi "says"

"to remember, care for, be concerned, fall into thinking"
[235] [236] [196] [237]

mammer "to hesitate; to mumble, stammer from hesitation"
(< OE māmrian, māmorian "to think through, deliberate, plan out");
mimmer "to dote, dream"
(< OE mymerian "to keep in mind");
(< OE murnan);
OE mimor "mindful"

"mindful, remembering"[ba]

[note 63];
"delay, any duration of time" ⇒
[note 64]

"baneful, mischievous; captious, fastidious";
"care, thought; anxious mind";
mártus, márturos
"witness" ⇒
[note 65]

"(s/he) remembers, recollects"

mariti(< SE "to care about something/someone")

"to think"
[238] [239] [196]

(< OE þenċan, þenċean);
(< OE þanc "thought, thanks")

"I know"

"to bother, annoy, neglect, disturb, forget, ignore"
[240] [241] [196] [242]

(< OE mierran)

"(s/he) forgets, neglects, disregards"

Lith miršti "to forget, lose, become oblivious"

mërzi "boredom"

mërzit "bother, annoy"

*sekʷ- "to see, to say" see (< OE sēon); say (< OE sec̣gan < PGerm *sag(w)jan < *sokʷéyonom) saíƕan "to see"; OHG sagen "say" < *sokʷē- īnseque "declare!" énnepe "tell!" śacate "(he) says" OCS sočiti "to announce" Lith sakyti "to say", sekti "to tell a story, to follow" OIr insce "I talk"; OIr rosc "eye" < *pro-skʷo-; OW hepp "(he) said" sheh "(he) sees" A ṣotre, B ṣotri "sign" sakuwāi- "to see"

"to see"
[243] [244] [245] [246]

ME torhte "bright, shining, radiant"

"to see, see clearly; watch";
"look, glance; sight"

[bb][note 66]
"to cause to see, to show";
"seen, visible, apparent, noticed"

Oir : dearc ~tha).Look, behold; regard,  consider. ndrri, ndrritje

"bright, enlightened"

"to watch, be looking at, keep looking at"
[247] [248] [245] [249]

(< Fk *spehōn "to spy")

"watcher" > avispex, auspex "bird-watcher"

[note 20];
"I observe, watch, look at"

[note 67];
"seeing, view, look; sight; appearance; point of view; kind, sort, type"

[note 68];
"mark, token; example, pattern, model";
"look, appearance, aspect";
"appearance, image; apparition, spectre"

[note 69];
"looking-glass, mirror"

[note 70]

"I look, behold; inspect"

[note 71];
"watcher; proterctor, guardian"

[note 72];
"I look at; examine; consider, think";
"viewing; observation; doubt"

[note 73]

"spy, watcher; messenger";
"(s/he) sees, looks, beholds";
"clear, visible; obvious, evident; intelligible"

Lith spoksoti "to keep looking" shpik "invent"

shpikje "invention, creation"

"to see; to show; to seem"
[250] [251] [245] [252]

"goal, end; token"

"(it) is visible, appears; shines";
√caks-, caṣṭe
"to see, look; appear; inform";

Av cašman "eye"

OCS kazati "to show; say, testify"

Lith kušlas "having poor eyesight"
*wekʷ- "to say" OE wōma "noise" < *wōkʷ-mō(n) OHG giwahanen "mention" < PGerm *gawahnjan (denom. built on *wokʷ-no-) vocō (vocāre) "to call", vōx (vōcis) "voice" eĩpon (aor.) "spoke" < *e-we-ikʷ-om < *e-we-ukʷ-om, (w)épos "word" vákti, vívakti "(he) says", vāk "voice", vácas- "word" Av vač- "speak, say", vāxš "voice", vačah "word", NPers vāk- "voice"; Kurd vaj "voice", bivaj- "to say" OCS vikǫti "to call, to scream" OPrus enwackēmai "we call" OIr foccul "word", W gwaethl "fight" < * wokʷ-tlo-m gočem "I call" A wak, B wek "voice" ḫuek-, ḫuk- to swear to"
*bʰeh₂- "to speak, say"[253] ban (< PGmc *bannaną "to proclaim, order, summon") fāma "fame"; fās "divine law; will of god, destiny";
for (fārī) "I speak, talk, say";
fātus "word, saying; oracle, prophecy; fate";
fateor (fatērī, fassus sum) "I confess, admit, acknowledge";
fābula "discourse, narrative; tale, fable";
Sp hablar, Pt falar "to speak"
phōnḗ "voice"; phḗmē "prophetic voice; rumor; reputation";
phēmí "I speak, say";
prophḗtēs "one who speaks for a god: proclaimer, prophet";
phásis "utterance, statement, expression"
bhā́ṣā "speech, language"; bhā́ṣati "(s/he) speaks" bajka "fable";[bc] OCS balii "physician, (healer, enchanter)"
*preḱ-, *pr̥-sḱ- < *pr̥ḱ-sḱ- "to ask" Scot frain "to ask" (< OE freġnan) fraíhnan "to ask"; OHG forscōn "to ask, to research" precor (precārī) "to pray", poscō (poscere) "to demand, ask" pr̥ccháti "(he) asks" Av pǝrǝsaiti "(he) asks, desires" < *pr̥-sḱ-; OPers aor.? aparsam "(he) asked"; Kurd pirs "question" OCS prositi "to pray" OPrus prasitun "to ask", Lith prašyti "to ask" OIr imm-chom-arc "mutual questions, greetings"; NIr arco, W archaf "I ask" harcʿanem "I ask" pyet "ask"

porosit "recommend, order" (an article or a meal)

A prak-, B prek- "to ask"
*kelh₁-, (s)kel-dʰ-
"to call, cry, summon"[254][255]
(< OE halian);
(< ON skald)
"I call, announce solemnly; call out";
"a council, meeting" ⇒
[note 74];
"the armed forces; fleet; group or class" > class;
"the Calends" > calendar;
"I cry out, clamor, shout, yell" ⇒
[note 75];
"clear, bright; renouwned, famous; loud, distinct" ⇒
[note 76]
"I call, hail; summon, invite"
klándati, krándati
"(s/he) laments weeps; cries; sounds";
uṣaḥkala-, uṣakala-
"rooster, lit, dawn-call"
Kurd kalîn "to moan, to whine, to mourn", dikale "he/she mourns" OCS klakolŭ "bell";
Russ skulítʹ "to whine, whisper"
Lith kalbėti "to speak" Gheg kaj "weep, cry"
*bʰeyh₂- "to fear, be afraid"[256] bive, bever "to shake, tremble" (< OE bifian) foedus "foul, filthy, unseemly; vile" bháyate "(s/he) is afraid";
bhī, bhīti, bhayá- "fear"
OCS bojati "to fear, be afraid" Lith baimė "fear"
*h₁néh₃mn̥ or *h₁nómn̥ "name" name (< OE nama) namō (acc. pl. namna) "name" nōmen "name" ónoma "name" nā́ma(n)(instrumental sg. nā́mnā) "name" Av nāma "name"; NPers nām- "name"; Kurd nav "name" OCS imę "name" < Proto-Slavic *inmen < *n̥men OPrus emnes, emmens "name" < *enmen- OIr ainmm n-, OW anu "name";
Gaul anuan < anman "name"[257]
anun "name" Gheg emën, Tosk emër "name" < *enmen- A ñem, B ñom "name" lāman- "name"

General conditions and states[edit]

PIE English Gothic Latin Ancient Greek Sanskrit Iranian Slavic Baltic Celtic Armenian Albanian Tocharian Hittite
"to be sharp; to sting"
(< OE sticca);
(< OE stiċe);
(< OE þistel)
"I stimulate, incite, rouse" > instigate;
stylus (later spelled stylus [bd])
"pointed instrument, spike" ⇒
[note 77]
"I tattoo; mark";
"marking; spot, mark";
"mark, tattoo; spot, stain"
"become sharp; energize";
"sharp ede of a knife; light, brilliance, glow; splendor; fiery power";
"sharp; hot, fiery, pungent; acute, keen";
"sharp, pointed; pungent, scorching, acrid"
Per tez "sharp"

"to melt, thaw; flow"
[262] [263] [264]

(< OE þawian); thone
"damp, moist, wet" (< OE þan)

"decay, foulness; fluid from a wound"; tābeō
"I melt; rot";
"gore; viscous fluid"

"pond, swamp";

toś-, tośate
"drip, distill, trickle";
"rain, mist, tickle, drizzle, wet"


tajati "melt"

Natural features[edit]

PIE English Gothic Latin Ancient Greek Sanskrit Iranian Slavic Baltic Celtic Armenian Albanian Tocharian Hittite
*h₂ster- "star"
(See also: *h₂eHs-)
star (< OE steorra) staírnō "star" stēlla "star" astḗr "star"[be] stṛ inst. pl. stŕ̥bhis, nom. pl. tāra-, fem. nom. sg. tarā "star" Av acc. stā̆rǝm (ablauting)[bf] "star"; Kurd stêr "star" MIr ser, W seren, Breton sterenn "star"; Celtic Sirona (< *Tsirona) "astral", "stellar" astł "star"; Astłik "deity of love, fertility and skylight" pl. A śreñ, B ściriñ "stars" ḫasterza "star"
*dyḗws, déywos[ii] "sky, day, god" Tues-day (< OE Tīwes-dæġ lit. "day of Tīw"[bg]) tiws "god", ON Týr "Tīw" (the war god) Iuppiter (Iovis), Old Latin Diū-piter (Diovis) "Jupiter"; diēs "day", deus, dīvus "god"[bh] Zdeús (Di(w)ós)[iii] "Zeus" d(i)yāús (divás, dyōs)[iii] "heaven", dēvás "god", devī́ "goddess" Av daēva- "demon"; Kurd dêw "giant" (OCS dĭnĭ (dĭne) "day" < *din-is), Ukr. dyvo and Russ. divo "miracle" OPrus deina "day", deiws "god", Lith diena "day", dievas "god" OIr dīe, W dydd "day"; OIr dia (dē), OW duiu- "God" tiw (tuənǰean) "day" din “dawn” <PAlb *deina “day”

zot “god” <PIE *dyew + *átta

Šiuš "Hittite sky- or sun-god"[265][bi]
*seh₂wol-, *sh₂un- "sun" sun (< OE sunne) sauil, sunnō "sun" sōl "sun" Homeric hēélios "sun" < *sāwélios;[bj] Helios "deity of the sun" súvar (súra-) "sun, light, heavens", sūra-, sūrya "sun" Av hvarǝ (hūrō) "sun, light, heavens", Hvare-khshaeta "deity of the radiant sun" OCS slĭnŭce "sun" < *sulnika-, Russ. po-solon' "sunwise" OPrus sauli "sun", sawaiti "week", Lith saulė "sun" OIr sūil "eye"; W haul "sun" ylli "star" < *sūlo- or *sūli- A swañceṃ; B swañco, swañciye "sunbeam" (< Common Tocharian *su̯āntœ)[266] DUTU-li-ya "Sun goddess"
*meh₁ns- "moon, month" moon (< OE mōna), month (< OE mōnaþ) mēna "moon", mēnoþs "month" mēnsis "month" Att mḗn, Ion meis, Dor mḗs "month", mḗnē "moon" mā́s "moon"; mā́sa "month" Av mā̊ (mā̊ŋhō) "moon"; NPers māh "moon, month"; Kurd meh "month", mang "moon" OCS měsęcĭ "moon, month" < *mēs-n̥-ko- OPrus miniks "moon", mins "month", Lith mėnulis "moon", mėnesis "month" OIr mī (mīs) "month" < *mēns;; W mis "month" amis "month" muai "month" A mañ B meñe "month"; A mañ ñkät B meṃ "moon"
*dʰeǵʰom- "earth"
(See also *dʰǵʰemon-)
humus "earth" ⇒
[note 78]
kʰtʰṓn (kʰtʰonós) "earth", kʰamaí "on the earth"[bk] kṣā́s (acc. kṣā́m, gen. jmá-) "earth" Av zā̊ (acc. ząm, gen. zǝmō) "earth"; Kurd zevî "farmland"; NPers zamin "ground, soil", zamindar "land owner" OCS zemĭ, zemlja "earth"; Russ Chernozem "black soil" OPrus zemê "earth", semmai "on the earth" (adverb); Lith žemė " earth" OIr "place"; Welsh dyn "man" dhe "earth" A tkaṃ (tkanis), B keṃ "earth" tēkan (tagnās) "earth"


(< OE hamer)



Asman "sky" OCS

kamy, gen. kamene "stone"

Lith akmuõ, gen. akmeñs "stone"



"crag, bare rock"

*wódr̥ (udéns) pl. *wédōr (udnés) "water" water (< OE wæter) watō (watins) "water" Umbrian utur "water", Latin unda "wave" húdōr (húdatos) "water"; Hydra (litt.) "water-animal" udaká- (loc. udán(i), pl. udá), udra "water"; samudra "ocean" (litt. "gathering of waters") Av aoδa- "spring", vaiδi- "stream" OCS voda "water", Russ. vedro "bucket"; Russ vódka "little water" OPrus undan "water", Lith vanduo gen. vandens "water" OIr u(i)sce "water" < *udeskyo-; Eng. Whisky < uisce beatha "water of life" get "river" ujë "water" A wär, B war "water" wātar (wetenas) "water"
*dóru, *drew- "wood, tree" tree (< OE trēo) triu "tree, wood" dóru, drûs "tree, wood" dā́ru, drṓs, drú- "tree, wood" Av dāru- "tree, wood"; Kurd dar "tree, wood" OCS drěvo "tree" OPrus drawê "hole in a tree, hollow tree", Lith drevė "hole in a tree", derva "tar" OIr daur "oak", W derwen "oak" tram "firm" dru "tree, wood" AB or "wood" taru "tree"
*h₂weh₁n̥to- "wind", *h₂weh₁- "to blow" wind (< OE wind); OE wāwan "to blow" winds "wind"; waian "to blow" ventus "wind" áenta (acc.) "wind", áēsi "(he) blows" vā́ta- (vānt-)[274] "wind", vāti "(he) blows", Vāyu "lord of winds"; nir·vāṇa- "blow-out, extinction"[275] Av vātō "wind", vāiti "(he) blows", Vayu-Vata "a pair of deities: Vayu/Wind and Vata/Air"; Kurd ba, wa, va "wind", hewa "air, weather" OCS vějǫ (vějetŭ) "to blow" OPrus witra "wind"; Lith vėjas "wind", vėtra "heavy wind", Vėjopatis "god of winds" W gwynt "wind" vetëtin“it thunders A want, B yente "wind" ḫūwanz[276] "wind"
*sneygʷʰ- "to snow" snow (< OE snāw < *snóygʷʰos, snīwan "to snow" < *snéygʷʰonom) snáiws "snow" nix (nivis) "snow", ninguō (ninguere) "to snow" nípʰa (acc.) "snow", neípʰei "it snows" sneha- "snow" Av snaēža- "to snow"; Shughni žǝnij "snow" < *snaiga- OCS sněgŭ "snow" OPrus snaigs "snow", Lith sniegas "snow", snigti "to snow" OIr snecht(a)e, W nyf "snow"; OIr snigid "it rains"
*h₁n̥gʷnís "fire" < *h₁engʷ- "to burn";[277]
*h₁óngʷl̥ "charcoal"
ignis "fire" agní "fire";
áṅgāra "charcoal"
OCS ognĭ "fire";
ǫglĭ "coal"
Lith ugnis "fire", anglis "coal" Lv uguns "fire" e enjte “Thursday”

<PAlb *agni “fire”

*péh₂wr̥, ph₂unés "bonfire"[bl] fire (< OE fȳr < *fuïr[bl]) fōn (funins)[bl] "fire"; OHG fuïr[bl] (two syllables) < *puwéri Umbrian pir "fire" < *pūr, acc. purom-e "into the fire" < *pur- pũr (purós) "fire" pāru (pēru) "sun, fire" NPers fer "oven, furnace" Czech pýř "glowing ash", Pol perzyna "embers", Slovak pyr, UpSb pyr "ashes"[278] OPrus pannu "fire" hur "fire" A por, B puwar, puwār, pwār "fire" paḫḫur "fire"
*dʰuh₂mós "smoke" < *dʰewh₂- "to smoke"[279] fūmus "smoke" thūmós "soul, life, breath; desire, temper" dhūmá- "smoke; mist, fog" Kurd du, dukêl OCS dymŭ "smoke" tym “smoke” <PAlb ātuma
"to become dry; burn, glow; hearth; ashes"

[280] [281] [264]
(See also: *h₂ster-)

(< OE æsce);
"ash; cinder"
"I am dry; dried up, withered";
"dry, parched, withered, arid" > arid;
"altar; sanctuary, refuge";
"roasted, baked; dried"; Osc aasa "altar"
"I dry";
"ashes, dust"
A/B ās- "to dry out; to dry up" ḫašš- "ash; dust"; ḫašša- "hearth"; Lyc χaha-(di-) "altar"

"to rub, scrape off; ashes, dust" [282][283]

cinis, cineris
"ashes" ⇒
[note 79]

"ash, dust"

"particle; small grain of dust, rice, corn; atom"

*gʷʰerm- "warm" ?warm (< OE wearm); OE ġierwan "to prepare, cook" < PGerm *garwjan ?warmjan "to warm" formus "warm" tʰermós "warm" gʰarmá- "heat" Av garǝma- "hot, heat"; OPers Garma-pada-, name of the fourth month, corresponding to June/July, orig. (?) "entrance of the heat"; Kurd germ "hot, warm" Russ. žar "heat", goret' "to burn" < *gʷʰer OPrus garmê "heat, glowing", Lith žarijos "cinders", žėrėti "to glow" OIr gorn "fire" < *gʷʰor-nos ǰerm "warm" Gheg zjarm "fire, heat"

ngroh “ I warm” ziej “I boil, cook” <PAlb *džernja

A śärme "heat (of summer)"

"to burn; warm, hot"
[284] [285] [264] [286]

"I warm, keep warm; nurture, foster";
"a warm application; lotion";

[note 80] fōmes
"kindling, tinder" febris

[note 81] februum, februarius
"expiatory offerings, means of purification";

[note 82][bm]


"it burns";
"burned, burnt"


žešti (žeg-) "to burn";
žigŭ "burn mark, brand"

Lith dė̃gis "burn scar"

ndez “to light”

djeg "burn"

*h₁ews- "to burn";[287][288] ember (< OE ǣmyrġe) ūrō "I burn, consume, inflame";
ustus "burnt, inflamed";
bustum < amb-bustum "a burial mound, tomb";
combūrō "I burn up, cremate, scald" > combust;
ūrna "urn, water jar" (lit. a vessel of burnt clay)
heúō "I singe" óṣati "(s/he) burns, burns down; punishes";
uṣṭá "burnt";
uṣṇá "warm, hot"
*gel- "to be cold, to freeze" cold (< OE ceald) kalds "cold (of the weather)" gelus "ice", gelidus "icy" gelandros śarada "autumn" MBulg goloti "ice" Lith gelmenis, gelumà "great cold"
*temH- "(to be) dark"
*témHos "darkness"
OHG demar "twilight" tenebrae "darkness" (< *temebrai < *temasro) támas "darkness, gloom", támisrā "dark night" Av taΘra "darkness", təmah OCS tĭmĭnŭ "darkness", tĭma', Rus temnotá "darkness" Lith tamsa "dark, darkness", tiḿsras "a darker shade of red"; Latv tumšs, timšs "dark", tùmsa "darkness"[289] OIr temel "darkness" (< PCel *temeslos); OW timuil "dark, darkness" B tamãsse "dark"
*nébʰos "cloud; mist"[181] OE nifol "dark [misty]" ON Niflheimr "home of mists" nebula "fog, cloud" népʰos "cloud"; nepʰélē "mass of clouds; name of a nymph" nábʰas "mist; sky, cloud"; nábʰāsa "celestial, heavenly; appearing in the sky" nabah- "heavens" (litt. "nimbuses, clouds")[290] OCS nebo "heaven, sky"; Pol niebo "sky"; Cz nebesa "skies"; Rus Небеса "heaven" Lith debesis "cloud" OIr nem "sky"; OBret nem, MBret neff "sky" avull “steam” <PAlb *abula nēpiš- "sky, heaven"; CLuw tappaš- "heaven"; HierLuw tipas- "heaven"

"dirt, mud"

"I soil, defile, foul" ⇒
[note 83]

"dirt, filth, smut; disgrace"

lluce"mud" ; lutum Latin


(< OE sand)

sabulō, sabulum
"sand, gravel"

"sand, grains of sand"

*srew-, *srew-mo, *sru-to "to flow, stream" (in river names)[bn] stream (< OE strēam) ON straumr "a stream" rheûma "flow" srutá- "flow", srava "a flow of, a waterfall" (< *srówos) YAv θraotah- "stream" (< OIA srótas-); OPer rautaʰ- "river" OCS struja "stream", o-strovŭ "island";[bo] Rus strumenı "brook"; Pol strumień "brook, river" Lith sraumuõ "brook, stream"; Latv strāva "current"; Lith sraujà, Latv strauja "stream";[295] Lith sraũtas "flow, torrent" OIr sruaimm, Ir sruth "stream, river"; MW ffrwd "brook, stream"; OBret frut "stream" OArm aṙu "brook; canal" (< srutis-) rrymë "stream, current; flow (of water)"
*dʰenh₂- "to set in motion, to flow";[296]
*déh₂nu "river goddess"
fōns < PItal *ðonts "spring, fountain; fresh water; source" dhánvati "it runs, flows, causes to run or flow";[297]
dhána- "competition, contest; prize";
dā́nu "fluid, drop, dew"
Dnieper < OOss dānu apara "the far river"[298] Danube < PCelt *Dānowyos

"valley, vault; curve, hollow"

(< OE dæl)



dolŭ "valley; depression"

*móri "lake?, sea?"[bp] OE mere "lake" marei "sea" mare "sea" OCS morje "sea" Lith mãrės "sea" OIr muir "sea"; Gaul Morini "those from the sea (name of a tribe)"


PIE English Gothic Latin Ancient Greek Sanskrit Iranian Slavic Baltic Celtic Armenian Albanian Tocharian Hittite
*per- "through, across, beyond" far (< OE feorr) faírra "far"; faír- "around; (intensifier)" per "through" perí, pér "around" pári "forward" Av pairi; OPers pariy "forward"; Kurd ber "in front of, before" OCS prě- "forward" OPrus pro-, pra- "trough, across", Latvian pāri "across", Lith per "across", pra- "to start and finish doing something", pro- "through" OIr ir-, W er "forward" heṙu "far" për, pej, pe "forward" parā, Lycian pri "forth"
*upér(i) "over, above" over (< OE ofer) ufar "over, above, beyond" super "over" (influenced by sub "under") hupér "over" upári "over, above, beyond" Av 'upairi, OPers "over, above, beyond" OCS po "upon, at" OPrus uppin "cloud", OIr for, W gor, gwar "over, on" ver "up" epër "over, above"
*h₂ents "forehead", *h₂entí, *h₂entá "in front of" and (< OE and) and "along, throughout, towards, in, on, among"; OHG enti "previously" < PGerm *andiaz ante "in front of" antí "instead of" anti "opposite to it" Kurd enî "front, forehead" Lith añt "on" antai "there" OIr étan "forehead" < *antono- ənd "instead of" ende “yet, still”

edhe “and” from older ênde

A ānt, B ānte "surface, forehead" ḫānz, ḫanti "in front"
*h₁én "in" in (< OE in) in "in, into, towards" in "in" en "in" án-īka- "face" < ?*h₁eni-Hkʷ Av ainika "face" < ?*h₁eni-Hkʷ OCS on-, vŭn-, "in" OPrus en "in", Lith į "in" OIr in- "in"; W yn "in" i "in" “in” AB y-, yn-, B in- "in" an-dan "inside"
*h₂epó "away" of, off (< OE of) af "from, of, by" (ab-u "from ...?") ab "away" apó "from" ápa "away" Av apa, OPers apa "away" OCS ot, "from, apart of" Lith apačià "bottom" < *apotyā prapë "back" < *per-apë

pa “without”

āpa "behind, back" (or ? < *epi)
*deḱs- "the right (side)" Gothic taihswa "right side" dexter dexiós; Myc de-ki-si-wo dákṣina "right, south" Av dašina "right, south"; MPer dašn "right hand, right side" OCS desnŭ "right (side)" Lith dẽšinas Gaul Dexsiva (Dexsiua) djathtë “right” <PAlb *detsa
*marǵ-, *merǵ-
"edge; boundary, border"
(< OE mearc);
(< OF markōn)
margō (marginis)
"border, edge" > margin
"limit, mark, boundary";
"way, road, path"
*bʰudʰmḗn "bottom"[304] butt (< OE bytt);
bottom, botham (< OE bodan, botm)
fundus "bottom, ground, foundation; farm, estate" puthmḗn "bottom (cup, jar, sea)" budhná "bottom, ground, base, depth" Gaul bona "base, bottom, village"
(found in several placenames: Bonna > Bonn;
Windo-bona "white village" > Vienna;
Bononia > Boulogne(-sur-Mer))[305]
buzë “lip, edge” <PAlb *budza

bythë "bottom"

Basic adjectives[edit]

PIE English Gothic Latin Ancient Greek Sanskrit Iranian Slavic Baltic Celtic Armenian Albanian Tocharian Hittite

"great, tall; hill, elevation";
"high, mighty"

borough, borough, Brough, bur-, burg, burgh, bury, -bury
(< OE burg, burh "city, town, fortification");
(< OE beorg)

baurgs, OHG burg "fortress, citadel";
OHG Burgunt (a female personal name)[310]

fortis "strong, powerful; firm" ⇒
[note 84];
LL Burgundia "Burgundy";
Fr Bourgogne

bṛhát, bṛhánt- "tall, elevated";[310]
bráhman "lit. growth, expansion, development
> outpouring of the heart
> prayer, sacred word, mantra"; brahmán "worshiper";[311][312]
barháyati "to invigorate"

Av barəzah‑ "height", Harā Bərəzaitī "a mythical mountain" (litt. "High Watchpost") OCS

brěgŭ "hill, slope; bank, shore"

MIr brí, MW bre, MBre bre, Gaul -briga "elevation, hill"; Gaul Brigantes (ethnonym); Celt Brigantia (name of a goddess),[310] Ir Brigid (goddess) < PCelt *Brigantī "The High One" barjr "high" A pärk- "to elevate"; B pärkare "long" parkuš "tall"
*weh₁-, *weh₁ros
OE wǣr "true" Ger wahr
Dut waar
"true" (> very,[bq] verify, verity, etc.)
OCS věra "faith, belief" OIr. fír "true" urtë “quiet” <PAlb *wara
*medʰyo- "mid, middle" mid, middle (< OE mid, middel) midjis "middle" medius "middle" més(s)os "middle" mádʰya- "middle" Av maiδya- "middle" OCS meždu "between", Russ. meža "boundary" OPrus meddin "forest" (between villages), Lith medis, Latv mežs "tree" OIr mid- "middle" < *medʰu-; MW mei- "middle" < *medʰyo- mēǰ "middle" mes, mjet "in between, middle"
*meǵ- "big" much (< OE myc̣el "big, many") mikils "big" magnus "big" mégas "big" máha-, mahā́nt- "big" Av mazant- "big" OPrus mazs "smaller", Lith mažas "small" OIr mochtae, MIr mag-, maige "big" mec "big" madh "big" A mak, B makā "much" mekkis "big"
*dlongʰos, *dl̥h₁gʰós "long";[316] long (< OE long, lang);
langs "long" longus "long" dolikhós "long, protracted";
dīrghá- "long" Av darəga "long" OCS dlĭgŭ "long";
Lith ilgas "long" gjatë "long" talugai- "long"
*gʷerH₂- "heavy" kaúrus "heavy" grāvis "heavy" barús "heavy" gurú- "heavy" Av gouru- "heavy-", NPers girān "heavy" < *grāna- (influenced by *frāna "full") OCS gromada "big size, huge", gruz "a load, something heavy", OPrus garrin "tree", Lith geras "good" MIr bair "heavy (?)", W bryw "strong" zor "brute force; great effort" A kra-marts "heavy (?)", B krā-mär "burden" < *gʷroH₂-mVr-
*h₁le(n)gʷʰ-, *h₁ln̥gʷʰ-ro-, *h₁ln̥gʷʰ-u-[br] "light (in weight)" light (< OE lēoht) leihts "light" < *h₁lengʷʰ-tos; OHG lungar "fast" < *h₁ln̥gʷʰ-ros levis "light" < *h₁legʷʰ-us elakʷʰús "small" < *h₁ln̥gʷʰ-us, elapʰrós "light, quick" < *h₁ln̥gʷʰ-ros lagʰú-, ragʰú- "quick, light, small" Av ragu-, fem. rǝvī "fast", superl. rǝnjišta- "fastest" OCS lŭgŭkŭ "light" OPrus langus "light", langsta "window", lankewingis "flexible", linktwei "to bend", Lith lengvas "light", lankstus "flexible", langas "window", lenkti "to bend" OIr laigiu, laugu, MW llei "smaller" lanǰ "breast" lehtë "light-weight" B lankutse "light"
*h₂élyos, *h₂ényos "other"; *h₂énteros "second" else (< OE elles); other (< OE ōþer) aljis, anþar "other" alius "other" állos "other" anyá-, ántara- "other"; aryas, Aryan, "else" Av anya-, ainya-, OPers aniya- "other"; Av airiia, Aryan, "friend", "faithful", airiio "elsehow"; Ossetian ändär "other"; East Iranian hal-ci "whoever" Old Sorbian wutory "other" < PSlav *ǫtorŭ OPrus antars "second", Lith antras "second" OIr aile, W ail "other";
Gaul allos "other, second"[317]
ayl "other" lloj “sort, type” A ālya-kə, B alye-kə "another" Lydian aλa- "other"
*néwo- "new" new (< OE nīwe) niujis "new" novus "new" né(w)os "new" náva- "new" Av nava- "new" OCS novŭ "new" OPrus nawas "new", Lith naujas "new" OIr nūë, W newydd "new" nor "new" < *nowero- A ñu, B ñune "new" newa- "new"
*h₂yuHn̥- "young" young (< OE ġeong < *h₂yuHn̥ḱós) juggs "young" juvenis "young", iuvencus "young"/"bullock" yúvan- (yū́nas) "young" Av yvan-, yavan- (yūnō) "youth, young man" OCS junŭ "young" Lith jaunas "young" OIr ōac "young", W ieuanc "young" < *H₂yuHn̥k̂ós
*sen- "old" sineigs "old (person)" senex "old" hénos "former, from a former period" sánas "old" Av hana- "old" OCS sedyi "grey-headed" OPrus sentwei "to get old", Lith senas "old" OIr sen "old", Old Welsh hen "old" hin "old"
*nogʷ- "naked" naked (< OE nacod "naked") naqaþs "naked" nudus "naked" gumnós "naked" nagnás "naked" NPers loxt "naked" OCS nagŭ "naked" OPrus nags "naked", Lith nuogas "naked" OIr nocht "naked"; W noeth "naked, bare" nekumant- "naked, bare"
*bʰosós "bare, barefoot"[318] bare (< OE bær) OCS bosŭ "barefooted, unshod" Lith basas "barefooted"
*n̥mr̥tós "immortal"[319] ámbrotos "immortal, divine" amṛ́ta- "immortal"
*h₂eḱ- "sharp"[320] edge (< OE eċġ) aceō (acēre) "I am sour";
acidus "sour";
acētum "vinegar";
acus "needle, pin";
astus "craft, guile", astūtus "shrewd, astute"
akmé "point, edge"; oxús "sharp, pointed; quick; clever" Persian āčār "pickle, marinade" OCS ostĭnŭ "sharp point" Lith akstinas "pointy and sharp item" teh “blade” from eh “sharpen”
*bel- "strong"[321] dēbilis[bs] "feeble, weak" βελτίων "better" bála- "force, strength, power" Russ bolʹšój "big, large, great"

Light and color[edit]

PIE English Gothic Latin Ancient Greek Sanskrit Iranian Slavic Baltic Celtic Armenian Albanian Tocharian Hittite
*lewk- "light, brightness" light (< OE lēoht) liuhaþ (liuhadis) "light" lūceō (lūcēre) "to shine", lūx "light" leukós "bright, shining, white"; Leuce "white (poplar); name of a nymph"; Leucothea "bright goddess" rócate "(he) shines", roká- "light", loka- "world, place" Av raočant- "shining", raočah "light"; OPers raučah "light"; Kurd roj "sun, light, day", ron "light" OCS luča "ray, flash" < *loukyā OPrus lauk "bright", lauksna "star", laukas "field", Lith laukas "outside, field" OIr luchair "shine"; W llachar "bright", llug "shimmer" loys "light" AB lyuk/luk- "to shine" luk(k)- "to shine"
*bʰel- "to shine"[322] balefire (< OE bǣlfȳr) ON bál "fire" fulgeō "I flash, glitter";
flagrō "I burn, blaze";
flamma "flame, fire"
phlégō "I scorch, kindle"; Phlegyas "fiery"; Phlegethon "flaming";
phlégma "flame, inflammation"; phalós "white"
bhrája- "fire, shining";
bhāla- "splendor"
OCS bělŭ "white" Lith baltas, Latv balts "fair, white" balë “white spot”
*h₂erǵ- "shining, bright"

*h₂r̥ǵn̥tóm "white metal (silver)"[323]

argentum "silver (metal)"; Fal arcentelom "a small silver coin" Myc a-ku-ro,[324] árguros "silver"; argós "white, bright";[bt] Argiope "silver face" Skt rajatá- "silver; silver-coloured"; árjuna- "white, clear, silvery"[326] Av ərəzatəm "silver" Celtib arkato[bezom] "silver [mine]"; Ir Airget[lám] "silver[-hand] (title of Nuada)"; OIr argat, OW argant "silver" arcat‘ "silver" A ārkyant "silver"; A ārki-, B ārkwi "white" ḫarkiš "white, bright"

"to shine, white"
[327] [328] [329] [330]

(< OE hwīt)


"white; bright";
"to shine";
"to become bright"

Av spaēta "white; bright";
NPers sefid "white"

OCS světŭ "light, world";
"to shine, illuminate";
"to get bright";
"bright color; bloom, flower"

Lith šviesà "light";
šviẽsti "to shine"

"black; dark, dusky"
[331] [332] [329] [333]

"black, dark, dark-blue" > Kṛṣṇa-

NPers kersne "dirt, dirty"

OCS črŭnŭ "black"

[note 85]

Lith kir̃snas "black (of a horse)";
OPrus kirsnan "black"

sorrë “crow” <PAlb *tšārnā
*h₁rewdʰ-, *h₁rowdʰ-os, *h₁rudʰ-rós[br] "red" red (< OE rēad < *h₁rowdʰ-os) rauþs (raudis) "red" < *h₁rowdʰ-os ruber "red" < *h₁rudʰ-rós; Umb rufru "red" Myc e-ru-ta-ra, e-ru-to-ro;[334] erutʰrós "red" < *h₁rudʰ-rós; Erytheia "name of a nymph" (litt. "the red one"); rudʰirá- "red" < *H₁rudʰ-rós mixed with *H₁rudʰ-i-; rṓhita- "red"; lōhá- "reddish" < *H₁roudʰ-os Av raoiδita- "red" OCS rudŭ "red"; Czech rudá "red";[bu] Pol rudy "red-haired"[336] Lith raũdonas "red", rudas "brown" OIr rúad, W rhudd "red", rhwd "rust";[337] Gaul Roud- (in personal names)[338] pruth "redhead" (< PAlb *apa-ruđa) A rtär, B ratre "red" < *h₁rudʰ-rós
*gʰel-, ǵʰelh₃- "green, yellow"[339] gold; yellow (< OE geolu); yolk (< OE ġeoloca) gulþ "gold" helvus "honey-yellow"; gilvus "pale yellow (of horses)"[340][bv] kʰlōrós "pale green";[bw] Chloe "blooming; epithet of Demeter" híraņya- "gold"; hári- "yellow" Av zaranyam "gold"; zári "yellow"; Zarinaia < Saka *Zarinayā "the golden one [name of a queen]" OCS zelenĭ "green"; Rus zóloto "gold";
Pol złoty "gold"; żółty "yellow"
Latv zèlts "gold"; Lith geltas "yellow"; žel̃vas "golden"; žalias "green" MWel gell "yellow" ? diell “sun” <PAlb *delwa

"grey, dark shade"
[344] [345] [329] [346]

(< OE hīew "appearance, form; hue, color")

"form, show, appearance"

"dark; deep brown";
"dark, black, blue, brown, grey"

[note 86]

Av siiāuua "dark"

Pol siwy "grey"

Lith šývas "light grey"

*bʰer-, bʰerH-
[347] [348] [329] [349]
(See also *bʰébʰrus)

bear (animal)
(< OE bera);
(< OE brūn)

ON bjǫrn
"bear (animal)";


"deep brown, reddish brown; tawny"

Lith bė́ras "reddish brown"

Positive qualities[edit]

PIE English Gothic Latin Ancient Greek Sanskrit Iranian Slavic Baltic Celtic Armenian Albanian Tocharian Hittite
"good, excellent"
(Germanic names, e.g., Wisigoth-
"the Visigoths")
"excellent, good; beneficient; goods, property"
Av vohū "good" OCS veselŭ "merry, joyful, happy" Gaul Vesu- (in personal names: Vesuavus, Segovesus, Bellovesus) Luw wāsu- "good"; Pal wašu "well"[354]
"good, well" (when used prefixally), e.g.,
"well-bearing" (> "euphoria");
"good grace";
"bringing good news"
"good" (used prefixally), e.g.,
"good morning" (See also bhā́s);
"inquiry as to welfare, lit. good question"
Av hu "good" OCS sŭ- "good" (used prefixally), e.g., sŭ-čęstĭnŭ "happy, lit. good part"; sŭdravĭje "health", Russ zdoróv'je;
sŭrěsti "to meet, encounter"
"being, existing, real, true"
(See also *H₁es-)
(< OE sōþ "truth");
(< OE sōþian "to prove the validity of, to confirm as true");
soothsayer (originally "truth-teller")
(< PGmc sanþaz + sagjaną "truth + say");
sin (implying "truly guilty")
(< OE synn);
OE sōþlīċe "truly, really", later "amen"
"true, truthful, correct"
"guilty, criminal" (compare sin);
"innocent"; [bx]
"dangerous, serious, critical"
"being, essence, reality" (also used in compounds, e.g., sad·guru);
"essence, existence, spirit; creature";
"true,real, genuine; sincere, honest, valid";
"good, virtuous, faithful wife" (> suttee)

gjë “thing” < all from PAlb *sana

*sweh₂d-, swéh₂dus
[361] [362] [363]

(< OE swēte)

"sweet, pleasant, delicious"


"delicious, tasty, sweet"

Construction, fabrication[edit]

PIE English Gothic Latin Ancient Greek Sanskrit Iranian Slavic Baltic Celtic Armenian Albanian Tocharian Hittite
*h₂éyos "copper, bronze"[134] ore (< OE ār) aes "copper, bronze, brass; money, fee" áyas "metal, iron"
*dʰwer- "door, doorway, gate" door (< OE dor, duru) daúr, daúrō "door" forēs (pl.) "door" tʰurā "door" dvā́r, dvā́ras (pl.) "door" Av dvarǝm (acc.) "gate, court"; OPers duvarayā "at the gate" NPers dar "door" OCS dvĭri "door" OPrus dwarris "gate, goal",dwars "estate", Lith durys "door", dvaras "estate", vartai "gate", Latg durovys "door", vuorti "gate" OIr dorus "door" < Proto-Celtic *dworestu-, W dôr "door" < *dʰureH₂ duṙn "door" derë "door" B twere "doors" an-durza "within"
h₂(e)nh₂t- "doorpost"[364] antae "anteroom" ā́tā "doorpost"
"to build (up), put together"
(< OE timber "building material");
(< OE temian "to fit");
(< OE toft)
"to build, construct, make"
*domo-, *domu- "house", "home" timrjan "to build, erect" domus (domūs) "house" dómos "house" dámas "house" Av dąm, dąmi "in the house"; dǝmā̆na-, nmāna- "house" < *dm-ā̆na- OCS domŭ "house" OPrus dimstis "porch", Lith dimstis "entryway"

Lith namas "house"

MIr dom-liacc "house of stones" tun "house" dhomë "room" ?A tem-, B tam- "be born"
*gʰerdʰ-, *gʰordʰ-os- "enclosure, fence" yard (< OE ġeard "enclosure"); garden (< AngNor gardin < Frank *gardo) gards "yard, court"; ON garðr "fence, enclosed space" hortus "garden" kʰórtos "feeding place for animals" gṛhá "house" Av gərəδa "daeva cave" OCS gradŭ "fortification; city" Latv gãrds; Lith gar̃das "fold, pen" OIr gort "standing crop", W garth "cliff; enclosure" OArm gerdastan "the body of servants and captives; estate" (either a borrowing from Iranian or inherited) gardh "fence, enclosure, barricade"
*kʷekʷlo- "wheel"
(See also *kʷel-)
wheel (< OE hwēol, hweogol < PGerm *hweg(w)ulaz < *kʷekʷlós) ON hjōl, hvēl "wheel" < PGerm *hweh(w)ulaz < *kʷékʷlos kúklos "circle", (pl.) "wheels" cakrá- "wheel" Av čaxra- "wheel" OCS kolo "wheel" OPrus kellin "wheel", Lith kaklas "neck" W cylch "circle" A kukäl, B kokale "wagon" kugullas "donut"[368]
*Hreth₂- "wheel", "wagon" OHG Rad "wheel" rota "wheel", "wagon" rátha "chariot, car" Av raθa "wagon", "chariot" Lith rãtai "wagon" (pl.), rãtas "wheel" (sg.) OIr roth "wheel", "circle" rreth "ring, hoop, tyre (for carriages)" (< *Hróth₂ikos)
*néh₂us "vessel, boat" OE nōwend "shipmaster, sailor" ON naust "boathouse"; OIc nōr "ship" nāvis "ship" naûs "ship";

Myc na-u-do-mo "shipbuilders"[369]

naú, nāva "ship" Pers nâv "boat, ship" (archaic) OIr , nau "boat" OArm naw "ship, boat"
*h₂wĺ̥h₁neh₂ "wool" wool (< OE wull) wulla "wool" lāna "wool" lênos "wool, fleece (pl.)", Dor lânos ū́rṇā "wool, woolen thread" Av varənā "wool" OCS vlĭna "wool", OESlav vŭlna "wool" Latv vil̃na, Lith vìlna "wool", OPrus wilna "skirt (made of wool)" OIr olann, MBret gloan, glan, OW gulan "wool" OArm gełmn "fleece, wool" ḫulanaš "wool"
*s(y)uH- "to sew" sew (< OE sēowan) siujan "to sew" suō (suere) "to sew"; sūtūra "thread, suture"[370] humḗn "sinew" sī́vyati "(he) sews", syūtá- "sewn"; sū́tra- "thread, string"[371] OCS šijǫ (šiti) "to sew" OPrus šutun "to sew", Lith siūti "to sew", Latg šyut "to sew" sum(m)anza(n), šuel (?), šuil (?) "thread"
*teks- "to fashion, construct" OE þeox "spear" OHG dehsa, dehsala "hatchet" texō (texere) "to weave" téktōn "carpenter", tíktō "I give birth" takṣati, tā́ṣṭi "(he) fashions" Av tašaiti "(he) cuts out, manufactures"; OPers us-tašanā "stairway" < "*construction"; MPers tāšīδan "to do carpentry" OCS tešǫ (tesati) "to hew", OPrus tesatun "to hew", Lith tašyti "to hew" OIr tāl "axe" < *tōkslo- teshë “cloth, robe” takkeszi "puts together"
*webʰ- "to weave" weave (< OE wefan), web (<P.Gmc. *wabjan) OHG weban "to weave"; ON vefa hupʰaínō "I weave" ubʰnā́ti "ties together"; ūṛna-vābhi- "spider" (litt. "wool-weaver") Av ubdaēna- "made of cloth"; NPers bāfad "(he) weaves" viti "weave" Lith vyti "to twist" W gwau "knit, weave" venj "I weave" < *webʰnyō A wpantär (them. pres.),[372][373]

B wāp- "to weave"

wēpta- "wove"[374]
*werǵ- "to work" work (< OE weorc, wyrc̣an) waúrkjan "to work" urgeō (urgēre) "to push, drive" (w)érgon "work", érdō, hrézdō "I work" < *wérĝ-yoH₂, *wréĝ-yoH₂ varcas "activity" (? not in Pokorny) Av varəza- "work, activity", vərəzyeiti "(he) works"; NPers varz, barz "field work, husbandry" vrǔšiti "to act, to do" OPrus wargs "bad, evil, malicious, vicious", wargtwei "to torment oneself, to suffer", Lith vargas "the state of going through bad/unlucky events" MW gwreith "deed" < *wreĝ-tu- gorc "work " rregj "to clean" A wärk-, B wārk- "to shear"
*wes- "to clothe, wear clothes" wear (< OE werian) wasjan "to clothe" vestis "clothing" héstai "gets dressed" váste "(s/he) gets dressed"; vástra- "clothing" Av vaste, vaŋhaiti "(he) gets dressed" OPrus westi "corset" W gwisg "clothing" z-genum "I put on (clothes)" < *wes-nu- vesh "dress"
veshje "clothing"
B wastsi, wästsi "clothing" wassezzi "(he) clothes"

Self-motion, rest[edit]

PIE English Gothic Latin Ancient Greek Sanskrit Iranian Slavic Baltic Celtic Armenian Albanian Tocharian Hittite
*h₁es- "to be", *h₁es-ti "is", *h₁és-mi "am"
Cf. Indo-European copula
(See also *h₁sónts)
is (< OE is), am ist "is" sum (esse) "I am (to be)"; est "it is" estí "is,"; Dorian Greek entí "(they) are" <- *h₁s-enti ásti "is"; ásmi "am" Av asti "is"; Persian ast "is" OCS jestŭ "is" OPrus ast "is", ēst "almost", Lith esti "is" OIr is "is"; Old Welsh hint "(they) are" <- *h₁s-enti em "I am" është "is" B ste "is" ēszi "is"
*bʰuh₂- "to become"
Cf. Indo-European copula
be (< OE bēon); OE būan "to dwell" bauan "to dwell" fuī "I was" pʰúomai "I become", épʰū "became" bʰávati "become, is", ábʰūt "became, was" Av bavaiti, OPers bavatiy "(he) becomes" OCS byti "to become, be" OPrus butwei "to be", Lith būti "to be" Gaul biiete "be! (imperative)";[375][by]
OIr buith "being", W bod "to be"
busanim "sprout up" buj, bûj "I dwell, stay overnight" < *bunjō
*sed-, *si-sd- "to sit" sit (< OE sittan < *sed-yo-nom) sitan "to sit" sedeō (sedēre) "to sit", sīdō "I sit down" < *si-sd-oH₂ hézdomai "I sit" < *sed-yo-, hizdō "I set" < *si-sd-oH₂ sátsi "(he) sits", aor. ásadat "sat"; sī́dati "(he) sits" < *si-sd-eti; Upaniṣad lit. "sit-down-beside" < upa: 'by, beside', ni: 'down', sad: 'sit' Av ni-šaŋhasti "(he) sits down", opt. hazdyā-t "(he) should sit", hiδaiti "(he) sits" < *si-sd-eti; OPers caus. niya-šād-ayam "I set" OCS sěždǫ (sěděti) "to sit" OPrus sistwei "to sit down", Lith sedėti "to be sitting", sėstis "to sit down" OIr sa(i)did "sits"; Br hezañ "to stop" nstim "I sit" (< *ni-zdyō), hecanim (< *sed-s-an-yō) "I sit on, I ride" shëtis "to walk"
*legʰ- "to lie down" lie (< OE lic̣gan) ligan "to lie down" lectus "bed" lékʰomai "I lie down" laṅghate "(he) leans, lies down" NPers ley "lie down" OCS ležǫ (ležati) "to lie down" OPrus laztwei "to lie down" OIr laigid "lies down" lagje "city quarter" A läk- "to lie", B lyśalyñe "(act of) lying down" lagari "(he) lies down"
"to lie down; settle, bed, cozy, familiar"
home (< OE hām "village, home" < *k̂oi-mos);
hewe "domestic, servant"
(< OE hīwa "family member")
háims (háimáis) "village, town" < *k̂oi-mis;
cīvis "city dweller, citizen" < *k̂ei-wis
[note 87];
"cradle; nest";
(Roman goddess who protects infants in the cradle)
"I put in motion; act, move, stir; rouse" ⇒
[note 88]
"I lie (idle, sick, dead, etc.)";
"I go" (Homeric);
"I move, set in motion, remove; inflect (grammar); meddle; stir on" (> kinetic, cinema, etc.);
"bed, place of rest; lair; lodging";
"I put to bed, cause to rest"
śētē (older śáyē) "(he) lies", śērē "they lie";
"dear, precious";
"favorable, happy, fortunate; auspicious" (later applied to the god Rudra, first as Śiva-rudra, then simply Śiva; also spelled Shiva)
Av saēte "(he) lies", sōire "they lie" OCS sěmija "family";
sěmĭ "household member"
OPrus seimi "family", kaims "village", Lith šeima "family", kaimas "village";
sieva "wife"
OIr cóim, cóem, OW cum "dear" sirem "I love" < *k̂eiro- komb “nation, people” kitta, kittari "lies"; Luwian ziyari "lies"
"to settle, live; cultivate"
"I let, permit, allow; set down";
"permitted, allowed; laid, set down; placed" ⇒
[note 89];
"I leave off, cease, desist" (> desinence);
pōnō < po + sinō
"I place, put, lay; set up" ⇒
[note 90]
"I found, build, establish; populate; produce";
"well-built, nice place";
"a founding, settling; creature";
"tame, docile, obidient";
"colony, foundation"
"(s/he) abides, stays, dwells; remains";
"abode, habitation, dwelling; the earth"
*steh₂- "to stand (i.e. be standing)" stand (< OE standan) standan "to stand"; OHG stān, stēn "to stand" stō (stāre) "to stand", sistō (sistere) "to cause to stand" Doric hístāmi "I stand" sthā- / tíṣṭhati "(he) stands" Av hištaiti "(he) stands"; OPers impf. a-ištata "(he) stood" OCS stajǫ (stati) "to stand up" OPrus stalitwei "to stand", Lith stovėti "to stand" OIr tair-(ṡ)issiur "I stand"; W sefyll "to stand" stanam "I build; gain" mbështet, pshtet "I support" B stäm- "to stand", ste "is", "stare" "(they) are" istanta- "to stay, delay"
*h₁ey- "to go" yede (< OE ēode "went") iddja "went" eō (īre) "to go" eĩmi "I (will) go" éti "(he) goes", yánti "(they) go" Av aēiti "(he) goes", yeinti "(they) go"; OPers aitiy "goes" OCS jiditi "to move away, to arrive", jidene "coming" OPrus eitwei "to go", Lith eiti "to walk" W wyf "I am"; OIr ethaid "goes" < *it-āt- iǰanem (aorist ēǰ) "I climb down" < *i-gh- iki "to leave; flee" *H₁(e)i-K- A "he went", B yatsi "to go" < *yā- īt "go!"
*gʷem- "to come"[386] come (< OE cuman) qiman "to come"; OSax cuman [an liudi] "to come (to people) [to be born]" veniō (venīre) "to come"[bz] baínō "I go" gámati "(he) goes", aor. ágan, gan "(he) went" Av ǰamaiti "goes"; OAv inj. uz-ǰǝ̄n "(he) goes", pl. gǝmǝn "they go" OPrus gimtwei "to be born", Lith gimti "to be born", Latv dzimt "to bear (a son)" ekn (< *h₁e-gʷem-t) "(he) came" A käm-, kum-, B käm-, kam-, śem "to come" Luw zammantis "newborn child" (?)
"to move swiftly, to move upright, to rise (as if to fight)"[387][388]
iubeō "I authorize, legitimate; bid, command, order";
iussus "order, command, decree, ordinance"
euthús "straight, direct";
eîthar "at once, immediately, forthwith";
husmī́nē "battle, conflict, combat"
"to fight, battle; wage war";
"to engage in battle; to overcome in war, to be a match for; to lead to war, to cause to fight";
"battle, fight, war";
"fighter, warrior, soldier";
"hero, warrior"
OCS oiminŭ "warrior";
Pol judzić "to incite, instigate"
Lith judėti "to move"
"to spread out; fly (spread wings)"
(See also *péth₂r̥)
(< OE fæþm)
"I ask, beg, request; aim; attack, thrust at";
"I am open; accessible, attainable; increase, extend" (> patent);
"I spread, open out, extend; unfold, expand" (> expand);
passus < *pat-s-tus
"spread out; step, pace" (> pass);
"attack, assault; rapid motion";
"impudent, wanton; petulant" > petulant;
"broad flat dish, saucer";
"favorable, well-disposed" (> propitious)
"I fly; rush, dart; make haste";
"I fall, throw self down";
"I spread out, open";
"fall; misfortune, calamity; ruin" (>
"falling; (grammar) case, inflection";
"capable of inflexion";
pétalon "leaf (plant, flower or tree)" >
"(s/he) flies; descends, falls";
"(s/he) causes to fly, throws; causes to fall; pours, spills"
"to walk, step; stumble, fall"
(See also *pōds)
(< OE feter);
OE fæt "step; stride; pace, gait
"I hinder, impede, obstruct" (>
"I unfetter; remove impediments; prepare" (> expedite);
pecco < *ped-co
"I sin, transgress; offend" ⇒
[note 91];
"fetter, shackle; snare";
pessum < *ped·tum
"to the lowest part; to the bottom; in ruin";
"worst, lowest" (>
"worse" (>
"town" (step > ground > town)
"ground, earth";
"open country, plain, field; female genitals";
"oar blade, oar";
"steering paddle";
pezós < *peďďós
"on foot, walking; on land, infantry";
"base" ⇒
[note 92]
"(s/he) moves, goes; falls";
"(s/he) causes to fall, drops";
"step, stride, pace; footstep, vestige; plot of ground; a fourth"
padati, pasti
"to fall";
"on foot, pedestrian";
"fall; downfall, disaster";
"ground, floor"
*sekʷ- "to follow" OE sec̣g "follower, companion, man" ON seggr "hero" sequor (sequī) "to follow" ⇒
[note 93]
hépomai "I follow" sácate "(he) follows" Av hačaitē, hačaiti "(he) follows" šagati "to walk, stride, step";
Russ šag "step"
OPrus sektwei "to shallow [To breathe lightly]", Lith sekti "to follow" OIr sechithir "follows" shoh “ I see”
"to go, climb, march"
(< OE stǣġer);
(< OE stīgan);
(< OE stiġel, stigol)
Ger steigen "to ascend, climb, rise" vestīgō
"I follow a track, search" (>
"footprint, track; trace, mark; sole of foot" (> "vestige")
"a row (of soldiers); a line of poetry" > Russ stix "verse, a line of poetry; poem (plu)";
"row, course, file";
"one of a row, one of a series; element" > stoichio- (> stoichiometry, etc.);
"pillar of brick; target"
"(s/he) steps, steps up, mounts"
OCS stignǫti "to attain; reach";
? Shteg “path”
"to turn, rotate"
(< OE -weard "facing, turned toward");
worth (obsolete meaning "to become", compare German werden)
(< OE weorþ);
(< OE wyrd, wurd "fate, destiny");
OE weorþung "an evaluation, appreciation"
Ger werden
"to become, to get; to turn; to be, happen";
"sausage, wurst" (< PGmc "something twisted")
"I turn, revolve; turn around, reverse, retreat" ⇒
[note 94];
vertex, vortex "whirlpool";
vertīgō "giddiness";
prōsus, prorsus < proversus
"forwards, towards" > prose;[ca]
re- < PIE *wret-, metathesis of *wert-
"re-" (> re- (again, repetition, etc.))
"(it) turns, rotates; moves, advances; occurs";
"a turning; conduct, behavior, intercourse";
"(it) turns" (transitive, causative);
"track; way, course, path"
OCS vrĭtěti "to turn";
"to return";
"gate, door";
"turn, rotor, wheel";
vrěmę < *vertmen "hour; time" (Compare Skt vártman)
Lith versti "to turn" rris “to grow, to increase”
*bʰegʷ- "to run, flee"[401] phobéō "I put to flight, terrify, alarm; threaten"; phóbos "fear, terror; fright, panic; flight, retreat" bhājáyati "(s/he) causes to flee" Kurd bazdan "to run, to escape" OCS běgati, běžati "to flee, run, escape"; Lith bėgti "to run"
*bʰewg- "to flee"[402] fugiō "I flee"; fuga "flight, escape" pheúgō "I flee"; phugḗ "flight, escape" Lith baugus "scary", baugštus "scared easily"

Object motion[edit]

PIE English Gothic Latin Ancient Greek Sanskrit Iranian Slavic Baltic Celtic Armenian Albanian Tocharian Hittite
*bʰer- "to carry" bear (< OE beran);
burden, burthen (< OE byrþen)
baíran "to carry" ferō (ferre) "to carry"; lucifer "light-bearing, light-bringing" pʰerō "I carry"; khristóphoros "Christ-bearing" bʰarati "(he) carries" Av baraiti "(he) carries"; OPers barantiy "they carry"; NPers bordan "to carry"; Kurd birin "to carry, to take" OCS berǫ (bĭrati) "to carry" Lith berti "to pour non liquid" OIr biru "I carry"; W beru "to flow" berem "I carry" bie "I carry"; barrë "load, burden"
*weǵʰ- "to convey" weigh (< OE wegan "carry"); way (< OE weġ); wain "wagon" (< OE wæġn)[cb] ga-wigan "to move, shake" vehō (vehere) "to convey" Pamphylian wekʰétō "he should bring"; Cypriot éwekse "brought there" váhati "(he) drives"; vahana- (< vah) "divine mount or vehicle of Hindu deities" (lit. "a carrying") Av vazaiti "(he) leads, carries" OCS vezǫ (vesti) "to drive" OPrus weztun "to ride", Lith vežti "to drive" OIr fēn, W gwain (type of wagon) < *weǵʰ-no-; W arwain "to lead" vjedh "I steal" Hier Luw wa-zi/a- "drive"
*yew-, *yewg-
"to join, yoke, tie together"
(See also yugóm)
ON eykr
draft animal;
ON eyki
vehicle, cart
"I yoke, join" ⇒
[note 95];
"nearly; near, close to";
coniunx, coniux
"spouse, partner (husband or wife)"
"I yoke, saddle; join, link together";
"band, bond, that which is used for joining; bridge of boats";
"pair, two things, persons or animals seen as a pair"
"(s/he) yokes, harnesses, joins";
"yoking, act of joining; yoke, team, vehicle; employment, use, performance; remedy, cure; means, device, way, manner, method; trick, fraud; undertaking; connection, relation; fitness, suitability; application, concentration, union, yoga";[405]
"fastening or tying instrument; rope, thong, halter";
"pair, couple; Gemini (zodiac sign); junction, confluence";
"union, alliance";
"a vehicle, chariot; draft animal";
yuj (root noun)
"a yoke-fellow, companion, associate; pair, couple; the Aśvins"
Lith jungiu "I join"
*h₂eǵ- "to lead, drive" ON aka "to drive" agō (agere) "to drive, do" ágō "I lead" ájati "(he) drives" Av azaiti "(he) drives"; Kurd ajotin "to drive" ehati "to drive" OIr ad-aig "compels"; OW agit, hegit "goes" acem "I lead" A ak-, B āk- "go, lead"
*h₂eḱs- "axis, axle" < *h₂eǵ-[134][406] OE eax axis "axle" ákṣa- "axle" Russian osь "axis, axle" Lith ašis "axle" ashkë “wood splinter <PAlb a(k)škā “axis”
*dʰeh₁-, dʰh₁- "to place, put" do (< OE dōn) deds "deed" faciō (facere) "to do" < *dʰh₁-k-yoh₂; con-ditus "built" (orig. "put together"), ab-ditus "removed" (orig. "put away") < Proto-Italic *-θatos < *dʰh₁-tos títʰēmi "I put" < *dʰí-dʰeh₁-mi dádʰāti "(he) puts" < *dʰé-dʰeh₁-ti Av daδāiti "(he) puts"; OPers impf. adadā "(he) established" OCS děti "to lay" OPrus ditun "to put", Lith dėti "to put" Gaulish dede "he put (pt.)"; W dodi "to place, to put";OIr -tarti "he gives" < Proto-Celtic *to-ro-ad-dīt < *-dʰeh₁-t dnel "to put"; ed "he put (past)" dhatë "place, location" < *dʰh₁-teh₂ A tā-, täs-, tas-, B tes- "to lay" < *dʰeh₁-s- dāi "puts"
"to put, place, locate; be set, firm"
(< OE steall);
stell (non-standard) "to place, set up"
(< OE stellan)
Ger stellen
"to put, place, position"
locus < *stlocus
"place, spot, location" ⇒
[note 96];
stultus, stolidus
"foolish, stupid";
"shoot, branch" >
stolon (botany);
stolus < AG stólos
"navigation; fleet equipment"
"I send; make ready, prepare; summon";
"expedition; army, fleet";
"one sent forth; messenger, envoy" >
epistolḗ < epistéllō
"message, letter; commission; will" ⇒
[note 97];
"block of stone, buttress; boundary post" >
stele, stela
"place, ground, location"
OCS stĭlati "to spread" Lith stalas "table" shtjell “loosen, I wind up”
*deH₃-, dʰH̥₃- "to give" dō (dare) "to give";
dator "giver, donor";
dōnum "gift"
dídōmi "I give" dádāti "(he) gives";
dātṛ "giver, donor";
dānam "gift, giving"
Av dadāiti "(he) gives"; OPers impv. dadātuv "let him give"; NPers dãdan "to give" OCS damĭ "I will give" OPrus datun "to give", Lith duoti "to give" OIr dān, W dawn "gift" tam "I give" dhashë "I gave" < *dH̥₃-sm̥ dāi "takes"
*kap- "to grab"[410][411] have (< OE habban), heave (< OE hebban);
haban "to have", hafjan "to lift" capiō (capere) "to take" káptō "I snatch, swallow";
"cup" > Lat caucus
kapaṭī "two handfuls" NPers časpīdan, čapsīdan, cafsīdan "to grasp, seize" Ukrainian khapaty "to grab" OPrus kaps "grave", Lith kapas "grave", kapt "expression to indicate grabbing. OIr cacht "female slave", W caeth "slave, captive" < *kap-tos "taken" kap "I grasp, grab", kam "I have"
*gʰabʰ- "to seize, take" give (< OE ġiefan) giban "to give" habeō (habēre) "to have" gábʰastis "forearm, hand" OPers grab "to seize"; Kurd girtin "to take, to seize" Russ. xvatát "to snatch, suffice" OPrus gabtun "to catch", Lith gebėti "to have the ability" OIr gaibid "takes"; W gafael "to take hold, to grip"
*gʷʰen- "to strike, kill" bane (< OE bana "murderer") banja "blow, wound, ulcer" dē-fendō (dēfendere) "to ward off, defend", of-fendō (offendere) "to bump, offend" tʰeínō "I kill" < *gʷʰen-yoH₂, épepʰnon "I killed" < redup. + *gʷʰn-om hánti "(he) strikes, kills" < *gʷʰen-ti, gʰnánti "they strike, kill"; vṛtra·han "Vṛtra-killer, a name of Indra" Av ǰainti "(he) strikes, kills", ni-γne (mid.) "I strike down"; OPers impf. ajanam "I struck down" OCS ženǫ (gŭnati) "drive (animals to pasture)", žĭnjǫ (žęti) "reap" OPrus gintun "to defend", Lith ginti " to defend", ganyti "to drive animals to pasture" OIr gonim "I wound, kill"; W gwanu "to stab" ǰnem "I strike" < *gʷʰen-oH₂, ǰnǰem "I destroy" < *gʷʰen-yoH₂ gjanj "I hunt" < *gʷʰen-yoH₂ B käsk- "to scatter to destruction" < *gʷʰn̥-sk- kuēnzi "kills" < *gʷʰen-ti
*bʰeyd- "to split, cleave"[412] bit (< OE bite);bite (< OE bitan); bait (< ON beita) 'findō "I split";
fissus < fid·tus "split";
fissiō "splitting, fission"
bhid-, bhinátti "(s/he) splits, breaks";
bhedati "(s/he) splits"; bhinná < bhid·ná "split, cloven"
*der- "to tear, crack; split, separate"[413] tear (< OE teran);
turd (< OE tord)
*taurþs "destruction, a teardown" dérō "to skin, flay";
dérma "skin, hide"
dṛṇā́ti "(s/he) tears, rends, rips; splits open, bursts" OCS dĭrati "to tear, flay" Lith dirti "to skin" djerr “I destroy <PIE *dr̥-néH-ti
*bʰreg- "to break"[414] break (< OE brecan);
breech, breeches (< OE brēċ)
frango "I break, shatter";
frāctus "broken";
fragilis "breakable"
"to cut off, sever"[415][416][cc]
saw (tool) (< OE sagu);
sax "slate hammer" (< OE seax);
seax (directly borrowed from OE seax);
zax (< OE seax)
secō, sectum "I cut, cut off; cleave; castrate; wound; hurt" ⇒
[note 98];
segmen, segmentum "piece; a cutting, cut; slice; segment";
signum "sign, mark, signal; seal, signet; emblem, etc";
sexus "division; sex; gender";
saxum "stone, rock"
> Saxon
OCS sěšti "to cut, to mow"
Pol siekać "to cut"
shat/shatë “mattock, hoe” <PIE *sēk-teh₂-
"to cut"[417][418]
(See also: *sek-)
(< OE scieran);
(< OE sċearu);
shard, sherd
(< OE sċeard );
(< OE sċrēad);
(< ON skrapa);
(< ON skrapa);
(< OE sċort);
< PGmc *skirmiz
"fur, hide"
> Yid shirem "umbrella";
Italian schermo "screen";
Russ šírma
"screen, shield";
(< OE sċyrte);
(< ON skyrta);
(< PGmc *skardaz
"gap, cut");
(< OE scoru)
"short; broken";
"skin, hide, leather";
carō, carnis "flesh, meat, pulp" ⇒
[note 99];
"dinner, supper ('portion')";
cortex "bark of a tree, cork"
> cork;
"a skin, hide; harlot";
scrautum "a quiver made of hide";
scrūta "rubbish, broken trash" > Lat scrūtor
"I search, examine thoroughly" ⇒
[note 100];
"a rough sharp stone; anxiety, uneasiness";
"a small sharp or pointed stone; anxiety, uneasiness, doubt" ⇒
[note 101]
keírō "I shear, shave, cut hair; ravage; destroy; cut short, lessen";
kormós "trunk of a tree; log of timber";
kérma "fragment; coin; cash"
kartati, kṛṇátti, kṛntáte "(s/he) cuts";
"skin; hide, pelt";
kṛtí "knife, dagger"
OCS skora "bast, skin";
kora "bark";
OCS xrabrŭ "brave"
Lith skersti "to cut (especially animal's neck)" shqerr “to tear, scratch” <PAlb *skera
"to split, dissect, divide"[419][420]
(See also: *sek-, *(s)ker-)
(< OE sċēadan);
sheath, sheathe
(< OE sċēaþ);
"a piece of wood, firewood" (< OE sċīd);
shite, shit
(< OE sċītan)
sciō "I can, know, understand, have knowledge" > science;
scindō, scissus "I cut, tear, rend; tear off; destroy"
skhízō "I split, cleave" > schizophrenia;
skhísma "split, divided; division" > schism;
skhísis "cleaving, parting, division; vulva"
chítti "split, division";
√chid-, chinatti "(s/he) splits, cuts off, divides"[421]
OCS cěditi "to strain, filter";
čistiti "to clean, purify";
štedrŭ "generous";
štitŭ "shield"
Lith skiesti "to dilute", skaidyti "to divide into pieces" shqisë “sense”
*h₃er- "to move, to stir; to rise, spring; quarrel, fight"[422][423] orior "I rise, get up";
oriēns "rising" > orient;
origo "act, event or process of coming into existence; source" > origin
órnūmi "I set upon, awaken, raise, excite, stir up";
oûros "fair wind";
éris "strife, quarrel; rivalry"
ṛṇoti "to attack, rise";
ṛtí "quarrel, strife; attack"
OCS ratĭ "war, battle"
*h₃reyH- "to move, set in motion; flow, stream (of water); pour, rain; churn"[422][423] ride (< OE rīdan);
raid (< OE rād);
run (< OE iernan);
-rith "small stream (found in surnames and placenames)"(< OE rīþ)
rīvus "stream" > rival (lit. "using the same stream as another"), derive;
irrīto "to irritate"
riṇā́ti "to make flow, release";
rītí "motion, course; current; custom, rite";
rétas "flow, gush, current, stream; seed, sperm"
OCS rinǫti "to push, shove" Gau rēda "chariot";
Gau rēnos "river, waterway" > Lat Rhēnus > Rhine
re “clouds” <PAlb *rina
"to let go, send, release"
(< OE āsolcen < āseolcan "to be slow; weak, slothful")
"(it) lets go, discharges, emits";
"causes to let loose, creates";
"let go, discharged, abandoned";
"letting go, emission; production, procreation; creation, creation of the world";
"pouring, rush";
"arrow, spear"
*kʷel-, kʷelh₁-
"to turn"
(See also *kʷekʷlo-)
halse "neck, throat"
(< OE heals)
"I till, cultivate (land); inhabit";
"tilled, cultivated" ⇒
[note 102];
"farmer; colonist, inhabitant";
"inhabitant; tiller, cultivator; worshipper";
"colony, settlement; possession" ⇒
[note 103];
"distaff; spun thread";
"neck , throat (one that turns)" ⇒
[note 104];
"sojourner, tenant, lodger"[cd]
"in motion, go; become";
"pivot, hinge; axis, pole star" > pole;
"back, backwards; again, once more" ⇒
[note 105];
"completion, maturity; fulfilment; result, product" > teleology, etc.;
"excellent perfection";
"bring about, complete, fulfill; perform, accomplish";
"far off, far away" ⇒
[note 106];
"long ago";
"old, aged; ancient" > paleolithic, etc.
"it moves, walks, stirs; travels";
caraṇa-, calana-
"motion; action; behavior, conduct"
OCS kologŭ "Yule (lit. turn)";
"circulation, whirlpool; wheel and axle";
Bul kolovóz
"rut, wheel track";
"a type of (round) bread"
sjell “to turn, to bring” <PAlb *tšela
*welH-, *wel-
"to turn, to wind, roll"
(< OE wielwan);
well (up) (gush)
(< OE wellan, willan);
well (water source, where the water 'wells up')
(< OE wielle);
wall (to boil, spring)
(< OE weallan);
wall (rampart)
(< Lat vallum "wall, rampart");
(< OE wealcan);
(< OE walu "ridge, bank")
"to roll";
Ger Walz (< walzen "to dance")
"the waltz";
"I roll, tumble" ⇒
[note 107]
"roll, scroll, book; turn; fold" > volume;
"valley; hollow" ⇒
[note 108];
"wall, rampart";
"space between walls" > interval;
"a worm, caterpillar";
"knock-kneed, unstraight";
"folding door" > valve;
"I wrap, enfold; crawl";
"anything twisted" ⇒
[note 109];
"round, smooth stone; cylindrical bow, dial"
valati, valate
"(it) turns, turns to; moves to; covers";
"cover, envelope; womb, vulva";
OCS vlĭna "wave";
"undulation, swell; turmoil, agitation";
Russ valítʹ
"to knock down, kill; cut, fell";
"roller, billow; rampart; shaft"
Lith vilnìs "wave" OldArm geł "snake, dragon"
*weyp- or *weyb-
"to shake, tremble, agitate; sway, swing; turn, wind"
(< OE wīpian);
(< OE wippen);
weave ("to wander")
(< ON veifa "wave, flag");
OE wifer "arrow, missile; sword";
(< OE swifan + el);
waive < waif ("ownerless, homeless")
(< ON veif);[ce]
(< OF wimpil "head scarf");
(< AF wimble "drill")>
"to wind around, wrap";
"to bind, muzzle"
"I shake, agitate; tremble; glimmer" > veer, vibrate, etc.
vip-, vépate
"it trembles, shakes, shivers, vibrates, quivers";
"excited, stirred; inspired"
Lith viẽpti "to make a face, gape";
"to grimace, bend";
"to swing, turn around"
*leykʷ-, *li-ne-kʷ- "to leave behind" OE lēon "to lend" leiƕan "to lend" linquō (linquere) "to leave behind" leípō, limpánō "I leave behind" riṇákti "(he) leaves behind", 3rd. pl. riñcanti "they leave behind" Av -irinaxti "(he) frees"; NPers rēxtan "to pour out" OBulg otŭ-lěkŭ "something left over", lišiti "to rob" < *leikʷ-s-, Ukr lyshyty "to leave behind"[441] OPrus palaistun "to leave behind", Lith likti "to stay" OIr lēicid "(he) leaves behind, releases" lkʿanem "I leave behind" Alb Lej leave
"to dig, till (soil)";
"to dig, to root"[442][443]
(See also *Hrew-, *Hrewp-)
rock (as in 'to move, sway') (< OE roccian);
rag (< ON rǫggr)
runcō "I weed, clear of weeds, weed out";
ruō "I dig out";
rutrum "shovel"
luñcati "(s/he) plucks, pulls out, tears off; peels" OCS ryti "to dig";
OCS rylo "spade, snouts"
"to break, tear up"[442][443]
(See also *Hrew-, *Hrewk-)
reave, reeve, reve, bereave (< OE (be)rēofan) rumpō "I break, burst, tear, rend; split" > rout, ruption, abrupt, etc. rópa- "disturbing, confusing; fissure";
lopa- "breaking, injury, destruction"
*h₁reh₁- "to row"[134][444] rudder (< OE rōþor) rēmus "oar" erétēs "(in the plural) oars" áritra- "propelling, driving"


PIE English Gothic Latin Ancient Greek Sanskrit Iranian Slavic Baltic Celtic Armenian Albanian Tocharian Hittite

[445] [446] [447] [448]

Scot noo
(< OE )


num, nunc (num + -ce)
"lately, recently"

nûn, nun, nu

"now, so now, now then; at once";
"current, present"


OCS nyně "now";


Lith nū, nù "now";
"now, today";
"now, today, nowadays"


"now, and"
*dʰǵʰyés "yesterday" yesterday (< OE ġeostra) gistra- "tomorrow (?)" heri "yesterday" kʰtʰés "yesterday" hyás "yesterday" < *ǵʰyés Av zyō, OPers diya(ka) "yesterday" OIr in-dē, W ddoe "yesterday" dje "yesterday"
*nokʷts (nekʷts) "night" night (< OE neaht, niht < *nokʷtis) nahts (nahts) "night" < *nokʷts nox (noctis) "night" núks (núktos) "night" nák (instr. pl. náktīs) "night" Proto-Iranian *náxts, Kurd nixte "rainy, cloudy (lack of sunlight)" OCS noštĭ "night" OPrus nakts "night", Lith naktis "night" OIr i-nnocht, OW henoid "on this night" natë "night" A n[a]ktim "nightly", B nekciye "in the evening" nekuz (gen. sg.) "of evening", nekuzzi "it becomes dark"
*wek(ʷ)speros "evening" vesper "evening" hésperos "of the evening; western"[cf] OCS večerŭ "evening"; Rus Zorya Vechernyaya "deity of the evening star" Latv vakars, Lith vãkaras "evening"; Vakarine "goddess of the evening star" OIr ucher "evening" OArm gišer "night; darkness"
*h₂éwsōs "dawn", *h₂ews-tero- "east", *h₂ewso- "gold" eastern (< OE ēasterne) ON austr "east" aurōra "dawn" (< *ausōsa, by rhot), aurum "gold" Doric āṓs "dawn"; Aeolic aúōs, ā́wōs "dawn" uṣās (uṣásas), acc. uṣā́sam "dawn" Av ušā̊ (ušaŋhō), acc. ušā̊ŋhǝm "dawn" OCS (j)utro "morning" OPrus austra "dawn", auss "gold"; Lith aušra "dawn", auksas "gold"; Latv ausma, ausmina "dawn" OIr fāir "sunrise", W gwawr "dawn" < *wōsri- ?os-ki "gold" ?A wäs "gold"
"to arise, begin"
(< OE beginnan)
"to begin"
"new, fresh, young" > recent
"new, recent; fresh, unused; unusual" > Cenozoic
kanyā̀, kaníyā
"maiden, virgin; daughter";
"young, youthful"
OCS načęti "to begin";
"beginning, end";
"young animal"
*ǵʰyem-, ǵʰeym- "winter" ON gói "winter month" hiems "winter" kʰeĩma "winter" híma- "winter", hemantá- "in winter" Av zyā̊ (acc. zyąm, gen. zimō) "winter" OCS zima "winter" OPrus zeima "winter", Lith žiema "winter" Gaul Giamonios "winter month";[cg][53][453]

OIr gam "winter", gem-adaig "winter night"; OW gaem "winter"

jmeṙ "winter", jiwn "snow" Gheg dimën, Tosk dimër(ë) "winter" ? A śärme "winter"; ? B śimpriye "winter".[ch] gimmanza "winter", gimi "in winter"
*semh₂- "summer" summer (< Old English sumor) OHG sumar, OIc sumar "summer" sámā "season; year" Av ham- "summer"; Pers hâmin "summer"; Khot-Saka hamāñarva "summer season" Gaul Samon(ios) "summer month";

OIr sam "summer"; OW ham, OBret ham "summer"

OArm am "year", amaṙn "summer" A şme "summer"; B ṣmāye "summer" (adj.), ywārś-ṣmañe "midsummer"[456]
*wés-r̥, wes-n-és "spring" ON vár "spring" vēr "spring" (w)éar "spring" vasan-tá- "spring" Av vaŋri "in spring"; OPers θūra-vāhara- OCS vesna "spring" OPrus wassara "spring", Lith vasara "summer", pavasaris "spring", vėsu "cool" OIr errach "spring"< *ferrach < *wesr-āko-; OW guiannuin "in spring" < *wes-n̥t-eino- garun "spring"< *wesr-
*wet- "year", *per-ut- "last year" wether "castrated male sheep" (< OE weþer), OHG widar "male sheep", MHG vert "last year" <- *per-ut-, ON fjorð "last year" <- *per-ut- vetus (veteris) "old" (w)étos "year", pérusi "last year" vatsá-, vatsará- "year", par-út "last year" Sogdian wtšnyy (read wat(u)šanē) "old" OCS vetŭchŭ "old" OLith vẽtušas "old" MIr feis, Cornish guis "sow" < *wet-si- heru "last year" < *peruti vit (pl. vjet) "year" witt- "year"
*h₂et- "to go, year"[457] annus < atnus "year" átati "(it) goes, walks, wanders"; hā́yana- "yearly"
*yeh₁r- "year" year (< OE ġēar) jēr "year" hōrnus "this year's" < *hōyōr- hōra "time, year" < *yoH₁r- Av yārə "year" Russ. CH jara "spring" OLith Jórė "spring festival" W iâr "hen", MIr eir-īn "fowl"
*h₂óyu "long time, lifetime" age (< Lat. aetat-), aiws aevum aeternum, aeternitas "lifetime" āyus "life, age" (as in the word āyur·veda, "knowledge of (long) life") Gaul aiu- "eternity, longevity"[458]

Ideas and rituals[edit]

PIE English Gothic Latin Ancient Greek Sanskrit Iranian Slavic Baltic Celtic Armenian Albanian Tocharian Hittite
*ǵʰew- "to pour, libate, invoke"[319] god (< OE god < PIE. ǵʰutós "invoked, libated") fundō "I pour" hotrá "libation"; hotṛ "priest, offerer of libations"; juhóti "to worship, sacrifice, present an oblation"; hóma "oblation, a Vedic ritual" gumoj “I pour”
*h₁yaǵ- "to sacrifice, worship"[319] ieientō "to eat breakfast" hágios "devoted to the gods, holy, pious" yájati "(s/he) worships"; yajña "worship, devotion, prayer"; yájus "religious reverence, worship, sacrifice";
*ḱréddʰh₁eti "to believe" < *ḱred- “heart” + *dʰh₁eti "place"[319]
(See also *k̂erd-)
creed, credo < Lat crēdō crēdō "I believe, I trust in, I confide in" śraddhā́ "faith, trust, confidence, loyalty", śrad-dadʰāti "(he) trusts, believes" Av zrazdā- "to believe" < *srazdā[ci] Old Irish cretim, W credaf "I believe"
"to praise, express approval; to elevate"
"grace, thankfulness";
"freely given, free"
"(s/he) praises, invokes";
"(s/he) calls, invokes, mentions with praise, extols";
"agreeable, pleasing, lovely; approved, welcome";
"approval, praise; benediction"
OCS žrĭti "to sacrifice";
"sacrifice, offering";
OIr bard, W bardd "bard" grah “ to incite, to roar”
*h₁wegʷʰ- "to promise, vow; praise"[462][463] voveō, vōtum "I vow, promise; dedicate, devote; wish for" eúkhomai "I pray, vow, wish for; profess";
eûkhos "prayer, object of prayer; boast; vow"
óhate "(s/he) says";
ukthá "saying; sentence, verse; eulogy"
Av uxδa "word"
*ḱwen-, *ḱwen-tos "holy"[319][309] Av spəṇta "holy"[464] OCS svętŭ "holy" Lith šveñtas "holy"
sanciō "I render, appoint as sacred; devote, consecrate, dedicate";
sānctus "sacred, made inviolable; venerable, blessed, saintly";
sacer "sacred, holy, dedicated, consecrated; devoted"


PIE English Gothic Latin Ancient Greek Sanskrit Iranian Slavic Baltic Celtic Armenian Albanian Tocharian Hittite
*gʰedʰ- "to unite, join, suit"[467] good (< OE gōd);
gather (< OE gaderian);
together (< OE togædere)
godǔ "suitable time, holiday, feast, right time, time, term, year"; [cj]
OCS godina "hour; time";
*bʰed- "to improve, make better"[468] better (< OE betera);
batten (< ON batna "to grow better, improve, recover");
boot[ck] (< OE bōt "help, relief, advantage, remedy")
bhadrá- "blessed, auspicious, fortunate, prosperous, happy; good, gracious, friendly, kind; excellent, fair, lovely, pleasant, dear" betë “good, right”
*h₂el- "to grow, nourish"[469] old (< OE eald, ald); alderman (< OE ealdorman) aljan "to cause to grow fat, fatten" *oleō (*olēre) "I grow";
alō (alere) "I foster, I nourish; I raise";
alimentum "food, nourishment; obligation to one's parents";
alumnus "nourished, fostered";
alimōnia "food, nourishment";
altus "high, tall";
indolēs "innate, inborn; talent";
adolescēns "growing up";
adultus "grown-up, matured"
*h₃erdʰ- "to increase, grow; upright, high"[470][471] arbor (< OLat arbōs < PIta *arðōs) "tree (high plant)";
arduus "lofty, high, steep, elevated; arduous"
orthós "straight, upright, erect; straight forward" ūrdhvá "rising, raised, erected; upright, high, above";
ṛ́ddhi "growth, increase; prosperity; elevation"
*bʰeh₂g- "to divide, distribute, allot"[472] baksheesh (< Pers baxšidan "to give, grant, bestow") éphagon "I ate, devoured (took my share)" > -phagy, (o)esophagus bhakṣá- "food, drink, delight"; bhájati "to distribute, divide, allot, chooe, serve"
"to share, divide"[473][474]
time (< OE tīma);
tide (< OE tīd)
daíomai "I divide, share; host (a feast)";
dêmos "district, country, land; the common people; free citizens, sovereign people; deme";
daís "feast, banquet";
daitrós "one who carves and portions out meat at table";
daímōn "god, goddess; departed soul; demon"
dītí "brightness, time";
dā́ti, dyáti "(s/he) cuts, clips, mows, separates, divides";
dātrá- "allotted share"
ditë “day”
"to sacrifice, lose"[473][474]
tap "hit lightly" (< OE tappen);
tip "touch quietly, bump quietly" (< OE tippen)
daps "a sacrificial or solemn feast, religious banquet; meal";
damnum < dapnum "damage, injury; (financial) loss; fine"
dáptō "I eat, devour; consume, corrode";
dapánē "cost, expenditure; extravagance"
dāpayati "(s/he) divides"
"to split, divide"[475][476]
tell, teller (< OE tellen);
tale (< OE talu);
talk (< OE tealcian)
dolō "I hew, chop into shape; fashion, devise";
doleō "I hurt, suffer; I grieve for, lament";
dolor "pain, ache, hurt; anguish, grief, sorrow"
dalati "it bursts";
dālayati "(s/he) splits, cracks";
dala- "deal, portion, piece, half";
OCS delěti, odolěti "to overcome, defeat";
Russ dólja "share, fate"
"part, watershed"
deal (< OE dǣl);
dole (< OE dāl)
OCS děliti "to divide";
OCS dělŭ "part"
*bʰeh₂- "to shine, glow"[477] faveō "I favor";
favor "id";
faustus "favorable, fortunate";
fautor "patron, protector, promoter"
phaínō "I shine, appear, bring to light" bhā́s "light"; bhānú "light, ray, sun"
*bʰewg- "to enjoy, benefit"[478] fungor "I perform, execute, discharge; finish, complete, end" > fungible, defunct;
fūnctiō "performance, execution (of a task)" > function
bhuj-, bhunákti "(s/he) enjoys; consumes, eats, drinks; uses, utilizes"
*bʰruHg- "to make use of, have enjoyment of"[479] brook (< OE brūcan) "(old meaning) to use, enjoy";
Ger brauchen "to need, require"
fruor "I enjoy, derive pleasure from";
frūctus "enjoyment, delight, satisfaction; produce, product, fruit; profit, yield, outcome" ⇒
[note 110];
frūmentum "corn, grain";
frūx, frūgēs "fruits of the earth, produce" > frugal
*deyḱ- "to point out";[480] toe (< OE );
token (< OE tācn);
teach (< OE tǣċan)
dīcō "I say, utter; mention, talk";
digitus "finger, toe, digit"
díkē "custom, manner, fashion; law, order, right; judgement, justice";
δεῖγμᾰ "specimen, sample; pattern"
diśáti "(s/he) points out, shows;teaches, informs; orders, commands, bids";
deśá- "point, region, spot, part; province, country"
*h₂eyḱ- "to own, obtain, come in possession of";
*h₂eh₂óyḱe- "to possess, own"[481][482]
(< OE āgen);
(< OE āgan);
OE āga "owner";
ought, aught (< OE ǣht)
√īś, īṣṭe "(s/he) owns, possesses, is master of; rules";
īśá- "owning";
īśāná-, īśvara- "owner, master; ruler; epithets of the god Śiva"
"to hold, overpower"[483][484]
OE siġe "victory" < PGmc segaz (In personal names, e.g., Sigmund, Siegfried, etc.) sigis "victory";
sigislaun "prize, spoils"
sevērus "severe, serious, strict, stern, stringent, austere, harsh, grave" ékhō "I have, possess; hold, am able" ⇒
[note 111];
ískhō "I hold back, restrain; stay; hold fast, maintain";
iskhū́s "strength, power, might";
héxis "possession, act of having; a certain state, condition" ⇒
[note 112];
skhêma "form, shape, figure; appearance, show; bearing, look, air; stateliness, dignity; fashion, manner; character, persona; state, nature; species, kind; dance; sketch, outline, plan, scheme" ⇒
[note 113];
okhurós "firm, lasting, stout";
skholḗ "leisure, free time; rest; philosophy; place where lectures are given" ⇒
[note 114];
Héktōr lit. "conqueror";
skhétlios "able to hold out, steadfast, unflinching"
sáhate "(s/he) overcomes, vanquishes, conquers, prevails; is able, capable; bears, endures";
sáhas "strength, power, force";
sā́ḍhṛ[cl] "conqueror"
Gaul Sego- (in personal and tribal names) "victory"[485]
*h₃erbʰ- "to change status, ownership";
*h₃órbʰos "servant, worker, slave; orphan"[486][487]
erf "heritage, inheritance" (< OE erfe); Ger arbeit "work", Erbe heir orbus "orphaned, parentless" orphanós "orphan; childless; bereft" árbha- "orphan; child; small" OCS rabŭ "servant, slave" (< *ārbǔ);[488]
Czech orbota "hard work, slavery" > robot;
Pol robić "to make, to do"
*Hrew- "to tear out, dig out, open, acquire"[442][443]
(See also *Hrewp-, *Hrewk-)
rudis "rough, raw, uncultivated; unrefined, unskilled" ⇒
[note 115]
róman "hair, body hair" OCS runo "fleece"


  1. ^ maternal, maternity, matron, matrimony, matrix, matriculate, material, matter, madeira, alma mater, etc.
  2. ^ Dēmḗtēr Demeter;
    mētrópolis "metropolis, lit., mother-city"
  3. ^ paternal, paternity, patron, patronize, pattern, patrimony, patriot, expatriate, patrician, perpetrate, compadre, etc.
  4. ^ fraternal, fraternity, fraternize, friar,[b] confrere
  5. ^ sorority
  6. ^ nepotism
  7. ^ avuncular
  8. ^ human, , humanity, ad hominem, etc
  9. ^ virile, virtue, triumvir(ate), etc.[o]
  10. ^ regal, regalia, regicide, royal, etc.
  11. ^ corps, corpse, corporal, corporation, incorporate, etc.
  12. ^ cap, cape, chapeau, capital, chapter, capitulate, decapitate, per capita, kaput, etc.
  13. ^ language, lingo etc.
  14. ^ ocular, binoculars, etc.
  15. ^ core, cordial, record, accord, discord, concord, accordion, misericordia, courage, etc.
  16. ^ cruel, crude
  17. ^ tripod, podium, etc.
  18. ^ manual, manufacture, manuscript, manipulate, manifest, maintain, manage, manumission, emancipate, mandate, demand, commend, countermand, mandatory, masturbate etc.
  19. ^ pecunious, impecunious
  20. ^ a b auspices, auspicious
  21. ^ lox
  22. ^ grain, granary, granule, granite, pomegranate, etc.
  23. ^ agrarian, agriculture, pilgrim, peregrinate, etc.
  24. ^ promulgate, emulsion, etc.
  25. ^ molar (tooth)
  26. ^ immolate
  27. ^ maul, mallet, malleable
  28. ^ Spanish 'zumo' via Arabic
  29. ^ fervent, fervor, fervid, effervescence
  30. ^ saline, salsa, sauce, salad, sausage (salchicha, saucisse), salami, salary
  31. ^ semen, seminar, seminary, seminal, disseminate, inseminate, season, sative, etc.
  32. ^ member, membrane
  33. ^ "dorm, dormitory, dorter"
  34. ^ progeny, progenitor
  35. ^ nee [aw]
  36. ^ nascent
  37. ^ native, nativity, etc.
  38. ^ Spa Navidad "Christmas"
  39. ^ nature, natural, etc.
  40. ^ nation, national, etc.
  41. ^ Natalia, Natalie, Natasha, Noël, etc.
  42. ^ general, generic, generate, generous, congenital, degenerate, gender, genre, etc.
  43. ^ gent, gentle, gentleman, gentile, genteel, etc.
  44. ^ genitive, primogeniture, etc.
  45. ^ ingenuous, ingenu, ingenue
  46. ^ ingenious, engine, engineer, gin (instrument, as in cotton gin), etc.
  47. ^ germ, germinate, germane, etc., but not German
  48. ^ genitals, genitalia
  49. ^ genesis, genes, genetic, etc.
  50. ^ auction, etc.
  51. ^ author, etc.
  52. ^ augment, etc.
  53. ^ augury, inaugurate, etc.
  54. ^ August, etc.
  55. ^ auxiliary, etc.
  56. ^ "audio, audience, obey, obedience, auditorium, etc."
  57. ^ aesthetic
  58. ^ memento
  59. ^ reminisce
  60. ^ memory
  61. ^ monster
  62. ^ mathematics
  63. ^ "memory, remember, etc."
  64. ^ "mora, moratory, moratorium"
  65. ^ "martyr"
  66. ^ dekko
  67. ^ aspect, inspect, respect, prospect, perspective, retrospect, despicable, conspicuous, perspicuous, perspicacious, spectacle, spectacular, etc etc.
  68. ^ species, spice, special, specify, specific
  69. ^ spectre, spectrum
  70. ^ speculate
  71. ^ scope, -scope, -scopy
  72. ^ bishop, episcopal
  73. ^ skeptic, skeptical, skepticism
  74. ^ council, conciliate, etc.
  75. ^ clamor, claim, exclamation, etc.
  76. ^ clear, clarify, etc.
  77. ^ stylus, style (originally same meaning as stylus: a particular form of writing > style)
  78. ^ humble, humility, exhume, etc
  79. ^ "incinerate, cinerary, cinerarium"
  80. ^ "foment, fomentation"
  81. ^ "fever, febrile"
  82. ^ "February"
  83. ^ pollute, pollution
  84. ^ fort, forte, fortitude, fortification, force, effort, etc
  85. ^ chernozem, chernukha, Cherno(byl)
  86. ^  ?Siam
  87. ^ civic, city, citizen, etc.
  88. ^ cite, incite, excite, Incitātus (Caligula's horse), resuscitate, solicit, etc.
  89. ^ site, situation, etc.
  90. ^ expose, exponent, depose, deponent, oppose, opponent, proponent, posit, position, positive, post, etc.
  91. ^
    impeccable, impeach
  92. ^ podium, pew
  93. ^ sequence, second, segue, etc.
  94. ^ vert-, verse, versus, version, invert, convert, inverse, reverse, controversy, anniversary etc.
  95. ^ join, joinder, joint, junction, juncture, conjugal, conjugate, conjunct, adjunct, injunction, rejoin, rejoinder, jostle, joust, adjust, etc.
  96. ^ local, locate, locality, locomotion, allocate, etc.
  97. ^ epistle, pistle, epistolary, etc.
  98. ^ sect (or possibly from Lat. sequi, "follow"), -sect, sectile, section, sector, dissect, insect, intersect, resect, transect, etc.
  99. ^ carnal, carnage, carnation, carnival, carrion, caruncle, carnivorous, charnel, charcuterie, incarnate, etc., Spa carne
  100. ^ scrutiny, scrutinize, inscrutable, etc.
  101. ^ scruple, scrupulous, etc.
  102. ^ cult, culture, cultivate, incult, etc.
  103. ^ colony, colonial, etc.
  104. ^ collar, accolade, decollate, etc
  105. ^ palindrome, palimpsest, palinode
  106. ^ telegraph, television, etc.
  107. ^ evolve, revolve, involve, involucrum, convolve, devolve, voluble etc.;
  108. ^ vale, valley
  109. ^ helix, helical, helicopter
  110. ^ fruit, fructose
  111. ^ eunuch (lit. bed-keeper)
  112. ^ hectic
  113. ^ scheme, schematic
  114. ^ school, scholar, scholastic
  115. ^ rude, rudimentary, erudite


  1. ^ Reflexes of the stem in daughter languages also refer to deified beings and deities within their respective mythologies/religions: Old English Mōdraniht ('Night of the Mothers'); Celtic and Germanic Matres and Matronae (Latin for 'Mothers and Matrons'); Latvian Māte ('Mother'); Gaulish Dea Matrona ('Divine Mother Goddess'); Sanskrit Matrikas ('Divine Mothers').
  2. ^ e.g., black friar
  3. ^ Phralipe, or Pralipe, "brotherhood", name of several Gypsy/Romany organizations, including a music band and a literary magazine.
  4. ^ sw- > xw-
  5. ^ kʿoyr *swesōr; kʿeʿ < *swesros; kʿor-kʿ < *swesŏres.
  6. ^ Varias García (2017) pointed out that a tablet from Mycene uses "tu-ka-te", whereas tablets from Knossos, Pylos and Thebes use "ko-wa" (*korwa, later koré 'maiden, girl').[21]
  7. ^ Although this word is attested in Hittite, it is considered a loanword from Luwian. While scholarship recognizes the likelihood of its being the reflex of the root in Anatolian, its appearance in Hittite and Luwian would indicate a different meaning, however.[25][26]
  8. ^ The root could also be found in Anatolian languages with later attestation: Isaurian personal name Τουάτρης Touatris; Pisidian name Δωταρι Dotari.[27] However, Simon Zsolt questions the interpretation of Dotari as a reflex, since this word is attested as a compound in male names.[28]
  9. ^ Other interpretations are "son of the yew" or "son of the boar".[33]
  10. ^ The word is attested in Plate III of the Botorrita plaques. Patrizia de Bernardo Stempel interprets "-SUNOS" as the remnant of the root in the Celtic branch.[22][34]
  11. ^ This is the other possible attestation of the root in the Celtic branch.[35]
  12. ^ As argued by Peyrot and Meng (2021).[41]
  13. ^ cf. divide
  14. ^ bridegome in Middle English, subsequently influenced by groom (archaically "servant, man").
  15. ^ But not virus
  16. ^ These reflexes are suggested by Belarusian scholar Siarhiej Sanko.[50]
  17. ^ See also Thr goni "woman".[51]
  18. ^ See also Phry knaiko, knaikan "woman".[52]
  19. ^ Joseph Vendryes had suggested that compound names with the stem seem to be common around the southeast and the Balkans.[61] However, the stem "is attested ... in Messapic, in Osco-Umbrian, in Venetic, in Gaulish, in Celtiberian, in Brittonic languages, in Welsh, in German and in the Baltic languages",[62] as seen, for instance, in Illyrian Teuta (a Illyrian female ruler); Messapic teuta (community) and Taotor (name of deity); tribal name Teutons.
  20. ^ However, Robert Beekes suggests a non-Indo-European, substrate origin for the stem and its reflexes.[63]
  21. ^ Woudhuizen lists possible reflexes: Phrygian totos, teutous; Mycenaean te-u-ta-(ko-ro).[52] Another reflex appears in Thracian personal name Tautomedes, cited by J. P. Mallory,[66] and Ancient Macedonian (Pelasgian?) general Teutamus.[63]
  22. ^ hēm- < *ām- (with h- after hum- "you (pl.)") < *asm- < *n̥sm-.
  23. ^ a b OE ēow (acc., dat.) and ēow-ic̣ (acc., with the same -c̣ ending visible in 1st. sg. acc. mēc̣ "me", also modern German mich "me"), likewise Old High German iuwih "you (acc./dat. pl.)" (modern euch), appear to have the same origin as izw- in Gothic izwis "you (acc./dat. pl)", with unexplained loss of -z-. izwis appears to come from stem izw- plus originally genitive -is, where izw- comes ultimately from PIE *us-we with the loss of u- also visible in Avestan and Celtic, followed by the addition of a prothetic i-. (Ringe, 2006)
  24. ^ Cf. Latin ne-que, Gothic ni-h, Hittite ni-kku, Lydian ni-k "and not, nor".
  25. ^ All suggested etymologies of një "one" are highly speculative, at best. This etymology is one of two given by E. Hamp in Indo-European Numerals (Jadranka Gvozdanović, ed., 1992), pp. 903-904; the other is simply from PIE *eni- (or H₂en-), a PIE deictic particle visible in Sanskrit anyá- "the other", OCS onŭ "that one", Lithuanian anàs "that one". Michiel de Vaan, in a review of Demiraj's Sistemi i numerimit, suggests PIE *H₂en-io-no- > pre-Proto-Albanian *ëńán > Proto-Albanian *ńâ > një. M. Huld (Basic Albanian Etymologies, p. 101) attempts to derive një from PIE *sm-iH₂, feminine of *sem "one" and reflected in Ancient Greek mía; this etymology is also tentatively suggested in Don Ringe et al. "IE and Computational Cladistics", p. 75 (Transactions of the Philological Society 100, 2002).
  26. ^ For example, qñnã-tba "twelve" (litt. "ten" plus "two").[70]
  27. ^ See also: Umb peturpursus "quadruped".
  28. ^ Cf. Thr ketri- "four".[73]
  29. ^ See also: Osc pomp- "five".[74]
  30. ^ See also Phry pinke "five".[52]
  31. ^ Built upon osmŭ "eighth" < *H₁ok̂t-mo-.
  32. ^ With nasalization after *septḿ̥ "seven".
  33. ^ There is the possibility that Lycian sñta could mean either "ten" or "(one) hundred".[75][78]
  34. ^ But not kephalḗ!
  35. ^ Possible Anatolian reflex of the root, as posited by Sasseville (2020).[107]
  36. ^ Only in *aíƕatundi "bramble", literally "horse-tooth".
  37. ^ Expected form is *vōs, not *bōs; evidently this is a borrowing from Oscan or Umbrian.
  38. ^ bóu, báu are archaic genitives; later báo, bó.
  39. ^ Celtic river-goddess
  40. ^ In the latter case, a direct parallel to Skt. go·vinda- "cow-finder"
  41. ^ River in Ireland
  42. ^ Proposed by Yakubovich and Sasseville (2018).[121]
  43. ^ Cf. also Phry ἔξις or ἔζις (ezi) "hedgehog".
  44. ^ In ancient Roman tradition, the Avernus was a lake where birds died as they flew near it.
  45. ^ See also Illyrian tribal name Enchele "eel-people".
  46. ^ The name migrated to Eastern Europe,[147] assumed the form "azhdaja" and the meaning "dragon", "dragoness"[148] or "water snake"[149] in Balkanic and Slavic languages.[150]
  47. ^ See also Ovinnik 'a spirit of the barn'.[189]
  48. ^ a b Lit. drinking implement
  49. ^ Via French né, née
  50. ^ Cf. Sanskrit janitár-, Greek genetḗr, genétōr, Latin genitor "procreator".
  51. ^ Seen in many personal or tribal names: Biuitoni, Biuonia, Dago-bius, etc
  52. ^ This borrowing is found in almost every Slavic language and is said to be "without doubt the most famous Germanic loanword in Slavic" (Pronk-Tiethoff (2013))
  53. ^ Derived by some from *men- "to think"
  54. ^ standard present tense formed using a suppletive root
  55. ^ all Slavic languages
  56. ^ Under the misguided influence of Greek stûlos "pillar"
  57. ^ Cf. Asteria (litt.) "starry one"; Astraeus "god of dusk" (litt. "starry"); Astraea "star-maiden"; Cretan king Asterion "starry".
  58. ^ acc. stā̆rǝm, gen. stārō, pl. nom. staras-ča, stārō, acc. strǝ̄uš, gen. strǝ̄m, dat. stǝrǝbyō.
  59. ^ Tīw < *déywos was the Germanic god of war, but originally was a sky-god and head of the gods, like Zeus.
  60. ^ *déywos > Lat. deus; gen. *deiwī > Lat. dīvī. From each stem a full declension was formed.
  61. ^ According to linguist Vitaly Shevoroshkin, the noun exists in other Anatolian languages: Lycian ziw-; Lydian civ-; Luwian Tiwa-; Palaic Tija-.[120]
  62. ^ Other dialectal variants are Cretan awélios or ābélios; Doric āélios.
  63. ^ Seen in chamomile (from khamaimēlon "earth-apple") and chameleon (from khamailéōn "earth-lion").[187]
  64. ^ a b c d It is unclear how the original PIE forms produced the attested daughter-language forms. After the loss of laryngeals, original *péh₂wr̥, ph₂unés would regularly produce *pāwr̥, punés. It is possible that this form was considered too strange-looking, with the result that the u vowel was borrowed from the second stem into the first, yielding *púwr̥, punés. This compressed to *pūr, punés, and this stem set, or its regularized version *pūr, purés, might form the basis of the Umbrian, Greek and Armenian forms. For Germanic, however, something else must be at work. Ringe (2006) suggests that the following sequence of events produced Gothic fōn: Collective péh₂wōr -> ph₂uṓr (cf. Tocharian B puwar) > puōr > Proto-Germanic fuwōr > fwōr > fōr -> fōn (using -n- from the oblique stem), where -> indicates a change due to analogy, while > indicates a regular sound change. His explanation of funins and fuïr is very tentative and complicated. Pokorny's suggestion for Germanic is rather different. He derives fōn from *fwōn, with no further derivation, but probably different from Ringe's. fuïr comes from *puweri, a locative that could be formed from a nominative *púwr̥ or possibly from a stem *pur-. It suffices to say that the processes involved are not well understood.
  65. ^ Februārius mēnsis - Roman month of expiation
  66. ^ Cf. Thracian river name Struma and river-god Strymon; Illyrian toponyms Stravianae and Strevintia; Lith. (dial.) river name Straujà; Old Prussian place-names Strewe, Stromyke and Strowange.[293] Stravianae (or Stravijanu) is tentatively located by scholars near the modern day city of Našice, in east Croatia.[294]
  67. ^ The literal meaning is "place between the rivers".
  68. ^ Scholarly opinion seems to agree that the word must have referred to a large body of water.
  69. ^ Replaced OE sār, compare Ger sehr
  70. ^ a b *H₁le(n)gʷʰ- and *h₁rewdʰ- are both roots that form Caland-type adjectives. These roots are notable in that they form zero-stem adjectives with certain characteristic suffixes, especially -ro- and -u-, along with -i- in compounds. Other examples are *h₂erǵ- "white" (cf. Greek argós < *argrós "white", Sanskrit ṛjrá- "brilliant", Tocharian B ārkwi "white", Greek argi-kéraunos "with bright lightning") and *dʰewb- "deep" (cf. Lithuanian dubùs "hollow" < *dʰub-u-, Tocharian B tapre "high" < *dʰub-ro-).
  71. ^ contested
  72. ^ Cf. also Thrac arzas "white".[325]
  73. ^ Etymon rudá appears in idiomatic expressions denoting "anger".[335]
  74. ^ Latin etymons galbus ("yellow") and galbinus ("greenish-yellow") are also suggested to derive from this root.[341]
  75. ^ See also: Phr glouros "gold".[342][343]
  76. ^ Not cognate
  77. ^ ibetis uciu andecari biiete - 'drink from here and be nice' - Limé (Aisne) inscrpition
  78. ^ See also Umbrian benust (Latin uenerit) and Oscan kúm-bened (Latin conuentio).
  79. ^ Now compare 'prose' and 'verse'
  80. ^ wagon is a loan-word from Dutch.
  81. ^ Some of these words might instead derive from *sekʷ- "to follow"
  82. ^ Not related to Spanish alquilar
  83. ^ Probably
  84. ^ See also Hesperus "evening star"; Hesperides "daughters of the evening; nymphs of the west".
  85. ^ Attested in the Coligny calendar, written in Gaulish language.
  86. ^ Douglas Q. Adams reads the words as "winter, wintry", although there are other interpretations.[454][455]
  87. ^ Influenced by zǝrǝd "heart".
  88. ^ Range of meanings across the different Slavic languages
  89. ^ as in 'to boot', 'bootless'
  90. ^ exact cognate of Héktōr

Tabular notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Complex ablauting stem:
    Singular Plural
    Language Nom Acc Gen Dat Nom Acc Gen
    PIE gʷṓws gʷṓm gʷéws gʷéwey gʷówes gʷówm̥s gʷéwoHom
    Sanskrit gáus gā́m gṓs gávē gā́vas gā́s gávām
    Avestan gāuš gąm gāuš gave gā̆vō gā̊ gavąm
  2. ^ Complex ablauting stem:
    Language Nom Acc Voc Gen Dat Loc Instr Pl
    PIE d(i)yḗws dyḗm dyéw diw-és, -ós diwéy dyéwi and dyéw ?
    Greek Zdeús Zdẽn Zdeũ Di(w)ós Di(w)í
    Sanskrit d(i)yāús dyā́m ? divás, dyōs divḗ dyáví, diví dyú-bhis
  3. ^ a b Complex ablauting stem:
    Language Nom Acc Voc Gen Dat Loc Instr Pl
    PIE d(i)yēus dyēum dyĕu diw-és, -ós diwéi dyéwi and dyēu ?
    Greek Zdeús Zdẽn Zdeũ Di(w)ós Di(w)í
    Sanskrit d(i)yāús dyā́m ? divás, dyōs divḗ dyáví, diví dyú-bhis


  1. ^ Dnghu, pp. 1993-1994.
  2. ^ Pokorny, pp. 700-701.
  3. ^ a b Dnghu, p. 2394.
  4. ^ a b Pokorny, p. 829.
  5. ^ a b Mallory & Adams (2006), p. 210.
  6. ^ Dnghu, pp. 485-486.
  7. ^ Pokorny, pp. 163-164.
  8. ^ a b Mallory & Adams (2006), p. 214.
  9. ^ Yūsuke, Sumi (2018). New Express Romani (Gypsy). p. 142.
  10. ^ Kenrick, Donald (2007). Historical Dictionary of the Gypsies. pp. 195, 204. ISBN 978-0-8108-5468-0.
  11. ^ Zair, Nicholas (2012). The Reflexes of the Proto-Indo-European Laryngeals in Celtic. Brill. p. 110. doi:10.1163/9789004233096. ISBN 978-90-04-22539-8.
  12. ^ Campbell, George L. with King, Gareth. Compendium of the World's Languages. Routledge. 2013. p. 86. ISBN 978-0-415-62191-5
  13. ^ Dnghu, p. 3027.
  14. ^ Pokorny, p. 1051.
  15. ^ Witczak, Krzysztof Tomasz (1 December 2015). "Gaulish SUIOREBE 'with two sisters'". Lingua Posnaniensis. 57 (2): 59–62. doi:10.1515/linpo-2015-0011. S2CID 56122374.
  16. ^ Kloekhorst, Alwin (2011). "The accentuation of the PIE word for 'daughter'". Accent Matters. pp. 235–243. doi:10.1163/9789401200325_009. ISBN 978-90-420-3332-0.
  17. ^ Dnghu, pp. 757-758.
  18. ^ Pokorny, p. 277.
  19. ^ Mallory & Adams (2006), p. 213.
  20. ^ García, Carlos Varias. "De synonymia Mycenaea: términos griegos equivalentes de distintos reinos micénicos". In: Conuentus Classicorum: temas y formas del Mundo Clásico. Coord. por Jesús de la Villa, Emma Falque Rey, José Francisco González Castro, María José Muñoz Jiménez, Vol. 1, 2017. pp. 382-383. ISBN 978-84-697-8214-9
  21. ^ García, Carlos Varias. "De synonymia Mycenaea: términos griegos equivalentes de distintos reinos micénicos". In: Conuentus Classicorum: temas y formas del Mundo Clásico. Coord. por Jesús de la Villa, Emma Falque Rey, José Francisco González Castro, María José Muñoz Jiménez, Vol. 1, 2017. p. 388. ISBN 978-84-697-8214-9
  22. ^ a b Bernardo Stempel, Patrizia de (January 2013). "Celtic 'son', 'daughter', other descendants, and *sunus in Early Celtic". Indogermanische Forschungen. 118 (2013). doi:10.1515/indo.2013.118.2013.259. S2CID 199664295.
  23. ^ Stifter, David (2006). "Contributions to Celtiberian Etymology II". Palaeohispanica. Revista sobre lenguas y culturas de la Hispania Antigua (6): 237–245.
  24. ^ Oshiro, Terumasa (1990). "On Kinship Terms in Hieroglyphic Luwian". Orient. 26: 86–93. doi:10.5356/orient1960.26.86. S2CID 162342792. INIST:6146291.
  25. ^ Milanova, Veronika (2019). "MUNUS/Fduttarii̯ata/I- and Some Other Indo-European Maidens". Hrozný and Hittite. pp. 277–294. doi:10.1163/9789004413122_015. ISBN 978-90-04-41312-2. S2CID 213576150.
  26. ^ Kloekhorst, Alwin. Etymological Dictionary of the Hittite Inherited Lexicon. Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series 5. Leiden, The Netherlands; Boston, 2008. pp. 1042-1044.
  27. ^ Blažek, Václav. “Indo-European kinship terms in *-ə̯2TER.” (2001). In: Grammaticvs: studia linguistica Adolfo Erharto quinque et septuagenario oblata. Šefčík, Ondřej (editor); Vykypěl, Bohumil (editor). Vyd. 1. V Brně: Masarykova univerzita, 2001. p. 25.
  28. ^ Simon, Zsolt (2017). "Selected Pisidian problems and the position of Pisidian within the Anatolian languages". Journal of Language Relationship. 15 (1): 37. doi:10.31826/jlr-2017-151-207. S2CID 212688432.
  29. ^ a b Dnghu, p. 2642.
  30. ^ a b Pokorny, pp. 913-914.
  31. ^ a b c Mallory & Adams (2006), p. 211.
  32. ^ a b Monier Williams, p. 1240.
  33. ^ Schrijver, P. C. H. (2015). "The meaning of Celtic *eburos". In: Oudaer, Guillaume, Hily, Gael, Le Bihan, Herve (eds.). Mélanges en l'honneur de Pierre-Yves Lambert. pp. 65-76. ISBN 978-2-917681-27-5
  34. ^ Stempel, Patrizia de Bernardo (2013). "El Tercer Bronce de Botorrita, veinte años después". Palaeohispanica. Revista sobre lenguas y culturas de la Hispania Antigua (13): 637–660.
  35. ^ Danka, Ignacy Ryszard; Witczak, Krzysztof Tomasz (2010). "Deis Equeunubo: The Divine Twins in Asturia". Studia Celto-Slavica. 4: 17–26. doi:10.54586/ZLYB6908.
  36. ^ Winter, Werner (April 1985). "Tocharian B soy, A se and Related Forms". Journal of the American Oriental Society. 105 (2): 259–264. doi:10.2307/601705. JSTOR 601705.
  37. ^ Monier Williams, p. 632.
  38. ^ Fortson, §13.7
  39. ^ Dnghu, pp. 2188-2189.
  40. ^ Pokorny, p. 764.
  41. ^ Peyrot, Michaël; Xiaoqiang, Meng (8 November 2021). "Tocharian B santse 'daughter-in-law'". Indogermanische Forschungen. 126 (1): 405–410. doi:10.1515/if-2021-016. S2CID 245007778.
  42. ^ a b Beekes, p. 38.
  43. ^ "вуйко - Словник української мови - значення слова, це". Укрліт.org. Retrieved 2021-02-07.
  44. ^ Qiu, Fangzhe (18 September 2019). "Old Irish aue 'descendant' and its descendants" (PDF). Indogermanische Forschungen. 124 (1): 343–374. doi:10.1515/if-2019-0013. S2CID 208141257.
  45. ^ a b Vertegaal, Alexander (July 2020). "Syllable Weight Gradation in the Luwic Languages". Transactions of the Philological Society. 118 (2): 211–236. doi:10.1111/1467-968X.12186. S2CID 213929727.
  46. ^ Dnghu, p. 1370
  47. ^ Pokorny, p. 505
  48. ^ Delamarre, Xavier (2003). Dictionnaire de la langue gauloise: Une approche linguistique du vieux-celtique continental. Errance. p. 188. ISBN 9782877723695.
  49. ^ a b Derksen, p. 346.
  50. ^ Sańko, Siarhiej (2012). "Podstawowe składniki białoruskiej narracji sakralnej w perspektywie porównawczej" [The basic components of the Belarusian sacred narrative in a comparative perspective]. Politeja (in Polish) (22): 153–182. JSTOR 24920134.
  51. ^ Dimitrov, Peter A. (2009). "The Thracian Inscriptions". Thracian Language and Greek and Thracian Epigraphy. Cambridge Scholars Publishing. p. 18. ISBN 978-1-4438-1325-9.
  52. ^ a b c Woudhuizen, Fred C. "Phrygian & Greek" (PDF). Talanta. XL–XLI (2008–2009): 187–217.
  53. ^ a b c d e f g Blažek, Václav (2008). "Gaulish language". Sborník prací Filozofické fakulty brněnské univerzity. N, Řada klasická. 57 (13): 37–65. hdl:11222.digilib/114125.
  54. ^ Puhvel, Jaan. Hittite Etymological Dictionary - Volume 4: Words beginning with Κ. Trends in Linguistics 14. Berlin; New York: Mouton de Gruyter. 1997. pp. 306-308.
  55. ^ Melchert, Harold Craig. Anatolian Historical Phonology. Amsterdam; Atlanta, GA: Rodopi. 1994. p. 264. ISBN 90-5183-697-X
  56. ^ Woudhuizen, Fred C. "Two Notes on Lydian" (PDF). Talanta. XLII–XLIII (2010–2011): 207–213.
  57. ^ Mallory, p. 269.
  58. ^ Dnghu, p. 3264.
  59. ^ Pokorny, p. 1131.
  60. ^ Beekes, p. 39.
  61. ^ Vendryes, Joseph (1939). "Teutomatos". Comptes rendus des séances de l'Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres. 83 (5): 466–480. doi:10.3406/crai.1939.77232.
  62. ^ Bader, Françoise (2009). "Le nom des Vénètes et leur expansion". MOM Éditions. 43 (1): 31–77.
  63. ^ a b Beekes, Robert (1998). "The origin of Lat. Aqua, and of *teuta 'people'". The Journal of Indo-European Studies. 26 (3–4): 459–466. INIST:2019018 ProQuest 206848589.
  64. ^ Bichlmeier, Harald; Blažek, Václav (2020). "'Cimbri' et 'Teutoni'". Acta Linguistica Lithuanica (83): 27–54–27–54. doi:10.35321/all83-02. S2CID 234930889.
  65. ^ Meini, Linda (16 January 2012). "Some remarks on the etymology of *teutā, πλῆθος, plēbs". Linguistic Studies and Essays. 50 (1): 25–56. doi:10.4454/ssl.v50i1.68 (inactive 1 August 2023).{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: DOI inactive as of August 2023 (link)
  66. ^ Mallory, J.P. (October 2006). "Indo-European Warfare". Journal of Conflict Archaeology. 2 (1): 77–98. doi:10.1163/157407706778942312. S2CID 162297933.
  67. ^ Wachter, Rudolf (2015). "Homeric – Mycenaean Word Index (MYC)". Prolegomena. pp. 236–258. doi:10.1515/9781501501746-015. ISBN 978-1-61451-737-5.
  68. ^ *us-we is the original form, modified to *us-me in many languages under the influence of 1st. pl. *n̥s-mé. Very often when *us-we remained, the initial u- was lost; this happened at least in Germanic, Avestan and Celtic.
  69. ^ a b c Fournet, Arnaud (2010). "About the Mitanni Aryan gods". Journal of Indo-European Studies. 38 (1–2): 26-27.
  70. ^ Shevoroshkin, Vitaly. "Anatolian laryngeals in Milyan". In: The Sound of Indo-European: Phonetics, Phonemics, and Morphophonemics. Edited by Benedicte Nielsen Whitehead. Museum Tusculanum Press. 2012. p. 481. ISBN 978-87-635-3838-1
  71. ^ Kassian, Alexei. "Anatolian *meyu- ‘4, four’ and its cognates". In: Journal of Language Relationship 2 (2009). pp. 68 (footnote nr. 9), 69.
  72. ^ Accent location unknown.
  73. ^ Duridanov, Ivan (1985). Die Sprache der Thraker. Bulgarische Sammlung (in German). Vol. 5. Hieronymus Verlag. p. 60. ISBN 3-88893-031-6.
  74. ^ HOLMER, N. M. (1990), “The semantics of numerals”. In: Fontes linguae vasconum, 22: 16.
  75. ^ a b Melchert, H. Craig (1989). "New Luvo-Lycian Isoglosses". Historische Sprachforschung. 102 (1): 23–45. JSTOR 40848962.
  76. ^ "This numeral ... is obviously derived from the word for "nine". (...) The etymological connection with PIE *newn ... is evident ...". Eichner, Heiner. "Anatolian". In: Gvozdanovic, Jadranka (ed.). Indo-European numerals. Trends in linguistics: Studies and monographs n. 57. Berlin; New York: Mouton de Gruyter. 1991. p. 87. ISBN 3-11-011322-8
  77. ^ Wodtko, d. S. "Remarks on Celtiberian Etymology". In: Villar, Francisco y Beltrán, Francisco (eds.). Pueblos, lengua y escrituras en la Hispania Prerromana. Actas del VII Coloquio sobre lenguas y culturas paleohispánicas (Zaragoza, 12 a 15 de Marzo de 1997). Ediciones Universidad Salamanca. 1999. p. 734. ISBN 84-7800-094-1
  78. ^ Anthony, David W. (2007). The Horse, the Wheel, and Language: How Bronze-Age Riders from the Eurasian Steppes Shaped the Modern World. Princeton University Press. p. 28. ISBN 978-1-4008-3110-4
  79. ^ Dnghu, p. 1625
  80. ^ Pokorny, p. 620
  81. ^ Dnghu, p. 1445
  82. ^ Pokorny, pp. 529-530
  83. ^ Raham Asha, Phonology of Pārsīg
  84. ^ Filippone, Ela. "The Gums of the Teeth in the Iranian Languages". In: Mélanges d’ethnographie et de dialectologie Irano-Aryennes à la mémoire de Charles-Martin Kieffer. Studia Iranica, Cahier 61. Edited by Matteo De Chiara, Adriano V. Rossi, and Daniel Septfonds. Leuven: Peeters. 2018. p. 163.
  85. ^ "Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, ὄκκον".
  86. ^ Delamarre (2003), p. 129.
  87. ^ Morpurgo Davies, Anna, and J. David Hawkins. "A Luwian Heart". In: F. Imparati (ed.). Studi di storia e di filologia anatolica dedicate a Giovanni Pugliese Carratelli. Firenze: Elite. 1988. pp. 169-182.
  88. ^ Dnghu, p. 863
  89. ^ Pokorny, p. 313
  90. ^ Hamp, Eric P. (1 January 1977). "Indo-European *'kreuH'". Indogermanische Forschungen. 82: 75–76. ProQuest 1305007584.
  91. ^ Kuiper, F. B. J. (1 November 1976). "Old east Iranian dialects". Indo-Iranian Journal. 18 (3): 241–253. doi:10.1163/000000076790079753. JSTOR 24652490. S2CID 161218715.
  92. ^ Mallory, James P.; Adams, Douglas Q. (1997). Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture. London: Routledge. p. 71. ISBN 978-1-884964-98-5.
  93. ^ Handbook of Comparative and Historical Indo-European Linguistics. Edited by Jared Klein, Brian Joseph, Matthias Fritz. Berlin/Boston: De Gruyter Mouton. 2018. p. 1647. ISBN 978-3-11-054036-9.
  94. ^ Gagliano, Maria Teresa Ademollo (2007). "Le denominazioni del sangue in area baltica". In: Acta Linguistica Lithuanica 56: 1-21.
  95. ^ Dnghu, p. 2387
  96. ^ Pokorny, p. 823
  97. ^ a b Mallory & Adams (2006), p. 183
  98. ^ Dnghu, pp. 178-179.
  99. ^ Pokorny, pp. 55-61.
  100. ^ Mallory & Adams (2006), p. 179.
  101. ^ Monier Williams, p. 170.
  102. ^ Dnghu, pp. 2243-2244.
  103. ^ Pokorny, p. 780
  104. ^ Mallory & Adams (2006), p. 176.
  105. ^ Petit, Daniel (2002). "Vieux pruss. lagno, lit. jẽknos: apophonie radicale et formation hétéroclitique" (PDF). Res Balticae. 8: 67–91.
  106. ^ Itkin=, Ilya B. (2023). "On Tocharian A cognates of the Tocharian B words meaning 'spleen' and 'liver'" [О тохарских A соответствиях тохарским B словам со значением ʽселезенкаʼ и ʽпечень"]. Journal of Language Relationship. 20 (3–4): 177–180. doi:10.1515/jlr-2023-203-404 (inactive 1 August 2023).{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: DOI inactive as of August 2023 (link)
  107. ^ "The Lydian Stems in -o-(d), Luwian /-(a)u-/, Lyc. -u-". Anatolian Verbal Stem Formation. 2020. pp. 180–205. doi:10.1163/9789004436299_006. ISBN 978-90-04-43629-9. S2CID 242268076.
  108. ^ Puhvel, Jaan (1992). "Shaft-shedding Artemis and mind-voiding Ate: Hittite determinants of Greek etyma". Historische Sprachforschung. 105 (1): 4–8. JSTOR 40849348.
  109. ^ Dnghu, p. 2124
  110. ^ Pokorny, pp. 740-741
  111. ^ a b Mallory & Adams (2006), p. 179
  112. ^ Dnghu, p. 322
  113. ^ Dnghu, p. 514
  114. ^ a b Dnghu, pp. 2373-2376
  115. ^ a b Pokorny, pp. 825-826
  116. ^ Monier Williams, p. 581.
  117. ^ Duhoux, Yves (1991). "Minos. Revista de Filologia Egea". L'Antiquité Classique. 60 (1): 716–717.
  118. ^ De Decker, Filip (14 December 2011). "Stang's Law and the Indo-European word for 'cow'". Indogermanische Forschungen. 116 (2011): 42–59. doi:10.1515/9783110239485.42. hdl:1854/LU-8101102. S2CID 201016842.
  119. ^ Delamarre (2003), p. 80.
  120. ^ a b Shevoroshkin, V. (1 September 1978). "Studies in Hittite-Luwian Names". Names. 26 (3): 231–257. doi:10.1179/nam.1978.26.3.231.
  121. ^ Sasseville, David; Yakubovich, Ilya (7 December 2018). "Palaic Words for Domestic Animals and their Enclosures". Historical Linguistics. 131 (1): 46–58. doi:10.13109/hisp.2018.131.1.46. JSTOR 27032358. S2CID 239601340.
  122. ^ a b Mallory, p. 25f.
  123. ^ a b c d Beekes, p. 35.
  124. ^ Dnghu, pp. 219-220.
  125. ^ Pokorny, p. 86.
  126. ^ a b Mallory & Adams (2006), §9.3.
  127. ^ Monier Williams, p. 949.
  128. ^ Blažek, Václav (2017). "Indo-European 'bear'". Historische Sprachforschung. 130: 148–192. JSTOR 26532668.
  129. ^ Peeters, Christian (1973). "The word for 'dog' and the sequence *wH + consonant in Indo-european". Indogermanische Forschungen. 78 (1): 75–77. ProQuest 1305020152.
  130. ^ Delgado, José Miguel Jiménez (2015). "The etymology of Myc. ku-na-ke-ta-i, Ion.-Att. κυνηγέτης, and Myc. ra-wa-ke-ta, Dor. γᾱγέτᾱς". Glotta. 91: 116–128. doi:10.13109/glot.2015.91e.1.116. JSTOR 24368212.
  131. ^ Watkins, Calvert. "Proto-Indo-European: Comparison and Reconstruction". In: The Indo-European Languages. Edited by Anna Giacalone Ramat and Paolo Ramat. Routledge. 1998. p. 54. ISBN 0-415-06449-X.
  132. ^ Sasseville, David and Yakubovich, Ilya. "Palaic Words for Domestic Animals and their Enclosures". In: Historical Linguistics (2018) 131:1, 48-49.
  133. ^ Pokorny, p. 1118.
  134. ^ a b c d Beekes, p. 37.
  135. ^ Orel, Vladimir. Albanian Etymological Dictionary. Leiden, Boston, Cologne: Brill. p. 81.
  136. ^ a b Blažek, Václav (1998). "Baltic and Slavic 'fox'". Linguistica Baltica. 7 (1): 25–31.
  137. ^ Beekes, Robert S. P. (2010). Entry “χήν”. In: Etymological Dictionary of Greek. Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; nr. 10. volume II, with the assistance of Lucien van Beek, Leiden, Boston: Brill. p. 1630.
  138. ^ Adams, Douglas Q. (2013). A Dictionary of Tocharian B.: Revised and Greatly Enlarged. Amsterdam: Rodopi. p. 207. ISBN 978-94-012-0936-6.
  139. ^ Adams, Douglas Q. (2011). "Three additions to the Tocharian B aviary". In Winther, Werner; Schmidt, Klaus T. (eds.). Tocharian and Indo-European Studies vol.12. Museum Tusculanum Press. pp. 33–43. ISBN 978-87-635-3649-3.
  140. ^ Curchin, Leonard A. (2008). "Place-names of the Ebro Valley: their linguistic origins". Palaeohispanica. Revista sobre lenguas y culturas de la Hispania Antigua (8): 13–33.
  141. ^ Pinault, Georges-Jean Pinault; Winter, Werner. Dictionary and Thesaurus of Tocharian A. Volume I: A-J. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag. 2009. p. 173. ISBN 978-3-447-05814-8
  142. ^ Peyrot, Michaël (2018). "A Comparison of the Tocharian a and B Metrical Traditions". Language and Meter. pp. 319–345. doi:10.1163/9789004357778_014. hdl:1887/3465776. ISBN 978-90-04-35776-1.
  143. ^ Collins, Billie Jean. "On the Trail of the Dee: Hittite kurāla-". In: Hittite Studies in Honor of Harry A. Hoffner, Jr: On the Occasion of His 65th Birthday. Edited by Gary Beckman, Richard Beal and Gregory McMahon. Winona Lake, Indiana: Eisenbrauns. 2003. p. 80. ISBN 1-57506-079-5
  144. ^ Ventris, Michael; Chadwick, John. Documents in Mycenaean Greek. Cambridge at the University Press. 1956. p. 96. ISBN 978-0-521-08558-8
  145. ^ "БОБЕР - тлумачення, орфографія, новий правопис онлайн". Retrieved 2021-02-07.
  146. ^ Blažek, Václav (2012). "On Specific Zoological Isoglosses between Celtic and (Balto-)Slavic". Studia Celto-Slavica. 6: 17–29. doi:10.54586/CQLP7556.
  147. ^ Detelić, Mirjana (2010). "St Paraskeve in the Balkan Context". Folklore. 121 (1): 94–105. doi:10.1080/00155870903482049. JSTOR 29534110. S2CID 162807399.
  148. ^ Erben, Karel Jaromír; Strickland, Walter William. Russian and Bulgarian folk-lore stories. London: G. Standring. 1907. p. 130.
  149. ^ Kropej, Monika. Supernatural beings from Slovenian myth and folktales. Ljubljana: Institute of Slovenian Ethnology at ZRC SAZU. 2012. p. 102. ISBN 978-961-254-428-7
  150. ^ Kappler, Matthias (2010). Turkish Language Contacts in Southeastern Europe. p. 256. doi:10.31826/9781463225612. ISBN 978-1-4632-2561-2.
  151. ^ Dnghu, p. 40.
  152. ^ Dnghu, pp. 2273-2274.
  153. ^ Pokorny, pp. 783-784.
  154. ^ Monier Williams, p. 11.
  155. ^ a b Beekes, p. 36.
  156. ^ Dnghu, p. 1835.
  157. ^ Pokorny, p. 653.
  158. ^ Mallory & Adams (2006), p. 146.
  159. ^ a b Mallory & Adams (2006), §16.1.
  160. ^ Dnghu, pp. 1192-1194.
  161. ^ a b Pokorny, pp. 390-391.
  162. ^ Dnghu, pp. 1137, 1151.
  163. ^ Pokorny, pp. 404, 454.
  164. ^ Monier Williams, p. 371.
  165. ^ Dnghu, pp. 2037-2042
  166. ^ Pokorny, pp. 716-719
  167. ^ Dnghu, p. 1650
  168. ^ Pokorny, pp. 627-628.
  169. ^ Mallory & Adams (2006), p. 491.
  170. ^ Monier Williams, p. 324.
  171. ^ Dnghu, p. 1379.
  172. ^ Pokorny, p. 507.
  173. ^ Mallory & Adams (2006), p. 261.
  174. ^ Monier Williams, p. 856.
  175. ^ Dnghu, pp. 409-411.
  176. ^ Pokorny, p. 132-133.
  177. ^ "Buran". 8 May 2016.
  178. ^ Pokorny, pp. 476-477.
  179. ^ Hamp, E.P. (1995). "Two Notes on Armenian Linguistics". Revue des Études Arméniennes. 25: 7–8. doi:10.2143/rea.25.0.2003770.
  180. ^ Varias Garcia, Carlos. "The word for ‘honey’ and connected terms in Mycenaean Greek". In: Pierre Carlier, Additional editors: Charles De Lamberterie, Markus Egetmeyer, Nicole Guilleux, Françoise Rougemont and Julien Zurbach (editors). Études mycéniennes 2010. Actes du XIIIe colloque international sur les textes égéens, Sèvres, Paris, Nanterre, 20-23 septembre 2010. Biblioteca di Pasiphae. 10. Pisa; Roma: Fabrizio Serra editore, 2012. pp. 403-418. ISBN 9788862274722
  181. ^ a b Čop, Bojan (1 January 1970). "Eine luwische orthographisch-phonetische Regel". Indogermanische Forschungen. 75 (1): 85–96. doi:10.1515/if-1970-0106. S2CID 172033506.
  182. ^ Dictionnaire Illustré Latin-Français, Hachette (1934) p. 960
  183. ^ Vycinas, Vincent. Search for Gods. Springer, Dordrecht. 1972. p. 33. ISBN 978-94-010-2816-5
  184. ^ Kristin Meier; Michaël Peyrot (2017). "The Word for 'Honey' in Chinese, Tocharian and Sino-Vietnamese". Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenländischen Gesellschaft. 167 (1): 7. doi:10.13173/zeitdeutmorggese.167.1.0007.
  185. ^ Dnghu, pp. 2555-2556
  186. ^ Pokorny, pp. 878-879
  187. ^ a b Bracchi, Remo (1994). "Doméga". Orbis. 37: 113–127. doi:10.2143/ORB.37.0.2012768.
  188. ^ Blažek, Václav. "On Indo-European ‘barley’". In: Simmelkjaer Sandgaard Hansen, Bjarne; Nielsen Whitehead, Benedicte; Olander, Thomas; Olsen, Birgit Anette. Etymology and the European Lexicon. Proceedings of the 14th Fachtagung der Indogermanischen Gesellschaft (17-22 September 2012, Copenhagen). Wiesbaden: Reichert Verlag, 2016. pp. 54-55. ISBN 978-3-95490-202-6.
  189. ^ Dixon-Kennedy, Mike (1998). Encyclopedia of Russian and Slavic Myth and Legend. Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO. p. 212. ISBN 9781576070635.
  190. ^ Pokorny, p. 725.
  191. ^ a b c A synchronic rule in PIE deleted laryngeals in the sequence VRHy or R̥Hy.
  192. ^ Mallory, James P.; Adams, Douglas Q. (1997). Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture. London: Routledge. p. 527. ISBN 978-1-884964-98-5
  193. ^ a b Kocharov, Petr (2016). "Proto-Indo-European lexical aspect and stem patterns". Faits de Langues. 47 (1): 75–88. doi:10.1163/19589514-047-01-900000005. S2CID 211952112.
  194. ^ Dnghu, p. 778.
  195. ^ Pokorny, p. 226.
  196. ^ a b c d e Mallory & Adams (2006), p. 322.
  197. ^ Monier Williams, p. 502.
  198. ^ Dnghu, pp. 425-427
  199. ^ Dnghu, pp. 1176-1180.
  200. ^ Pokorny, pp. 373-375.
  201. ^ a b Mallory & Adams (2006), §11.6.
  202. ^ Monier Williams, pp. 410-418.
  203. ^ Bucknell, p. 165.
  204. ^ Rix (2001), p. 538.
  205. ^ Dnghu, p. 216.
  206. ^ Monier Williams, p. 235.
  207. ^ Dnghu, p. 3244
  208. ^ Delamarre (2003), p. 77.
  209. ^ Friedrich, Johannes. Hethitisches Wörterbuch kurzgefasste kritische Sammlung der Deutung hethitischer Wörter [und] Ergänzungshefte.[dead link] Indogermanische Bibliothek, II. Reihe, Wörterbücher. Heidelberg: Carl Winter, 1952. p. 72.
  210. ^ Normier, Rudolf (1980). "Tocharisch ñkät/ñakte 'Gott'". Zeitschrift für vergleichende Sprachforschung. 94 (1/2): 251–281. JSTOR 40848637.
  211. ^ Kammenhuber, Annelies (1985). "Zum Modus Injunktiv und zum Drei-Genus-System im Ur-Indogermanischen (Ca. 3000-2500 v. CHR.)". Studia Linguistica. Diachronica et Synchronica. pp. 435–466. doi:10.1515/9783110850604-036. ISBN 978-3-11-085060-4.
  212. ^ Košak, SlLVIN (January 1996). "Ein hethitisches ghost word entgeistert". Altorientalische Forschungen. 23 (1). doi:10.1524/aofo.1996.23.1.95. S2CID 161123101.
  213. ^ Dnghu, pp. 1192-1193.
  214. ^ Monier Williams, pp. 413-414, 422-424.
  215. ^ Trubačov, p. 82.
  216. ^ Dnghu, p. 1658
  217. ^ Pokorny, p. 554.
  218. ^ Mallory & Adams (2006), p. 492.
  219. ^ Monier Williams, p. 296.
  220. ^ Dnghu, p. 1792
  221. ^ Pokorny, p. 649
  222. ^ Rix, pp. 473-474.
  223. ^ Derksen, p. 428.
  224. ^ Delamarre (2003), p. 118.
  225. ^ Dnghu, p. 221.
  226. ^ Pokorny, p. 78.
  227. ^ Monier Williams, p. 155.
  228. ^ Villanueva Svensson, Miguel (16 December 2011). "Lithuanian žinóti "to know"". Baltistica. 43 (2): 175–199. doi:10.15388/baltistica.43.2.1232.
  229. ^ Kortlandt, Frederik (14 December 2011). "Lithuanian žinóti 'to know'". Baltistica. 45 (1): 81–84. doi:10.15388/baltistica.45.1.1067.
  230. ^ Dnghu, pp. 1908-1909
  231. ^ Pokorny, pp. 683-684
  232. ^ Dnghu, pp. 2065-2067
  233. ^ Pokorny, pp. 726-728
  234. ^ Monier Williams, p. 785.
  235. ^ Dnghu, pp. 2800-2801.
  236. ^ Pokorny, pp. 969-970.
  237. ^ Monier Williams, p. 1271.
  238. ^ Dnghu, p. 3142.
  239. ^ Pokorny, p. 1088.
  240. ^ Dnghu, p. 2094.
  241. ^ Pokorny, pp. 737-738.
  242. ^ Monier Williams, p. 831.
  243. ^ Dnghu, pp. 598-599.
  244. ^ Pokorny, p. 213.
  245. ^ a b c Mallory & Adams (2006), p. 325.
  246. ^ Monier Williams, p. 491.
  247. ^ Dnghu, p. 2840.
  248. ^ Pokorny, p. 984.
  249. ^ Monier Williams, p. 611.
  250. ^ Dnghu, p. 1798.
  251. ^ Pokorny, pp. 638-639.
  252. ^ Monier Williams, p. 280.
  253. ^ Dnghu, p. 329
  254. ^ Dnghu, pp. 1497-1499
  255. ^ Pokorny, pp. 548-550
  256. ^ Pokorny, pp. 161-162
  257. ^ Delamarre (2003), p. 50.
  258. ^ Dnghu, pp. 2926-2927.
  259. ^ Pokorny, pp. 1016-1017.
  260. ^ a b c Mallory & Adams (2006), p. 513.
  261. ^ Monier Williams, p. 454.
  262. ^ Dnghu, pp. 3050-3052.
  263. ^ Pokorny, pp. 1053-1054.
  264. ^ a b c d Mallory & Adams (2006), p. 123
  265. ^ Lurker, Manfred (2004). A Dictionary of Gods and Goddesses, Devils and Demons. Routledge. p. 325. ISBN 0-415-03943-6
  266. ^ Dominicy, Marc. Phonological Reconstruction: Problems and Methods. Ed. de l'Univ. de Bruxelles, 1988. p. 42.
  267. ^ Dnghu, p. 64.
  268. ^ Pokorny, pp. 18-22.
  269. ^ a b c Mallory & Adams (2006), p. 121.
  270. ^ Monier Williams, p. 114.
  271. ^ Dnghu, p. 1902.
  272. ^ Pokorny, p. 678.
  273. ^ a b c Mallory & Adams (2006), p. 122.
  274. ^ Still scanned as three syllables in some passages of the Rigveda, Ringe (2006) p. 77.
  275. ^ Monier Williams, p. 557.
  276. ^ Ringe (2006) p. 77, sourced to Melchert (1994) p. 54.
  277. ^ Mallory, p. 202.
  278. ^ Andersen, Henning (12 October 2021). "PIE *peh2ur 'fire'. Two Slavic etymologies". Slovene Linguistic Studies. 13. doi:10.3986/sjsls.13.1.01. S2CID 243579408.
  279. ^ Mallory, pp. 99, 123, 124.
  280. ^ Dnghu, pp. 265-266
  281. ^ Pokorny, pp. 68-69
  282. ^ Dnghu, p. 1517.
  283. ^ Pokorny, p. .
  284. ^ Dnghu, pp. 652-653.
  285. ^ Pokorny, pp. 240-241.
  286. ^ Monier Williams, p. 477.
  287. ^ Dnghu, p. 954
  288. ^ Pokorny, p. 347
  289. ^ Kortlandt, Frederik (12 December 2011). "The development of the Indo-European syllabic resonants in Balto-Slavic". Baltistica. 42 (1): 7–12. doi:10.15388/baltistica.42.1.938.
  290. ^ Panaino, Antonio (2019). "The Ancient Iranian Cosmography and its Evolution". A Walk through the Iranian Heavens. pp. 55–100. doi:10.1163/9789004460690_007. ISBN 978-1-949743-14-2.
  291. ^ Dnghu, p. 1926.
  292. ^ Pokorny, p. 681.
  293. ^ Birnbaum, Henrik. Problems of Typological and Genetic Linguistics Viewed in a Generative Framework. The Hague; Paris: Mouton. 1970. p. 116.
  294. ^ Gračanin, Hrvoje (29 September 2010). "Rimske prometnice i komunikacije u kasnoantičkoj južnoj Panoniji". Scrinia Slavonica (in Croatian). 10 (1): 9–69.
  295. ^ Martirosyan, Hrach (2013). "The place of Armenian in the Indo-European language family: the relationship with Greek and Indo-Iranian". Journal of Language Relationship. 10 (1): 85–138 [94]. doi:10.31826/jlr-2013-100107.
  296. ^ Dnghu, p. 536
  297. ^ MMW, p. 509.
  298. ^ Mallory, p. 106.
  299. ^ Dnghu, pp. 664-665.
  300. ^ Pokorny, p. 245-246.
  301. ^ Dnghu, p. 2074.
  302. ^ Pokorny, p. 738.
  303. ^ Monier Williams, pp. 791, 812.
  304. ^ Dnghu, p. 517
  305. ^ Delamarre (2003), p. 82.
  306. ^ Dnghu, pp. 384-386.
  307. ^ Pokorny, pp. 140-141.
  308. ^ Monier Williams, p. 737.
  309. ^ a b Majer, Marek (30 December 2017). "A Note on the Balto-Slavic and Indo-European Background of the Proto-Slavic Adjective *svętъ 'Holy'". Studia Ceranea. 7: 139–149. doi:10.18778/2084-140X.07.09.
  310. ^ a b c Mallory & Adams (2006), p. 410
  311. ^ Monier Williams, pp. 737-741.
  312. ^ Burrow, pp. 139-142.
  313. ^ Dnghu, pp. 3332-3333.
  314. ^ Pokorny, pp. 1165-1166.
  315. ^ Mallory & Adams (2006), p. 338.
  316. ^ Dnghu, p. 576
  317. ^ Delamarre (2003), p. 39.
  318. ^ Dnghu, p. 478.
  319. ^ a b c d e Beekes, p. 40.
  320. ^ Dnghu, p. 61
  321. ^ Dnghu, p. 291
  322. ^ Dnghu, p. 360
  323. ^ Mallory, J. P.; Huld, Martin E. (1984). "Proto-Indo-European 'Silver'". Zeitschrift für vergleichende Sprachforschung. 97 (1): 1–12. JSTOR 40848726.
  324. ^ Ventris, Michael; Chadwick, John. Documents in Mycenaean Greek. Cambridge at the University Press. 1956. p. 374. ISBN 978-0-521-08558-8
  325. ^ Duridanov, Ivan (1985). Die Sprache der Thraker. Bulgarische Sammlung (in German). Vol. 5. Hieronymus Verlag. p. 74. ISBN 3-88893-031-6.
  326. ^ Monier Williams, p. 90.
  327. ^ Dnghu, pp. 1776-1777.
  328. ^ Pokorny, pp. 628-629.
  329. ^ a b c d Mallory & Adams (2006), p. 331.
  330. ^ Monier Williams, p. 1106.
  331. ^ Dnghu, p. 1550.
  332. ^ Pokorny, p. 583.
  333. ^ Monier Williams, p. 306.
  334. ^ García Ramón, J. L. "Mycenaean onomastics". In: A Companion to Linear B: Mycenaean Greek Texts and their World. Volume 2. Edited by Yves Duhoux and Anna Morpurgo Davies. Bibliothèque des Cahiers de l'Institut de Linguistique de Louvain. Peeters: Louvain-la-Neuve – Walpole, MA. 2011. pp. 215, 223.
  335. ^ Uusküla, M (2008). "The basic colour terms of Czech". Trames. Journal of the Humanities and Social Sciences. 12 (1): 3–28. doi:10.3176/tr.2008.1.01. Gale A200506572.
  336. ^ Jasińska, Katarzyna; Piwowarczyk, Dariusz R. "The Indo-European heritage in Modern Polish – introductory remarks". In: The Indo-European legacy in language and culture. eds. A. Dudziak, A. Zlobin, M. Payunena. Olsztyn: Wydawnictwo UWM, 2019. p. 196.
  337. ^ Stifter, David (1998). "Study in red" (PDF). Study in Red. 40 (2): 202–223. INIST:13939226.
  338. ^ Cólera, Carlos (16 March 2007). "Celtiberian". E-Keltoi: Journal of Interdisciplinary Celtic Studies. 6 (1).
  339. ^ Blazek, Václav (2017). "Indo-European "Gold" in Time and Space". The Journal of Indo-European Studies. 45 (3–4): 267–311. ProQuest 2070902356.
  340. ^ Prósper, Blanca María (2017). "Proto-Italic laryngeals in the context CLHC- and new Italic and Celtic etymological connections". Rivista italiana di linguistica e di dialettologia (XIX). doi:10.19272/201704801004.
  341. ^ Oksana, Tsaregorodtseva (2014). "Semantic processes in derivatives of the etymological root *ghel- (*ghel-) / *glend(ʰ)- to shine, to sparkle". Language and Culture (1): 69–74.
  342. ^ Fortson, Benjamin W. Indo-European Language and Culture: An Introduction. Blackwell Publishing. 2010. p. 461. ISBN 978-1-4051-8895-1
  343. ^ Sowa, Wojciech (2007). "A note to 'Phrygian' words in Greek". Studia Etymologica Cracoviensia. pp. 153–170. ISBN 978-83-233-2345-7.
  344. ^ Dnghu, pp. 1678-1679.
  345. ^ Pokorny, pp. 540-541.
  346. ^ Monier Williams, p. 1094.
  347. ^ Dnghu, pp. 417-418.
  348. ^ Pokorny, pp. 136-137.
  349. ^ Monier Williams, p. 721.
  350. ^ Dnghu, pp. 3395-3396.
  351. ^ Pokorny, pp. 1174-1175.
  352. ^ a b c Mallory & Adams (2006), p.[page needed].
  353. ^ Monier Williams, pp. 930-931.
  354. ^ Puhvel, Jaan (1980). "On the Origin and Congeners of Hittite aššu-'good'". Zeitschrift für vergleichende Sprachforschung. 94 (1/2): 65–70. JSTOR 40848616.
  355. ^ Dnghu, p. 2982.
  356. ^ Pokorny, pp. 1037-1038.
  357. ^ Monier Williams, pp. 1219-1221.
  358. ^ Dnghu, pp. 940-943.
  359. ^ Pokorny, pp. 340-342.
  360. ^ Monier Williams, p. 1134.
  361. ^ Pokorny, pp. 1039-1040.
  362. ^ Mallory & Adams (2006), p. 255.
  363. ^ Monier Williams, p. 1279.
  364. ^ Beekes, p. 34.
  365. ^ Dnghu, pp.583-586.
  366. ^ Pokorny, pp. 189-199.
  367. ^ Mallory & Adams (2006), 220.
  368. ^ Erkut, Sedat (1 October 2006). "Hititçe-Kugulla Sözcüğü" (PDF). Tarih Araştırmaları Dergisi. 25 (40): 108–111. doi:10.1501/Tarar_0000000247.
  369. ^ Chadwick, John; Baumbach, Lydia (1963). "The Mycenaean Greek Vocabulary". Glotta. 41 (3/4): 157–271. JSTOR 40265918.
  370. ^ Lewis & Short
  371. ^ Monier Williams, p. 241.
  372. ^ Lühr, Rosemarie (2014). "Spinne am Morgen bringt Kummer und Sorgen". Denkströme. 13.
  373. ^ Haruyuki Saito. Das Partizipium Präteriti im Tocharischen. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag. 2006. pp. 556-557. ISBN 3-447-05330-5
  374. ^ Kim, Ronald I. (March 2019). "Old English Cyme and the Proto-Indo-European Aorist Optative in Germanic". Transactions of the Philological Society. 117 (1): 96–111. doi:10.1111/1467-968X.12147. S2CID 150325591.
  375. ^ Delamarre (2003), p. 74.
  376. ^ Dnghu, pp. 1675-1676.
  377. ^ Pokorny, pp. 539-540.
  378. ^ Mallory & Adams (2006), p. 206.
  379. ^ Monier Williams, p. 1074.
  380. ^ Rix (2001), p. 321.
  381. ^ Dnghu, p. 1737.
  382. ^ Pokorny, p. 626.
  383. ^ Mallory & Adams (2006), p. 223.
  384. ^ Monier Williams, p. 328.
  385. ^ Rix (2001), pp. 643-644.
  386. ^ Ivanov V. V. "Balto-anatolica I: Luvian zammantiš “”new born child””: Old Prussian gemmons “born”". In: Res Balticae Nr. 04, 1998 pp. 67-85.
  387. ^ Dnghu, pp. 1376-1377
  388. ^ Pokorny, pp. 511-512
  389. ^ Mallory & Adams (2006), p. 181
  390. ^ Monier Williams, p. 580.
  391. ^ Dnghu, pp. 2386-2389
  392. ^ Pokorny, pp. 790-792
  393. ^ Monier Williams, p. 582.
  394. ^ Dnghu, pp. 2924-2925.
  395. ^ Pokorny, pp. 1017-1018.
  396. ^ Monier Williams, p. 1258.
  397. ^ Dnghu, pp. 3352-3354.
  398. ^ Pokorny, pp. 1156-1158.
  399. ^ a b c Mallory & Adams (2006), p. 378.
  400. ^ Monier Williams, p. 1009.
  401. ^ Dnghu, p. 342
  402. ^ Dnghu, p. 429
  403. ^ Dnghu, pp. 1381-1384
  404. ^ Pokorny, pp. 508-510
  405. ^ Monier Williams, pp. 856-857.
  406. ^ Pokorny, p. 4.
  407. ^ Dnghu, pp. 2934-2936.
  408. ^ Pokorny, pp. 1019-1020.
  409. ^ Monier Williams, p. 1261.
  410. ^ Dnghu, pp. 1446-1449
  411. ^ Pokorny, pp. 527-528
  412. ^ Dnghu, p. 346
  413. ^ Dnghu, p. 613
  414. ^ Dnghu, p. 488
  415. ^ Dnghu, pp. 2660-2661
  416. ^ Pokorny, pp. 895-896
  417. ^ Dnghu, pp. 2704-2717
  418. ^ Pokorny, pp. 938-947
  419. ^ Dnghu, pp. 2735-2740
  420. ^ Pokorny, pp. 919-922
  421. ^ Monier Williams, p. 406.
  422. ^ a b Dnghu, pp. 922-932
  423. ^ a b Pokorny, pp. 326-332
  424. ^ Dnghu, p. 2594.
  425. ^ Pokorny, pp. 900-901.
  426. ^ Mallory & Adams (2006), p. 391.
  427. ^ Monier Williams, p. 1245.
  428. ^ Dnghu, pp. 1800-1802.
  429. ^ Pokorny, pp. 639-640.
  430. ^ Mallory & Adams (2006), p. 494.
  431. ^ Monier Williams, p. 389.
  432. ^ Helmut, p. 386.
  433. ^ Dnghu, pp. 3299-3305.
  434. ^ Pokorny, pp. 1140-1144.
  435. ^ Monier Williams, p. 927.
  436. ^ Helmut (2001), p. 677.
  437. ^ Dnghu, pp. 3274-3275.
  438. ^ Pokorny, pp. 1131-1132.
  439. ^ Monier Williams, p. 972.
  440. ^ Rix (2001), p. 671.
  441. ^ "ЛИШИТИ — ЕТИМОЛОГІЯ | Горох — українські словники". (in Ukrainian). Retrieved 2021-02-07.
  442. ^ a b c Dnghu, pp. 2515-2521
  443. ^ a b c Pokorny, pp. 868-871
  444. ^ Pokorny, p. 338.
  445. ^ Dnghu, p. 2213.
  446. ^ Pokorny, p. 770.
  447. ^ Mallory & Adams (2006), p. 300.
  448. ^ Monier Williams, p. 567.
  449. ^ Dnghu, p. 1524.
  450. ^ Pokorny, pp. 563-564.
  451. ^ Mallory & Adams (2006), p. 489.
  452. ^ Monier Williams, p. 249.
  453. ^ Duval, Paul-Marie (1964). "Observations sur le Calendrier de Coligny, IV". Études Celtiques. 11 (1): 7–45. doi:10.3406/ecelt.1964.1383.
  454. ^ Adams, Douglas Q. A Dictionary of Tocharian B: Revised and Greatly Enlarged. Amsterdam - New York, NY: Rodopi. 2013. p. 690. ISBN 978-90-420-3671-0
  455. ^ Adams, Douglas Q. "The Tocharian B word for 'solstice'?". In: Tocharian and Indo-European Studies. Vol. 12. Museum Tusculanum Press, University of Copenhagen. 2011. pp. 48-49. ISBN 978-87-635-3649-3
  456. ^ Ching, Chao-jung (2018). "On the Word ṣau Found in the Kuchean Secular Documents". Great Journeys across the Pamir Mountains. pp. 1–19. doi:10.1163/9789004362253_002. ISBN 978-90-04-36222-2.
  457. ^ Dnghu, p. 197
  458. ^ Delamarre (2003), p. 36.
  459. ^ Dnghu, pp. 1302-1303.
  460. ^ Pokorny, p. 478.
  461. ^ Monier Williams, p. 359.
  462. ^ Dnghu, p. 955
  463. ^ Pokorny, p. 348
  464. ^ Gonda, J. (31 December 1949). "Origin and Meaning of Avestan spEnta-". Oriens. 2 (2): 195–203. doi:10.2307/1579205. JSTOR 1579205.
  465. ^ Dnghu, p. 2553
  466. ^ Pokorny, p. 878
  467. ^ Dnghu, p. 1068
  468. ^ Dnghu, p. 321
  469. ^ Dnghu, p. 92
  470. ^ Dnghu, p. 911
  471. ^ Pokorny, p. 339
  472. ^ Dnghu, p. 306
  473. ^ a b Dnghu, pp. 538-543
  474. ^ a b Pokorny, pp. 175-179
  475. ^ Dnghu, pp. 571-574
  476. ^ Pokorny, pp. 194-196
  477. ^ Dnghu, p. 326
  478. ^ Dnghu, p. 434
  479. ^ Dnghu, p. 513
  480. ^ Dnghu, p. 545
  481. ^ Dnghu, p. 962
  482. ^ Pokorny, p. 298
  483. ^ Dnghu, pp. 2582-2583
  484. ^ Pokorny, pp. 888-889
  485. ^ Delamarre (2003), pp. 269-270.
  486. ^ Dnghu, pp. 2250-2251
  487. ^ Pokorny, pp. 781-782
  488. ^ Georgiev, Vladimir (1965). "Problèmes phonématiques du slave commun" (PDF). Revue des études slaves. 44 (1): 7–17. doi:10.3406/slave.1965.1882.[permanent dead link]


  • Pokorny, Julius (1959). Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch.
  • Dnghu. Proto-Indo-European Etymological Dictionary. (A revised edition of Julius Pokorny's Indogermanisches Etymologisches Wörterbuch, CCA-GNU)
  • Beekes, Robert (1995). Comparative Indo-European Linguistics. ISBN 1-55619-504-4.
  • Mallory, James; Adams, DQ (24 August 2006). The Oxford Introduction to Proto-Indo-European and the Proto-Indo-European World (2006 ed.). Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-928791-0.
  • Kölligan, Daniel (2018). "The lexicon of Proto-Indo-European". Handbook of Comparative and Historical Indo-European Linguistics. pp. 2229–2279. doi:10.1515/9783110542431-045. ISBN 978-3-11-054243-1. S2CID 134708437.
  • Delamarre, Xavier. Le Vocabulaire Indo-Européen. Paris: Librairie d'Amérique et d'Orient. 1984. ISBN 2-7200-1028-6
  • Delamarre, Xavier (2003). Dictionnaire de la langue gauloise: Une approche linguistique du vieux-celtique continental. Errance. ISBN 9782877723695.
  • Kloekhorst, Alwin. Etymological Dictionary of the Hittite Inherited Lexicon. Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series 5. Leiden, The Netherlands; Boston, 2008.
  • Matasovic, Ranko. Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill. 2009. ISBN 978-90-04-17336-1
  • Monier-Williams, Monier (1960). A Sanskrit-English. Oxford: Oxford Clarendon.

Further reading[edit]

On numerals:

On nature and the passage of time:

On animals:

On kinship and family:

  • Blažek, Václav. "Indo-European *suHnu- 'son' and his relatives". In: Indogermanistik und Linguistik im Dialog. Akten der XIII. Fachtagung der Indogermanischen Gesellschaft von 21. bis 27. September 2008 in Salzburg, hrg. Thomas Krisch & Thomas Lindner. Wiesbaden: Reichert, 2011. pp. 79–89. ISBN 978-3-89500-681-4
  • Cooper, Brian. "The Lexicology and Etymology of Russian Family Relationships". In: Studia Etymologica Cracoviensia Vol. 14. Issue 1. Kraków: 2009. pp. 153–176. ISBN 978-83-233-2758-5
  • Fernández, Esteban Ngomo (2022). "La palabra para 'hija' en indoeuropeo: un análisis comparativo" [THE WORD FOR ‘DAUGHTER’ IN INDO-EUROPEAN: A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS]. Revista Española de Lingüística (in Spanish). 52 (1): 169–182. doi:10.31810/RSEL.52.1.5. S2CID 250377644.
  • Friedrich, Paul (January 1966). "Proto-Indo-European Kinship". Ethnology. 5 (1): 1–36. doi:10.2307/3772899. JSTOR 3772899.
  • Galton, Herbert (1957). "The Indo-European Kinship Terminology". Zeitschrift für Ethnologie. 82 (1): 121–138. JSTOR 25840433.
  • Hettrich, Heinrich (1985). "Indo-European Kinship Terminology in linguistics and Anthropology". Anthropological Linguistics. 27 (4): 453–480. JSTOR 30028080.
  • Heltoft, Lars (29 April 2020). "The Malt stone as evidence for a morphological archaism: Reconstructing the Proto-Nordic and Proto-Germanic systems of kinship terms". NOWELE. 73 (1): 4–20. doi:10.1075/nowele.00031.hel. S2CID 219013196.
  • Humphreys, S. C. (2017). "Proto-Indo-European Kinship and Society: Kin Terms". The Journal of Indo-European Studies. 45 (3–4): 373–425. ProQuest 2070902282.
  • Kullanda, Sergey (February 2002). "Indo‐European 'Kinship Terms' Revisited". Current Anthropology. 43 (1): 89–111. doi:10.1086/324127. S2CID 224797067.
  • Milanova, Veronika (2020). "Brothers and Many Others: The Concept 'Offspring' and its Semantic Extensions in IndoEuropean Languages". The Journal of Indo-European Studies. 48 (1–2): 189–217. ProQuest 2429828943.
  • Pârvulescu, Adrian (1 January 1989). "Blood and IE. Kinship Terminology". Indogermanische Forschungen. 94 (1): 67–88. doi:10.1515/if-1989-0107. S2CID 171400036.
  • Rau, Jeremy (2011). "Indo-European Kinship Terminology: *ph₂tr-ou̯-/ph₂tr̥-u̯- and its Derivatives". Historische Sprachforschung / Historical Linguistics. 124: 1–25. doi:10.13109/hisp.2011.124.1.1. JSTOR 41553560.
  • Starke, Frank (1987). "Die Vertretungen von uridg. *d h ugh₂tér- "Tochter" in den luwischen Sprachen und ihre Stammbildung". Zeitschrift für vergleichende Sprachforschung. 100 (2): 243–269. JSTOR 40848875.

On agriculture and produce:

On colors:

On verbs related to action and motion:

On bodily functions:

External links[edit]