Indo-European vocabulary

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The following is a table of many of the most fundamental Proto-Indo-European language (PIE) words and roots, with their cognates in all of the major families of descendants.


The following conventions are used:

  • Cognates are in general given in the oldest well-documented language of each family, although forms in modern languages are given for families in which the older stages of the languages are poorly documented or do not differ significantly from the modern languages. In addition, modern English forms are given for comparison purposes.
  • Nouns are given in their nominative case, with the genitive case supplied in parentheses when its stem differs from that of the nominative. (For some languages, especially Sanskrit, the basic stem is given in place of the nominative.)
  • Verbs are given in their "dictionary form". The exact form given depends on the specific language:
  • In place of Latin, an Oscan or Umbrian cognate is occasionally given when no corresponding Latin cognate exists. Similarly, a cognate from another Anatolian language (e.g. Luvian, Lycian) may occasionally be given in place of or in addition to Hittite.
  • For Tocharian, both the Tocharian A and Tocharian B cognates are given whenever possible.
  • For the Celtic languages, both Old Irish and Welsh cognates are given when possible. For Welsh, normally the modern form is given, but occasionally the form from Old Welsh is supplied when it is known and displays important features lost in the modern form. A Middle Irish cognate is given when the Old Irish form is unknown, and Gaulish, Cornish and/or Breton (modern) cognates may occasionally be given in place of or in addition to Welsh.
  • For the Baltic languages, Lithuanian (modern) and Old Prussian cognates are given when possible. (Both Lithuanian and Old Prussian are included because Lithuanian often includes information missing in Old Prussian, e.g. due to lack of written accent marks in the latter.) Similarly to the Celtic situation, Old Lithuanian forms may occasionally be given in place of modern Lithuanian; Latvian (modern) may occasionally be given in place of or in addition to Lithuanian.
  • For the Slavic languages, Old Church Slavonic cognates are given when possible. Forms from modern Slavic languages or other Church Slavic dialects may occasionally be given in place of Old Church Slavonic.
  • For English, a modern English cognate is given when it exists, along with the corresponding Old English form; otherwise, only an Old English form is given.
  • For Gothic, a form in another Germanic language (Old Norse; Old High German; or Middle High German) is sometimes given in its place or in addition, when it reveals important features.


PIE English Gothic Latin Ancient Greek Sanskrit Iranian Slavic Baltic Celtic Armenian Albanian Tocharian Hittite
*méH₂tēr- "mother"[a][1][2] mother (< OE mōdor) ON móðir "mother" māter "mother" ⇒
[note 1]
mḗtēr "mother";
Dēmḗtēr Demeter;
mētrópolis "metropolis, lit., mother-city"
mā́tṛ, mātṛ́ "mother" Av mātar- "mother"; NPers mādar "mother"; Kurdish mak "mother" OCS mati, mater- "mother" Lith móteris "woman", motina; OPrus muti "mother" Gaul. mātīr "mother",

OIr māthir "mother"; W modryb "auntie"

mayr "mother" motër "sister" A mācar, B mācer "mother"
*pH₂tér- "father"
father (< OE fæder) fadar "father" pater "father" ⇒
[note 2]
patḗr "father" (> patriarch) pitṛ́ "father"; Pitrs "spirits of the ancestors" (litt. "the fathers") Av pitar- (nom. also pta, ta), OPers pita "father", NPers pedar otets "father" Russian OIr athir "father"; Welsh edrydd "paternal domain" hayr "father" atë "father" A pācar, B pācer "father"
*bʰréH₂ter- "brother"[6][7][8] brother (< OE brōþor) brōþar "brother" frāter "brother" ⇒
[note 3]
pʰrā́tēr "member of a phratry (brotherhood)" (> phratry) bʰrā́tṛ "brother"; Rom phral "brother" (> pal)[9][10][c] Av brātar-, OPers brātar-, NPers brādar-, Ossetian ärvád "brother, relative", NPers barādar, Kurdish bira OCS bratrŭ "brother" Lith brõlis, OPrus brati "brother" Gaul Bratronos (pers. name);[11] OIr brāth(a)ir, W brawd (pl. brodyr) "brother" ełbayr (gen. ełbawr) "brother" A pracar, B procer "brother" Lyd brafr(-sis) "brother"[12]
*swésor "sister"[13][14][8] sister (< OE sweostor, influenced by ON systir) swistar "sister" soror "sister" ⇒
[note 4]
éor "sister" svásṛ "sister" Av x̌aŋhar- "sister"; NPers ḫwāhar "sister";

Kurdish xwişk "sister" sw- > xw-

OCS sestra "sister" Lith sesuǫ(seser̃s), OPrus sestra "sister" Gaul suiorebe "with two sisters" (dual)[15]

OIr siur, W chwaer "sister"

kʿoyr (kʿeṙ), kʿor-kʿ "sister"[d] vashë, vajzë "girl" (< *varjë < *vëharë < PAlb *swesarā) A ṣar', B ṣer "sister"
"sibling, lit. same-father(ed)"
ON samfeðra homopátōr OP hamapitar- A ṣomapacar
*dʰugH₂-tér- "daughter"[16][17][18][19] daughter (< OE dohtor) daúhtar "daughter" Oscan futír "daughter" θugátēr "daughter"; Myc tu-ka-te "daughter"[20][e] dúhitṛ "daughter" Av dugədar-, duɣδar-, NPers doḫtar "daughter" Kurdish dot "daughter" OCS dŭšti, dŭšter- "daughter" Lith dukteris, OPrus dukti "daughter" Gaulish duxtir "daughter"; Celtib TuaTer (duater) "daughter"[22][23] dustr "daughter" A ckācar, B tkācer "daughter" HLuw túwatara "daughter";[24]

?Lyd datro "daughter"; CLuw/Hitt duttarii̯ata-;[f] Lyc kbatra "daughter"[g]

*suHnú- "son"
(See also *sewh₁-)
son (< OE sunu) sunus "son" huiós "son" sūnú- "son" Av hunuš "son" OCS synŭ "son" Lith sūnùs, OPrus suns "son" ? Celtib EBURSUNOS "son of Eburos (?)"[h][i]

? Celt/Lus EQUEUNUBO (< *ekwei-sūnu-bʰos) "to the sons on the horse"[j]

çun "boy/son" A se, B soyä "son"
Osc puklo-
Av puθra- "son" ustr "son"
*(h₂)népōts "nephew, grandson"
obsolete neve "nephew, male cousin, grandson" (< OE nefa) OHG nevo "nephew" nepōs (nepōtis) "grandson, nephew" ⇒
[note 5]
népodes "descendants" nápāt- "grandson, descendant" Av napāt-, naptar-, OPers napāt-, NPers naveh-, "grandson, descendant"; Kurdish nevî "grandchild" OCS netii "nephew" OLith nepotis, OPrus neputs "grandson" OIr nïæ "sister's son", W nai "nephew" nip "grandson, nephew"
*dāiH₂u̯ēr- "husband's brother, brother-in-law" OE tācor "husband's brother" OHG zeihhor "husband's brother" levir "husband's brother" dāēr "husband's brother" devṛ́, devará "husband's brother" OCS děverĭ "brother-in-law" Lith dieveris "husband's brother" W daw(f) "brother-in-law" taygr "husband's brother" dhëndër, dhëndër "son-in-law" from PAlb *ĝāmtḗr- or *dzanra or *jantura-.All ultimately from Proto-Indo-European *ǵem- (“to marry”).
*snusós "daughter-in-law" OE snoru "daughter-in-law" OHG snur "daughter-in-law" nurus "daughter-in-law" nuos "daughter-in-law" snuṣā- "daughter-in-law" Old Ir. *(s)nušáh Bactrian ασνωυο (asnōuo) NPers. sunoh / sunhār "daughter-in-law" OCS snŭxa "daughter-in-law" W gwaudd "daughter-in-law" nu "daughter-in-law" nuse "bride" B santse "daughter-in-law"[k]
*wedʰ- "pledge, bind, secure, lead"[42] wed (< OE weddian "to pledge, wed") vadhū́ "bride" OCS voditi "to lead"
"to marry"
gener (generī)
"marriage, wedding; matrimony" ⇒
[note 6];
"son-in-law; brother-in-law; bridegroom; anyone related by marriage"
"offspring-maker; son-in-law"
Pers dāmād "son-in-law";
*su̯ek̂rū́- "mother-in-law" OE sweger "mother-in-law" swaihr "mother-in-law" socrus "mother-in-law" ekurā "mother-in-law" śvaśrū́- "mother-in-law" OCS svekry "mother-in-law" Lith šešuras "father-in-law", OPrus swasri "mother-in-law" W chwegr "mother-in-law" skesur "mother-in-law" vjehërr "father-in-law"
*h₂éwh₂os "maternal grandfather, maternal uncle" awō "grandmother" avus "grandfather"; avunculus "maternal uncle" ⇒
[note 7]
Rus uj, vuj "uncle" (obsolete); Ukr vuyko "maternal uncle"[47] Lith avynas "maternal uncle", OPrus awis "uncle" MW ewythr, MBre eontr, MCo eviter "maternal uncle" (< PCelt awon-tīr "uncle"); OIr aue "descendant, grandchild"[48] OArm haw "grandfather" B āwe "grandfather" ḫuḫḫa-, Lyc χuga- "grandfather";

CLuw ḫu-u-ḫa-ti "grandfather" (abl.-ins.)[49]

*yemH- "twin; to hold"[50][51] ON Ymir geminus "twin";
Remus "twin, Remus"
yáma- "twin; first man to die" OIr emon, Gaul Iemurioi "twin?"[52]
h₁widʰéwh₂ "widow" < *h₁weydʰh₁- "to separate"[l][53] widow (< OE widwe) widuwō "widow" vidua "widow" vidhávā "widow" OCS vŭdova "widow"


PIE English Gothic Latin Ancient Greek Sanskrit Iranian Slavic Baltic Celtic Armenian Albanian Tocharian Hittite
*dʰĝʰemon- "person, human (litt. of the earth)"
(See also *dʰeĝʰom-)
OE guma "person, man", brȳdguma "bridegroom"[m] guma "man" homō "person" ⇒
[note 8]
khthōn "the earth" (> autochthonous);
khamai "on the ground"
kṣám, gen. gmás/jmás "ground, earth" OCS zem(l)janinъ "earthling" OLith žmuõ "person"; Lith žmoná "wife"; OPrus zmunents "human" OIr duine, W dyn "person" < *dʰĝʰom-yo- A śom "boy"; B śaumo "person"
*H₂ner- "man, hero" ON Njǫrðr (name of a God) Ner-ō (personal name), neriōsus "strong" anḗr (andros) "man" (> Andreas, Andrew) nár- (nom. ) "man, person" Av nar- (nom. ) "man, person", NPers nar-, Kurdish nêr "male animal, masculine" OCS naravŭ "character, custom"; Lith nóras "wish, want", narsa; narsùs "brave;" OPrus nàrs "courage" W nêr "lord, prince, leader; hero"; Celt narto "strength" ayr (aṙn) "man, person" njer "man, person"
*wiH-ro- "man" werewolf (< OE wer "man") waír "man" vir "man" ⇒
[note 9]
vīrá- "man, hero" Av vīra- "man, hero", NPers hooman- (a name for men) Belar (Smolensk) вір "a rite of passage for young men into adulthood"; (Mogilev) віра "a feast or meal organized by a young man, after reaching adulthood, for his companions"[o] Lith výras "man"; OPrus wirs "man, husband" OIr fer, W gŵr "man" burrë "man" A wir "young"
*gʷén-eH₂- "woman, wife" queen (< OE cwēn "queen, woman, wife") qēns (qēnáis), qinō "woman, wife" gunḗ[p] (gunaikos)[q] "woman, wife" < *gʷun-eH₂ (> gynecology);

Boet baná "woman"

gnā (gnā́s-) "wife of a god", jánis, jánī "woman, wife" Av gǝnā, γnā, ǰaini-, NPers zan "woman, wife" Kurdish jin "woman, wife" OCS žena "woman, wife" OPrus gena "woman, wife" Gaul bnanom "of the women" (g. pl.);[57]

OIr ben (mná) "woman, wife" < *gʷén-eH₂ (*gʷn-eH₂-s), (neut.) "wife < *gʷén; W benyw "woman"

kin (knoǰ) "woman" zonjë "lady, wife, woman" < *gʷen-yeH₂; Gheg grue, Tosk grua "wife" < *gʷn-ōn A śäṁ (pl. śnu), B śana "woman, wife" Hitt ku(w)an(a) "woman";[58] Luw wanatti "woman, wife"; Lyd kãna- "wife",[59] "woman"[60]
*pótis "master, ruler, husband"[53] -faþs "lord, leader" potis "able, capable, possible" páti "master, husband, ruler" OCS gospodĭ "lord, master"
déms pótis "master of the house" despótēs "lord, master, owner" (> despot) dámpati "lord of the house; (dual) husband and wife"
gʰóstis "guest, host, stranger"[61] guest (< OE giest);
host < Lat. hostis;
< Lat. hospes
gasts "guest" hostis "stranger, guest"; hostīlis "hostile"; hospes, hospit- "host, guest, visitor" < hostipotis < PIE *gʰóstipotis (*gʰóstis + *pótis) OCS gostĭ "guest"; gospodĭ "lord, master" < PIE *gʰóstipotis
*weyḱ- "settlement, to enter, settle"[42] -wick, -wich < Lat. vīcus vīcus "village, settlement" oîkos "house, dwelling place"; oiko·nomía "management of household administration" (> economy) viś "settlement, dwelling space" OCS vĭsĭ "hamlet, village"
"master of the household; lord, clan chief"

"chief of a tribe or settlement, lord"

Lith viēšpats "lord"
*h₃rḗǵs "king, ruler"[64] reiks, -ric (in personal names) "king" rēx, rēg- "king" ⇒
[note 10]
rāj-, rājan "king" (> maharaja, Raj (as in British Raj)) Gaulish *rīx "king" (In personal names. E.g., Vercingetorix, etc.)
*teutéh₁- "community, people"[r][s][68][69] OE þeod "people, nation" Goth thiuda "folk"; ModGerm Deutsch < Proto-Germ *þeudō Osc touto "community"; Umbr totam "tribe" [t] Lith tautà "people"; OPru tauto "country" OIr tuath "tribe, people" (e.g., Tuatha Dé Danann "tribe of goddess Danu"); Celt Toutatis (Teutates) "name of a god" ?Hitt tuzzi- "army"; ?Luw tuta "army"
*h₁lewdʰ- "people" OE leode, lēod "a people, a group, nation", OHG liut "people, population" Proto-Italic *louðeros > Latin līber "free", Faliscan loiferto; Pael loufir "free man"; Ven louderos "child"; eleútheros "free"; Myc e-re-u-te-ro/a "a free allowance", e-re-u-te-ro-se "to make free, remit"[73] OCS ljudinŭ "free man"; Pol lud "people, folk" Lith liaudes "people"

Pronouns and particles[edit]

PIE English Gothic Latin Ancient Greek Sanskrit Iranian Slavic Baltic Celtic Armenian Albanian Tocharian Hittite
*egH₂ "I" I (< OE ic̣) ik "I" egō "I" < *egoH₂ egṓ, egṓn "I" ahám "I" < *egH₂-om Av azǝm, OPers adam, Parth. az "I" < *egH₂-omKurdish ez "I (direct case)" OCS azŭ "I" Lith àš, OLith , OPrus as, Latv es "I" es "I" es "I" u, unë "I" (-në possibly originally a suffix) ñuk "I" ūk "I" influenced by ammuk "me"
*H₁me- "me (acc.)" me (< OE , mec < *H₁me-ge) mik "me (acc.)" mē(d) "me (acc.)" emé, me "me (acc.)" mām "me (acc.)" < *H₁mē-m, "me (acc. encl.)" Av mąm "me" OCS "me (acc.)" < *H₁mē-m Lith manè "me (acc.)" OIr me-sse, mé, W mi "I" is "me (acc.)" <? *H₁me-ge mua, mue "me (acc.)" < *H₁mē-m ammuk "me (acc., dat.)" < *H₁me-ge, -mu "me (acc. encl.)"
*H₁meĝʰi "me (dat.)", *(H₁)moi "me (dat. encl.)" me (< OE ) mis "me (dat.)" mihi "me (dat.)" moi "me (dat., gen. encl.)" máhya(m) "me (dat.)", mḗ, me "me (dat. encl.)" Av maibya "me (dat.)" (? not in Pokorny), me (Old Avestan moi) "me (dat. encl.)" OCS mi (dat enc.) < *(H₁)moi Lith man "for me", OPrus maiy "me (dat. encl.)" OIr infix -m- "me"; W -'m infixed accusative first person singular pronoun "me" inj "me (dat.)" meje ammuk "me (acc., dat.)" < *H₁me-ge, -mi "me (dat. encl.)"
*H₁meme-, *H₁mene- "of me, mine"; *H₁mo-yo-, * H₁me-yo- "my" my, mine (< OE mīn < *H₁mei-no-) meins "my"; meina "of me" meī "of me"; meus "my" < *H₁me-yo- emeĩo "of me"; emós "my" máma "of me"; ma/mā "my" < *H₁mo- Av mana, OPers manā "of me"; Av ma (m/n), (f) "my", NPers az āne man-; Kurdish a/ê min OCS mene "to me", moj/a/e (m/f/n) "mine" Lith mana(s), OPrus mais/maia "my" W fyn "of me, my"; Breton ma "of me, my" im "my" im "my" (article i + em) AB ñi "my" < Proto-Tocharian *mäñi miš "my" < *H₁me-yo-
*tu "you" (nom. sg.) thou (< OE þū "you") þu "you" "you" Doric (standard ) t(u)vám "you"; Av "you"

NPers to "you"

OCS ty "you" Lith , OPr tu "you" OIr tū, tu-ssu, tu-sso, W ti du "you" ti "you" A tu, B t(u)we "you" zik, zikka "you" < *tega < *te + *egō
*wei "we"; *n̥s-mé, encl. *nos "us" we (< OE ), us (< OE ūs < PGerm *uns < *n̥s) weis "we", uns "us" nōs "we, us" hēm- "we, us";[u] Aeol ámme "us" < *asme < *n̥sme vay-ám "we" < *wei-óm, asmān "us" < *n̥sme + acc. -ān, encl. nas "us" < *nos Av vaēm "we", ahma "us", encl. nǝ̄, nā̊, nō "us" Bulg nìe "we", OCS gen. nasŭ "us" < *nōs-sōm Lith mès "we"; OPr gen. nōuson "ours" < *nōs-sōm OIr ni "we, us" <? *s-nēs, gen. ar n- < *n̥s-rō-m; W ni "we" < *nēs na "we" < *nŏs, ne "us" < *nōs A was, B wes "we" wēs "we" < *wei-es, anzāš "us", encl. naš "us"
*yū "you (nom. pl.)"; *us-wé, *us-mé,[74] encl. *wos "you (acc./dat. pl.)" ye (< OE "you (nom. pl.)"), you (< OE ēow[v] "you (acc./dat. pl.)") jūs "you (nom. pl.)", izwis[v] "you (acc./dat. pl.)" vōs "you (nom./acc. pl.)" hum- "you (pl.)"; Aeol úmme "you (acc. pl.)" < *usme yūyám "you (nom. pl.)", yuṣmā́n "you (acc. pl.)" < y- + *usme + acc. -ān, encl. vas "you (obl. pl.)" Av yūžǝm, yūš "you (nom. pl.)", yūšmat̃ "you (abl. pl.)", encl. vā̊ "you (obl. pl.)" OCS vy "you (nom./acc. pl.)", vasŭ "yours (pl.)" Lith jũs "you (nom. pl.)", jũsų "yours (pl.)"; OPr iouson "yours (pl.)" OIr sī, sissi "you (nom. pl.)" < *sw-, uai-b "of you (pl.)" < *ō-swī, NIr far n- "your (pl.)"; W chwi "you (nom. pl.)" < *sw- ju "you (nom. pl.)" < *u < *vos A yas, B yes "you (nom. pl.)" sumes < *usme
*s(w)e- "oneself"; (reflexive pronoun) self (< OE self, seolf) swes (ref. gn. pn.), OHG sih (ref. pn.) (ref. pn.) (ref. pn.) sva- (ref. pn.) Avestan hva- (ref. pn.) Bulg sèbe "oneself", OCS svoji (ref. gn. pn.) Lith sava(s), OPrus swajs "my own, myself" OIr fein (self, himself); W hun(an) "self, myself, himself/herself etc" iwr self, himself/herself vetë A ṣn-i, B ṣañ "(one's) own" Lydian s'fa- (ref. pn.), Carian sfes (ref. pn.)
*kʷid, kʷod "what" what (< OE hwæt) ƕa "what" quid "what?", quod "what…, that…" "what?", "what…" kím "what" NPers či, če "what" Bulg kakvò "what", OCS čь-to "what?" Lith kàd "that..."; OPrus kawids "which, what a" OIr cid "what?" *i (ēr) (< *hi), inčʿ (< *hi-nč’) "what?" çfarë "what?" kuit (?) "what", kuit-ki "whatever"; Luvian kuit "what?"
*kʷis, kʷos, kʷei/kʷoi "who" who (< OE hwā < *kʷoi) ƕas "who?" quis "who?", quī "who..." tís, Thess kís, CyprArc sís "who?", tìs "who…" kás, kís "who?" Av kō (ka-hyā, ča-hyā) "who?, which?", čiš "who" Bulg kòj "who", OCS kъ-to (česo) "who?" Lith kàs "who?"; OPrus kas "who" OIr cia, W pwy "who" о (oyr) "who?"


"A" "B" kush acc. "who?" A kus, B kuse "who, which" kuiš "who, which"
*-kʷe "and; any" -(u)h "and", ƕaz-uh "whoever" -que "and", quis-que "each one, whoever"; Venetic -ke "and"; South Picenian -p "and" -te "and", tís te, hós-te "whoever" -ca "and", káś-ca "whoever" Av ča, OPers čā "and"; Av čiš-ca, OPers čiš-čiy "whoever" Bulg če "but, and, because"; Old Czech a-če, "if" OIr na-ch, MW nac "not" < "*and not";[w] Lepontic -pe "and" o-kʿ "whoever" Lydian -k "and"; Hitt kuis-ki, Lycian ti-ke "whoever"
*n̥- "not, un-" un- (< OE un-) un- "un-" in- (archaic en-) "un-" a-, an- "un-" a-, an-, na- "un-" Av, OPers a-, an- "un-", NPers nā- "un-" OCS ne- "not" < *ne- Lith ne- < *ne-, OPrus ni- "not" OIr in-, ē-, an-, W an- "un-" an- "un-" nuk "not" AB a(n)-, am-, e(n)-, em-, on- "un-"


PIE English Gothic Latin Ancient Greek Sanskrit Iranian Slavic Baltic Celtic Armenian Albanian Tocharian Hittite
*sem- "one, together" same (< ON samr); OE sam- "together"; [also German Language zusammen] sama "same" sem-el "once", sem-per "always", sim-plex "single, simple", sin-gulī "one each, single" heĩs, hén, mía "one" < *sems, *sem, *smiH₂ sam- "together", samá "same, equal, any" Av hama-, OPers hama- "any, all" OCS samŭ "self, alone, one" Lith sam-, są- "with"; OPrus sa-, sen- "with, dividing" OIr samlith "at the same time"; W hafal "equal" mi "one" A sas, B ṣe "one" < *sems
*ói-nos, ói-wos "one" one (< OE ān) ains "one" ūnus (archaic oinos) oĩnos "one (on a die)", oĩ(w)os "alone" (ēka- < *oi-ko-; Mittani-Aryan aika-vartana "one turn (around a track)")[75] Av aēva-, OPers aiva-, (NPers yek- "one, only, alone") OCS inŭ "one, another" Lith víenas, OPrus ains "one" OIr ōen, W un "one" andr-ēn "right there", ast-ēn "right here" ? Gheg tânë, Tosk tërë "all" < PIE *tod-oino-; ??? një "one" < *ňân < PIE *eni-oino-[x] B -aiwenta "group" < "*unit"
*dwóH₁ , neut. *dwóy(H₁) "two" two (< OE twā) twái (fem. twōs, neut. twa) "two" duo "two" dúō "two" dvā́(u) "two" Av dva, fem. neut. baē "two"

NPers do "two"

OCS dŭva "two" Lith , OPrus dwai "two" OIr da, W dau (fem. dwy) "two" erku "two" dy "two" A wu, B wi "two"(<PTC *tuwó) dā-, ta-; HLuw tuwa/i- "two"; Lyc kbi- "two"; Mil tba "two"[y][77]
*tréyes (fem. *tisres,[78] neut. *tríH₂) "three" three (< OE þrīe) þreis "three" trēs "three" treĩs "three" tráyas (fem. tisrás) "three" Av ϑrayō, ϑrayas (fem. tisrō, neut. ϑri), OPers çi-, Parth hrē "three" OCS trĭje "three" Lith trỹs, OPrus tris, Latg treis "three" OIr trí (fem. téoir), W tri (fem. tair, teir) "three" erekʿ "three" tre masc., tri fem. "three" A tre, B trai "three" tri- "three"; teriyas- (gen. pl.)
*kʷetwóres (fem. *kʷétesres, neut. *kʷetwṓr) "four" four (< OE fēower) fidwor "four" (In Germanic influenced by pénkʷe "five") quattuor "four"[z] téssares "four" masc. catvā́ras (acc. catúras), neut. catvā́ri, fem. cátasras "four" Av masc. čaϑwārō (acc. čaturąm), fem. čataŋrō "four"; NPers čahār "four" OCS četyre "four" Lith keturì, OPrus ketturei "four"[aa] Gaul petuar[ios] "four"[80]

OIr ceth(a)ir (fem. cethēoir, influenced by fem. tēoir "three") "four"; W pedwar (fem. pedair) "four"

čʿorkʿ, kʿaṙ (rare) "four katër "four" A śtwar, B śtwer "four" (remodelled in Hittite and Luwian)

Lyc Teteri

*pénkʷe "five" five (< OE fīf) fimf "five" quīnque "five"[ab] pénte "five" páñca "five"; Mittani-Aryan panza- "five"[75] Av panča "five" OCS pętĭ "five" Lith penkì, OPrus penkei "five"[ac] Gaul pinpe-, pompe "five"[80]

OIr cóic, W pum(p) "five"

hing "five" pesë "five" A päñ, B piś "five"
*swék̂s "six" six (< OE siex) sáihs "six" sex "six" héx, dial. wéx "six" ṣáṣ "six" Av xšvaš "six" OCS šestĭ "six" Lith šešì, OPrus uššai "six" Celtib sues "six";[80]

Gaul suexos "sixth"; OIr , W chwe(ch) "six"

vecʿ "six" gjashtë "six" A ṣäk, B ṣkas "six"
*septḿ̥ "seven" seven (< OE seofon) sibun "seven" septem "seven" heptá "seven" saptá "seven"; Mittani-Aryan šatta- "seven"[75] Av hapta, NPers Haft-, "seven" OCS sedmĭ "seven" Lith septynì, OPrus septinnei "seven" OIr secht, W saith "seven" eawtʿn "seven" shtatë "seven" A ṣpät, B ṣukt "seven" sipta- "seven"
*H₁ok̂tō(u) "eight" eight (< OE eahta) ahtáu "eight" octō "eight" oktṓ "eight" aṣṭā́(u) "eight" Av ašta "eight" OCS osmĭ "eight"[ad] Lith aštuonì, OPrus astonei, Latg ostoni "eight" Gaul oxtu- "eight"[80]

OIr ocht n- "eight";[ae] W wyth "eight"

utʿ "eight" tetë "eight" < *H₁ok̂tō-t- A okät, B okt "eight" Lyc aitãta "eight"[83]
*(H₁)néwn̥ "nine" nine (< OE nigon) niun "nine" novem "nine" ennéa "nine" náva "nine" Av nava, NPers noh- "nine" OCS devętĭ "nine" < *newn̥-ti- (Influenced by dékm̥t "ten") Lith devynì (influenced by dékm̥t "ten"), OPrus newinei "nine" OIr noí n-, W naw "nine" inn "nine" nëntë "nine" < *newn̥-ti- AB ñu Lyc nuñtãta "nine"[84]
*dék̂m̥t "ten" ten (< OE tien) taíhun "ten" decem "ten" déka "ten" dáśa "ten" Av dasaNPers dah-, "ten" OCS desętĭ "ten" Lith dẽšimt, OPrus desimtan "ten" Gaul decam- "ten";[80]

Celtib tekam- "ten";[85] OIr deich, W deg, deng "ten"

tasn "ten" dhjetë "ten" < *dék̂m̥t-i- A śäk, B śak "ten" [af]
*wī́k̂m̥tiH₁ "twenty" < *dwi-dk̂m̥t-iH₁ "two tens" (remodelled) (remodelled) vīgintī "twenty" eíkosi "twenty" viṁśatí "twenty", dviṁśatí "twenty" Av vīsaiti, Ossetian insäi "twenty" (remodelled) Lith dvidešimt "twenty" OIr fiche (fichet), OW uceint "twenty" kʿsan "twenty" zet "twenty" A wiki, B ikäṃ "twenty"
*k̂m̥tóm "hundred" < *dk̂m̥tóm hundred (< OE hund, hund-red) hunda (pl.) "hundred" centum "hundred" he-katón "hundred" śatám "hundred" Av satǝm "hundred" OCS sŭto "hundred" Lith šim̃tas, OPrus simtan "hundred" OIr cét, W can(t) "hundred" qind "hundred" (possibly borrowed from Latin centum) A känt, B kante "hundred"


PIE English Gothic Latin Ancient Greek Sanskrit Iranian Slavic Baltic Celtic Armenian Albanian Tocharian Hittite
(< OE hrif)
corpus, corporis
"body" ⇒
[note 11]
"beautiful appearance, beauty"
*káput ~ *kap-wét-s
(< OE hēafod);
OE hafela, hafola "head"
caput, capitis
"head" ⇒
[note 12]
[ag] kapā́la
"skull, cranium; bowl"
*(d)ák̂ru- "tear" tear (< OE tēar, tæhher) tagr "tear" lacrima "tear" (> lachrymose) dákru "tear" áśru "tear" Av asrū- "tear";

Kurdish hêsir "tear"

OPrus assara "tear", Lith ašara "tear OIr dēr, W deigr "tear"; Cornish dagr "tear" artawsr "tear" < *drak̂ur A ākär "tear", B pl. akrūna "tears" isḫaḫru "tear"
*dn̥ĝʰuH₂-, *dn̥ĝʰwéH₂ "tongue" tongue (< OE tunge) tuggō "tongue" lingua "tongue" (archaic dingua) ⇒
[note 13]
jihvā́ "tongue" < *ĝiĝʰwā, juhū́ Av hizvā < *ĝiĝʰwā, OPers hizān, Parth ezβān "tongue"[92] OCS języ-kŭ "tongue" < *n̥ĝʰū-k- OPrus inzuws "tongue", Lith liežuvis "tongue" teng "tongue"; W tafod "tongue, language" lezu "tongue" (influenced by lizem, "I lick") A käntu, B kantwo "tongue" (*kantwa < *tankwa)
*ésH₂r̥, *esH₂nés "blood" archaic aser, sanguis "blood" (< possibly h₁sh₂-én- obl. stem + guen) (> sanguine, etc.) éar "blood" ásṛj, asnás "blood" Lat asins, Ltg asnis (gen. ašņa) "blood" ariwn "blood" A ysār "blood" ēsḫar (esḫanas) "blood"
ĝ(o)nH₂dʰos "jaw, cheek, chin" chin (< OE c̣inn) kinnus "cheek" gena "cheek" génus (génuos) "chin, jaw"; gnátʰos, gnatʰmós "jaw" < *ĝnH₂dʰ- hánu-ṣ "jaw" < *ĝʰenu-s, gaṇḍa "cheek" Av zānu- "jaw-" < *ĝʰenu-s, OPers danūg < *danu-ka-, Parth zanax "chin, jaw" NPers gune "cheek" chune "jaw" OPrus żauna "jaw", Lith žándas "cheek" OIr gi(u)n "mouth"; W gên, pl. geneu "cheek, chin"; Old Cornish pl. genau < *genewes "cheeks, chins" cn-awt "jaw, cheek" A śanwe-m "jaw"
*ĝénu, ĝnéus "knee" knee (< OE cnēo) kniu "knee" genū "knee" (> genuflect) gónu (Hom gen. gounós < *gonwós) "knee", pró-kʰnu "with outstretched knee" < *pró-gʰnu jā́nu- "knee", pra-jñus "bow-legged" Av acc. žnūm, dat./abl. pl. žnubyō "knee", fra-šnu- "holding the knee forward"; Parth zānūk, NPers zānū "knee" cunr, nom pl. cungkʿ "knee" gjuni "knee" < Post-PIE *ĝnu-n(o)- A kanweṃ, B keni "two knees" genu "knee"
*ǵómbʰos "tooth, row of teeth" comb (< OE camb) OHG kamb "comb" gómphos "bolt, nail"; gómphíos "molar tooth" jámbha- "tooth, tusk; set of teeth (pl.)"; jámbhya- "molar teeth" Pash žâma "jawbone"; Khot ysīmä "tooth"[93] OCS zǫbŭ, Ukr zub, Pol ząb "tooth" Latv zùobs "tooth"; Lith žam̃bas "sharp edge" dhëmb "tooth, tusk" A kam, B keme "tooth"
*H₁dónt-, *H₁dn̥t- "tooth" tooth (< OE tōþ < *H₁dont-) tunþus "tooth" < *H₁dn̥t- dēns (dentis) "tooth" < *H₁dn̥t- (> dental) odṓn (odóntos) "tooth" < Proto-Greek *edónt-, cf. Aeol. édontes "teeth" (> orthodontist, etc.) dán, dántas "tooth" Av dantan-, dātā "tooth"; NPers dandân "tooth"; Kurdish diran, didan "tooth" Russ. desná "gum" < *H₁dent-sn- OPrus dants "tooth", Lith dantis "tooth" OIr dēt "tooth", W dant "tooth" atamn "tooth"
*H₂óst- "bone" os (ossis) "bone" ostéon "bone" (osteoporosis, etc.) ásthi (asthnás) "bone" Av ast-, asti- (gen. pl. astąm, instr. pl. azdbīš) "bone" NPers ostoxan "bone";

Kurdish hestî, hestû "bone"

OCS kostĭ "bone" OIr asil "limb", MIr asna "rib" <? *astonyo-; MW ass-en, asseu "rib", W asgwrn "bone" < *ost-ko- os-kr "bone" asht, ahstë "bone" B āy, pl. āsta "bone" ḫastāi- "bone"
*H₂ous- "ear" ear (< OE ēare) áusō "ear" auris "ear" oũs "ear" ūṣa "cavity of the ear" Av uši "both ears"; NPers hoš "ear" OCS ucho (ušese) "ear" OPrus auss "ear", Lith ausis "ear" OIr āu, ō "ear" unkn, nom pl. akanǰkʿ "ear" vesh "ear" < *ōus, *ōs-
*H₃okʷ- "eye" eye (< OE ēage) áugō "eye" oculus "eye" < *ōkʷelo-s
[note 14]
ósse "both eyes"; ómma "eye" < *óp-mn̥; ökkon[94] "eye" ákṣi (akṣṇás) "eye" Av aši "both eyes" OCS oko "eye" OPrus aks "eye", Lith akis "eye" OIr enech, W enep "face" akn, nom pl. ačʿkʿ "eye" sy "eye" A ak, B ek "eye"
*h₃oh₁-(e)s- "mouth" Scot ure (< OE ōr, ōra) ōs, ōris "mouth" (> oral) Ved ā́s "mouth, face" Av āh "mouth" OCS usta "mouth" Lith úostas "mouth of a river, harbor" OIr á "mouth" aiš, gen. iššāš "mouth"
*k̂erd- "heart"; *k̂red-dʰē- "to believe"
(See also ḱréd·dʰh₁eti)
heart (< OE heorte) haírtō "heart" cor (cordis) "heart"; crēdō "I believe" < *krezdō- < *k̂red-dʰē-
[note 15]
kardíā, Homeric kradíē, Cypriot korízdā "heart" < *k̂r̥d(y)ā; poetic kẽr (kẽros) "heart" < *k̂ērd (> cardiac, cardiology. etc.) hṛd "heart" < post-PIE *ĝhr̥d; hṛdaya, hārdi "heart"; Av zǝrǝd "heart" < post-PIE *ĝhr̥d; OCS sŭrdĭce "heart", serda "medium, core" OPrus siran "heart" (acc.), seyr "heart", serds "core", Lith širdis "heart", šerdis "core" OIr cride "heart"; W craidd "center";
Gaul crid "heart"[95]
sirt "heart" A kri "will", B pl. käryāñ "hearts" Hitt karz (kardias) "heart"; Luw zarza "heart"[96]
*h₃nebʰ- "navel, hub";
*h₃nóbʰōl "navel"[97][98]
navel (< OE nafola);
nave (< OE nafu)
umbilīcus "navel";
umbō "elbow"
omphalós "navel; umbilical cord" nā́bhi ""navel, belly button; center;
nábhya "nave, center part of a wheel"
NPers nāf- "navel"
*kréwh₂- "gore, blood (blood outside the body)"[99] raw "uncooked food" (< OE hræw "corpse, carrion") ON hrár "raw" cruor "thick blood, gore"; crūdus "raw, bloody", crūdēlis "cruel, rude" ⇒
[note 16]
kréas "flesh, meat"; kréa "raw flesh" krávis- "raw flesh"; kravyá "raw flesh, carrion", krūrá "bloody, raw" Av xrūra, xrūma "bloody"; vi-xrūmant- "bloodless"; xrvi.dru "of the bloody mace [of Aeshma]" YAv xrvišyant "grim, bloodthirsty"[100] OCS kry "blood"; Rus krovǐ "blood" OPrus crauyo, krawian; Lith kraũjas "blood"; Latv kreve "coagulated blood,[101] bloody scab"[102][103] OIr crúaid, MIr crū "blood"
*nas- "nose" nose (< OE nosu) ON nǫs "nose" nāsus, nāris "nose" (> nasal) nas- "nose" Av nāh-, nā̊ŋhan-, OPers acc. sg. nāham "nose" OCS nosŭ "nose" OPrus nasi "nose", Lith nosis "nose"
*pōds, *ped- "foot"
(See also *ped-)
foot (< OE fōt) fōtus "foot" pēs (pedis) "foot" (> pedal, etc.) poús (podós) "foot" ⇒
[note 17]
pā́d- (padás) "foot" Av pad-, OPers pād, Parth pāδ "foot" NPers pa "foot" OCS pěšǐ "on foot" OPrus pida "foot", Lith pėda "foot" OIr īs "below" < PIE loc. pl. *pēd-su; W is(od) "below, under; lower (than)" otn "foot", otkʿ "feet" poshtë "below" A pe "foot", B paiyye "foot" pata-, CLuw pāta-, Lyc pedi- "foot"
"heel, upper thigh"
OE fiersn "heel, calx" fairzna
Spa pierna
"heel, hoof; footstep"
"heel; rear of the army; kick"
"nail (finger or toe)"
(< OE næġel)
"fingernail, toenail; claw; hoof";
"hoof, claw; an aromatic spice"
"claw, nail, hoof; a kind of aromatic substance; onyx (the gem)"
"foot; foot of a seat; tree root"
OCS noga "foot, leg";
nogŭtĭ "nail"
*yḗkʷr̥, yekʷnés "liver" jecur (jecinoris) "liver" hẽpar (hḗpatos) "liver" yákr̥t (yaknás) "liver" Av yākarǝ, NPers ǰigar, Pashto yī̆na "liver" Serbian jetra "liver", Serbian and Macedonian ikra "fish roe" OPrus jakna, Lat aknas "liver", Lith jeknos[110] W (i)afu "liver"; MIr i(u)chair (i(u)chrach) "fish roe" leard "liver" Luwian ikkwar/n- "liver"[ah]
*ǵʰésr̥ ~ *ǵʰs-r-és "hand" hir "hand" (rare, anatomical) kheír "hand" (> chiropractor, surgery (chirurgy), enchiridion, etc.) hás-ta "hand" Av zas-ta "hand" jeṙ "hand, arm" dorë "hand" A tsar, B ṣar "hand" keššar "hand",[112]

Luwian īssaris "hand"

*méh₂-r̥ ~ *mh₂-én- ~ *mh₂-nt-éh₂
"hand, the pointing one"
(< OE mund "hand, hand of protection, protector)
Ger vormund
"legal guardian"
manus, manūs
"hand" ⇒
[note 18]
*bʰeh₂ǵʰús "arm"[116] bough (< OE bōg) pêkhus "forearm" bāhú "arm"
*h₃bʰrúHs "eyebrow"[117] brow, Scot broo (< OE brū) ophrū́s "eyebrow" bhrū́ "eyebrow" OCS bry "eyebrow"
"wing, feather"
(See also *peth₂-)
(< OE feþer)
penna < *petna
"wing; feather; quill pen"
(> pen)
"feather, wing; winged creature"
"wing, pinion, feather; leaf, petal (as the plumage of a tree)"
Karšiptar (Karšift) "black-winged"


PIE English Gothic Latin Ancient Greek Sanskrit Iranian Slavic Baltic Celtic Armenian Albanian Tocharian Hittite
*ék̂wos "horse", "fast animal" OE eoh "horse" aíƕa- "horse"[ai] equus "horse" híppos "horse"; Myc i-qo "horse" ( < *ïkkʷos)[121] áśva- "horse"; Mittani-Aryan aššu- "horse" Av aspa-, OPers asa- "horse"; Ossetian yäfs "horse" < *yék̂wos

NPers asp "horse";

Kurdish hesp "horse"

OCS jastrębъ "hawk" (literally "a fast bird") OPrus kaiwi "mare", Lith ašva "mare OIr ech; MW ebawl "horse" < PBryth *ep-ālos ēš "donkey" A yuk, B yakwe "horse" Luwian ásùwa "horse"; Lycian esbe "horse"
*gʷōus "cattle"[i][122] cow (< OE ) Old Saxon , OHG chuo "cow" bōs (bovis) "cattle";[aj] Umbrian acc. bum "cow" boũs, Dor bõs (bo(w)ós) "cattle, cow" gáus (gṓs)[i] "cow" Av gāuš (gāuš)[i] "cow"; NPers gāv "cow"; Kurdish ga "cow" Croatian gòvedo "cattle" < PSlav *govędo; OCS gu-mǐno "threshing floor" Latvian gùovs "cow", Lith galvijas "a cattle" OIr bó (bóu/báu)[ak] "cow";
Boand [al]
< Proto-Celtic *bowo-windā "white cow (or) cow-finder" [am]
> Boyne[an][123]
OW buch "cow" < *boukkā, bu-gail "cowherd" < *gʷou-kʷolyos
kov "cow" ka "ox" A ko "cow", B keu "cow" HierLuv wawa-, Lycian wawa-, uwa- "cow";[124]

?Pal kuwa(w)- "bull"[ao]

*péḱu "livestock"[126][127] fee; fief; feud (< OE feoh "livestock, property, money"); faihu "property, possessions, wealth, riches, money" pecū "cattle, domestic animals"; pecūnia "money" [ap] páśu, paśú "livestock" Lith pēkus "cattle"
(See also *h₂ōwyó·m)
"bird" (> aviary, aviation, etc.);
"bird-catcher; fowler; eavesdropper";
LL avicellus, aucellus
"little bird" > Fre oiseau;
avispex, later, auspex
"augur (from watching the flight of birds)"

[note 19]
"eagle; omen";
"large bird, bird of prey; omen; bird used in augury";
"augur (from the flight of birds)";
"place for watching bird flight; omen"

Av vīš "bird"
*H₂ówi- "sheep " ewe (< OE ēow "sheep", ēowu "ewe") awistr "sheepfold"; OHG ouwi, ou "sheep" ovis "sheep" ó(w)is "sheep" ávi- "sheep" Wakhi yobc "ewe" < PIran *āvi-či- Bulg ovèn "ram", OCS ovĭ-ca "ewe" OPrus awwins "ram", Lith avis "female sheep" avinas "ram" OIr ōi "sheep"; W ewig "deer" hov-iw "shepherd" B eye "sheep", ā(u)w "ewe" Luvian hāwa/i-, Lycian χawa- "sheep"
*H₂rtk̂os "bear"[132] ursus "bear" árktos "bear" ŕ̥kṣa- "bear" YAv arša, Ossetian ars "bear"; NPers xers "bear"; Kurdish hirç "bear" Lith urgzti "to growl" MIr art, W arth "bear" arǰ "bear" arí "bear" ḫartaqqas (name of a beast of prey)
*k̂won- "hound, dog"[133] hound (< OE hund "dog") hunds "dog" canis "dog" kúōn (kunós) "dog"; Myc ku-na-ke-ta-i, Att/Ion kunegétes "huntsman" (litt. "those who guide dogs")[134] śvan(śunas) "dog" Av spā (acc. spānǝm, pl. gen. sū̆nam); MPers sak; Kurdish se, seg; Wakhi šač "dog" Bulg kùt͡ʃe "dog", OCS suka "bitch (female dog)" OPrus sunnis "dog", Lith šuo, šunis (acc pl.) "dog", Latv suns "dog", Ltg suņs "dog" OIr cú (con), W ci "dog" šun "dog" possibly qen (disputed, possible Latin loan) AB ku "dog" (acc. A koṃ, B kweṃ) Hittite kuwaš (nom.), kunaš (gen.); HierLuv suwanni "dog";[135] Pal kuwan- "dog";[136] Lyd kan- "dog"
*muH₁s- "mouse" mouse, Scot moose (< OE mūs) ON mús "mouse" mūs "mouse" mũs "mouse" mū́ṣ- "mouse" OPers muš "mouse" (? not in Pokorny; Pokorny has NPers mūš "mouse"); Kurdish mişk "mouse" OCS myšĭ "mouse" mukn "mouse" mi "mouse"
*uksḗn "ox, bull"[137][138] ox (< OE oxa) auhsa "ox" ukṣán "bull, ox" uxšan "bull" MW ych; MidIr oss "stag, cow"; MBret ouhen B okso "draft-ox"
*táwros "bull" taurus, Osc taurom (acc.) taûros stawra- "bull" OSl turŭ Lith taüras; OPr tauris "bison" Gaul tarvos (taruos) "bull"; OIr tarb tarok
*suHs- "pig" sow (< OE ) ON sýr "sow" sūs "pig" hũs, sũs "pig" sū-kara- "pig"; Hindi sūvar "pig" Av (gen. sg.) "pig" , NPers xuk "pig" Bulg svinjà "swine, sow" Latvian suvẽns, sivẽns "piglet" OIr socc sáil "sea pig"; W hwch "sow, swine" khos "pig" thi "pig" B suwo "pig"
*wl̥kʷos "wolf" wolf (< OE wulf) wulfs (wulfis) "wolf" lupus "wolf" lúkos "wolf" vŕ̥ka- "wolf" Av vǝhrka- "wolf"; NPers gorg "wolf"; Kurdish gur "wolf" Bulg vɤ̞lk "wolf", OCS vlĭkŭ "wolf" OPrus wilks "wolf", Lith vilkas "wolf" OIr olc (uilc) "evil" aghves "fox" ujk < OAlb ulk "wolf" B walkwe "wolf" ulippana "wolf"
*wl(o)p "fox" vulpes "fox" alṓpēx "fox" lopāśá "fox, jackal" Av urupis "dog", raopi- "fox, jackal"; Kurdish rovî, rûvî "fox" Lith lãpė "fox"; Lapskojis "fox's leg" (river name); vilpisÿs "wild cat"; Latv lapsa "fox" Bre louarn "fox" (< PCel *loɸernos) ałuēs "fox" Tosk dhelpër, Gheg dhelpen "fox" (< *dzelpina < *welpina)[139] ulipzas (ú-li-ip-za-aš) "wolf";[140] Luwian ú-li-ip-ni-eš (nom. sg.), wa-li-ip-ni (dat.-loc. sg.) "fox"[140]
*ĝʰans- "goose" goose (< OE gōs), gander (< OE ganra) OHG gans "goose" (h)ānser "goose" kʰḗn, Doric khā́n "goose"; Myc ka-no, ka-si (dat. pl.) "goose"[141] haṁsá-"goose" Av zāō "goose" (? not in Pokorny); Sogdian z’γ "kind of bird" , NPers ɣaz "goose" Bulg gɤ̞ska "goose", OCS gǫsǐ "goose" OPrus zansi "goose", Lith žąsis "goose" OIr gēiss "swan" W gwydd "goose" gatë "heron" B kents- "bird (goose?)"[142][143]
*H₂enH₂-t(i)- "duck" Scot ennet "duck" (< OE ened) OHG enita "duck" ānas "duck" nessa, netta "duck" ātí- "waterfowl" Ossetic acc "Wild duck" , NPers ordak "duck" , NPers ɣu "swan" Russ. utka "duck" OPrus ants "duck", Lith antis "duck" W hwyad(en) "duck" baht "duck" rosë "duck"
*H₁elH₁ēn "deer" élaphos "deer"; Hom ellós "young of the deer" OSl jeleni "deer"; Russ oleni "red deer" Lith élnis "red deer"; Lith élnė "hind" < *H₁elH₁ēniHx "hind, cow-elk" NWel elain "hind" < *H₁elH₁ēniHx "hind, cow-elk"

OIr elit "doe"[144]

ełn "hind" B yal, ylem "gazelle"[145]

B ylaṃśke "young gazelle"[146]

aliya(n)- "red deer"[147]
*H₁eĝʰis "hedgehog" OE igil "hedgehog" (< Proto-Germanic *igilaz) ON ígull "sea-urchin" MycGr e-ki-no;[148] ekhînos "hedgehog" Oss wyzyn "hedgehog" OSl jezĭ "hedgehog"; Rus "hedgehog" Lith ežȳs "hedgehog"[aq] ozni "hedgehog" esh, eshk "porcupine, hedgehog"

*bʰébʰrus "beaver"
(See also *bʰer-, bʰerH-)

beaver (< OE beofer) OHG bibar "beaver"; OIc biorr "beaver" fīber "beaver" babʰrú "mongoose" Av baβra- "beaver" Ukr bober "beaver";[149] Rus bobr "beaver" Lith bebrùs "beaver"; Pruss bebrus "beaver" Gaul bebru- ; OIr Bibar
*H₃er-on "eagle"[150] erne "a sea eagle" < OE earn "eagle" ara "eagle"; OHG arn "eagle" (Avernus "entrance to the underworld" (< AncGrk áornos "birdless"))[ar] órnis "bird"; Myc o-ni-ti-ja-pi "decorated with birds(?)" OSl orǐlŭ "eagle"; Rus orël "eagle" Lith ăras, ĕras, erẽlis "eagle"; Latv ērglis, OPrus arelie "eagle" MBret erer, MW eryr, MIr irar "eagle" (< *eriro) OArm oror "gull", MArm urur "kite" orr "eagle, falcon" (rare) Hitt ḫaran- "eagle"; CLuw ḫarrani(a/i) "a type of (oracular) bird"; Pala [ḫa-]a-ra-na-aš "eagle"[151]
*h₂éngʷʰis; *h₁ógʷʰis "snake", "serpent" OHG unc "snake"; engiring "maggot" (diminutive of angar "large larva") anguis "snake, serpent, dragon"; Anguilla "eel" ópʰis "serpent, snake"; énkhelus "eel"[as] áhi "snake, serpent; name of Vrtra" Av aži "snake", Persian yağnij "grass snake" (archaic); Azhi Dahāka[at] OEstSl užĭ "snake", Rus "grass snake"; Pol węgorz "eel" OPrus angis "snake", angurgis "eel"; Lith angis "viper", ungurys "eel"; Latv odze, odzs (dialectal) "viper, adder"; OArm awj "snake", , iwž "viper" B auk "snake" Illuyanka "mythical snake foe"
*h₂eyǵ- "goat"[156] aíx "goat" eḍa "a kind of sheep"
(a vṛddhi-derivative of *h₂éwis)
ey (obsolete) "egg"
(< OE ǣġ) (> Cockney "cock-egg");
(< ON egg)
"egg" (> ovum, ovary, oval, ovoid, ovulate, etc.)
"egg, seed"
*h₂egʷnós "lamb"[160] yean "to give birth to" (< OE ēanian) agnus "lamb" amnós "lamb" OCS agnę "lamb"

*laḱ-, laḱs-
"to be spotted; salmon, trout"
[161] [162] [163]

(< OE leax "salmon")

Yiddish laks
[note 20]

Russ losos "salmon"

Lith lašiša "salmon"

Food and farming[edit]

PIE English Gothic Latin Ancient Greek Sanskrit Iranian Slavic Baltic Celtic Armenian Albanian Tocharian Hittite
*ǵr̥h₂-nó- "grain"[164][165][166]
(See also *gʰreh₁-)
corn (< OE corn "grain") kaúrn "corn" grānum "grain" ⇒
[note 21]
jīrṇá-, jūrṇá- "old, worn out, decayed" OCS zrŭno "grain" OPrus zirni "grain", Lith žirnis "pea", girna "millstone" OIr grān, W grawn "grain" cʿorean "wheat, grain, corn" grurëTosk grun, gruni Gheg "grain"
"to grow"
(See also *ǵr̥h₂-nó-)
(< OE grōwan);
(< OE grēne);
grey, gray
(< OE grǣġ);
(< OE græs);
groom (young boy, servant)
(< ME grome)
"to green, grow; plant"
"grass, turf; herb";
"gray, tawny";
"grass; weed; herb";
Fre gourmet (< ME grome)
"gourmet" (similarly gourmand)
"I gnaw, eat";
"gourmand, voracious eater";
gastḗr < grastér
"belly, stomach; appetite" (> gastro-, gastronomy, etc.);
"smell of a goat";
"ulcer" (> gangrene)
"(s/he) eats, swallows, devours";
"swallowed, devoured";
"swallowing, mouthful; food, nourishment"
Kurdish gewre, gir "big", gewre bûn "to grow, to get big", giran "heavy", girîng "important, major, essential" OCS grěnŭ "green"
*h₂éǵro- "field" acre (< OE æcer "field") akrs "field" ager (agrī) "field" ⇒
[note 22]
agrós "field" ájra-"meadow" art "soil" arë "field"
*H₂erH₃- "to plow" OE erian "to plow" arjan "to plow" arō (arāre) "to plow", arātrum "plow" aróō "I plow" < *H₂erH₃-oH₂, árotron "plow" hala- "plow" OCS orjǫ (orati) "to plow", ralo < *ar(ə)dhlom "plow" OPrus artun "to plow", Lith arti "to plow" MIr airim "I plow", W arddu "to plow" < *arj-; MIr arathar, W aradr "plow" < *arətrom < *H₂erH₃-trom ara-wr "plow" arë "arable land" *H₂r̥H₃-uer- AB āre "plow"
*H₂melĝ- "to milk" milk (< OE meolc, mioluc) miluks (miluks) "milk" mulgeō (mulgēre) "to milk" ⇒
[note 23]
amélgō "I milk" mā́ršti, mā́rjati, mr̥játi "(he) wipes, cleans" Av marǝzaiti, mǝrǝzaiti "(he) grazes (barely touches)" Russ. CS mŭlzu (mlěsti) "to milk", Pol mleko "milk" OPrus milztun "to milk", Lith melžti "to milk" W blith "milk, dairy produce; full of milk", MIr bligim "I milk" < *mligim, melg "milk" miel, mil "I milk" A malke B malk-wer "milk"
*melH₂- "to grind"[170][171] meal (< OE melu);
malm (< OE mealm)
malan "to grind" molō (molere) "I grind";
"millstone; mill; ground meal, flour" ⇒
[note 24];
"I immolate, sacrifice (lit. sprinkling flour on animals to be sacrificed)" ⇒
[note 25];
"hammer, mallet" ⇒
[note 26];
múllō "I grind";
malthakós, malakós "soft, tender; gentle; mild";
melínē "millet"
mr̥ṇāti, mr̥nati "(he) grinds" Av mrāta- "tanned soft" OCS meljǫ (mlětĭ) "to grind";
"chalk; fine ground substance"
OPrus maltun "to grind", Lith malti "to grind" OIr melim "I grind"; W malu "grind" mał "sieve" mał-em "I grind, crush" mjell "flour" A malywët "you press"; B melye "they trample" mallai "grinds"
"to ferment, become sour"
OE hwaþerian "to roar, foam, surge" ƕaÞō "froth, foam, scum" cāseus
"cheese" (> cheese)
"it boils"
OCS kvasŭ "leaven; sour drink" > Kvass

"to blend, mix, knead"
[176] [177] [178] [179]

ON ostr "cheese";
ysta "to curdle"

"gravy, broth, soup; sauce; juice" > juice

"soup, sauce; grease"

[note 27]

"soup, broth; water in which pulses are boiled"


uxá "Ukha"

"to boil; to brew"

(< OE brēowan);
(< OE biernan, beornan);
(< OE brēad);
(< OE broþ)

"I burn, I'm hot" ⇒
[note 28];
"fermentation, leavening; ferment; anger"

(< SE bura);
"to raise bubbles, to make fuss"[182]

Borvo "Gaulish deity of healing springs"
*gʷréh₂wō "quern, millstone"[183][127] quern (< OE cwerne) *qairnus grā́van "stone, rock, stone for pressing out the Soma juice" OCS žrĭny "millstone" Bret breo, breou, W breuan "quern"[184]
*meli-t, *mel-nés "honey" mildew (< OE mele-dēaw "honeydew") miliþ "honey" mel (mellis) "honey" (>
méli (mélit-) "honey"; Att mélitta "bee"; Myc me-ri, me-ri-to "honey"[185] milinda "honey-bee" OIr mil, W mêl "honey" mełr "honey" mjal, mjaltë "honey" milit "honey"; CLuw ma-al-li "honey";[186] Pala malit- "honey"
*médʰu "honey", "mead" mead (< OE medu) midus "mead" mēdus "a type of mead"[187] métʰu "wine" mádʰu "sweet drink, honey" Proto-Iranian mádu "honey, wine" OCS medŭ "honey"; Bulg med "honey" OPrus meddu "honey", Lith medus "honey", midus "a honey beverage";[188] Ltg mads "honey" OIr mid "mead"; W medd "mead" B mit "honey"[189] CLuw maddu- "wine" (originally "sweet drink")
*tuh₂-ró-s "cheese"[160] butter (< Gk. boútūros "cow cheese") tūrós "cheese"
*séh₂ls "salt"[190][191] salt (< OE sealt) salt "salt" sāl (salis) "salt" ⇒
[note 29]
háls (halós) "salt" sal-ilá- "salty" OCS solǐ "salt";
OCS sladŭkŭ "sweet";
Russ sólod "malt"
OPrus sals "salt", saldus "sweet OIr salann, W halen "salt" "salt" ngjel-bëtë, ngjel-mëtë "salty", njel-m "to be salty" A sāle, B salyiye "salt"
*seH₁- "to sow (seed)", *séH₁mn̥ "seed" sow (< OE sāwan), seed (< OE sēd "that which is sown") saian "to sow"; OHG sāmo "seed" serō (serere) "to sow" < *si-sH₁-oH₂, sēmen "seed" ⇒
[note 30]
sasá- "corn, herb, grass", sasyá- "corn, grain, fruit, crop of corn", sī́ra- "Saatpflug" (seed plow?) OCS sějǫ (sějati) "to sow", sěmę "seeds" OPrus situn "to sow", simen "seed", Lith sėti "to sow", sekla "seed", semenis "linseed" OIr sīl, W hil "seed" < *seH₁-lo- sermn "seed" isḫūwāi "(he) sows"
*yugóm "yoke"
(See also *yewg-)
yoke (< OE ġeoc) juk "yoke" iugum "yoke" zugón "yoke" yugá·m "yoke" Av yaoj-, yuj- "to harness" OCS igo "yoke" OPrus jugtun "yoke", Lith jungas "yoke" W iau "yoke" luc "yoke" A yokäm "door" yugan "yoke"
*yéwos "cereal, grain; spelt, barley"[192][193] Epic zeiā́ "einkorn wheat"; Cretan deaí "barley" yáva "grain, cereal; barley" Av yauua- "cereal"; Pers jow "barley, grain"; Oss jäv "corn, grain" Rus ovín "barn, granary";[au] Pol jewnia, jownia (dialectal) "granary" Lith jãvas "a type of cereal"; javaĩ (pl.) "cereals"; Latv javs, java "infused (with fermentation)" Ir eorna "barley" B yap "dressed barley" e(u)wa(n) "cereal (a kind of barley)"
*mḗms "meat"[195][127] mimz "flesh" membrum "limb, member" < mēms-rom “flesh” ⇒
[note 31]
mā́ṃs, māmsá- "meat" OCS męso "meat"
*h₂ébōl "apple"[126][127] apple (< OE appel) apel (Osc Abella "town name") OCS ablŭ·ko "apple" Lith obuolys "apple", OPr wobalne "apple"; Latv ābols "apple (fruit)", ābele "apple tree" Gaul Aballo "place name"; OIr aball, W afall, OBr aball(en) "apple tree"

Bodily functions and states[edit]

PIE English Gothic Latin Ancient Greek Sanskrit Iranian Slavic Baltic Celtic Armenian Albanian Tocharian Hittite
*H₂enH₁- "to breathe" OE ōþian "breathe hard" < PGerm *anþōjanã *uz-anan "to expire", ON anda "to breathe" anima "breath" ánemos "wind"; Anemoi "(deified) winds" ániti "(he) breathes" Av ā̊ntya, parā̊ntya (gen.) "breathing in and out" OCS vonja "smell" < *H₂en-yeH₂[196] OIr anāl "breath" < *H₂enH̥₁-tlo- ; W anadl "breath" hołm "wind", anjn "person" Gheg âj Tosk ēnj "I swell" AB āñm- "spirit", B añiye "breath", B anāsk- "breathe in"
*swep- "to sleep", *swepnos "dream (n.)" archaic sweven "dream, vision" (< OE swefn); NoEng sweb "to swoon" (< OE swebban "to put to sleep, lull") ON sofa "sleep (v.)"; Svafnir[197] "Sleep-Bringer (a name of Odin)" somnus "sleep (n.)"; sōpiō[198] (v.) "make asleep" húpnos "sleep (n.)" svápna- "sleep, dream (n.)" Av xᵛafna- "sleep (n.)" NPers xwãb- "sleep"; Kurdish xew "sleep" OCS sŭpati[198] "sleep (v.)", sŭnŭ "sleep (n.), dream (n.)" OPrus supnas "dream", Lith sapnas "dream" OIr sūan, W hun "sleep (n.)" kʿnem "I sleep", kʿun "sleep (n.)" gjumë "sleep (n.)" TA ṣpäṃ, TB ṣpane "sleep (n.), dream (n.)" sup-, suppariya- "to sleep"

*der-, *drem-
"to sleep"
[199] [200] [201] [202]

"I sleep";

[note 32]

"I sleep" (epic)

"(s/he) sleeps";
"sleep, slumber, sleepiness, sloth"


drěmati "to doze, drowse, slumber"

*bʰewdʰ- "to be awake, be aware"[203] bid (< OE bēodan);
bede (< OE bēden);
bode (< OE bodian)
anabiudan punthánomai "I learn" bódhati "(s/he) is awake";
bodháyati "(s/he) awakens, arouses"; buddhá- "awake"
OCS bljusti "to watch";
buditi "to wake (someone) up";
bŭždrĭ "alert, cheerful";
*sweid- "sweat" sweat (< OE swǣtan "to sweat") ON sveiti sūdor "sweat (n.)" (e)ĩdos "sweat (n.)" svḗda- "sweat (n.)" Av xᵛaēda- "sweat (n.)"; Kurdish xwê, xoy "sweat" Latvian sviêdri (pl.) "sweat (n.)" W chwys "sweat (n.)" < *swidso- kʿirtn "sweat (n.)" dirsë, djersë "sweat (n.)" < *swí-drōxty- B syā-lñe "sweating" < *swid-yé-
*H₁ed- "to eat" eat (< OE etan) itan "to eat" edō (ēsse) "to eat", ēst "(he) eats" édō "I eat", Homeric athematic infinitive édmenai "to eat" ádmi "I eat", átti "(he) eats" Av subj. aδāiti "(he) should eat" OCS jamĭ "I eat" < *H₁ēd-mi, jastŭ "(he) eats" OPrus istun "to eat", ėsti, Lith "to eat", ėdmi "I eat" OIr ci-ni estar "although he doesn't eat"; W ys "eats" < *H₁ed-ti utem "I eat" < *ōd- ha "to eat" ēdmi "I eat"
*peH₃- "to drink" potable (< OF potable)

imbibe (< Lat. bibere "to drink" via OF imbiber)

bibō (bibere) "to drink", pōtus "drink (n.)"; pō·culo- < pō·clo- < *pō·tlo- "beaker" [av]
(Compare Skt pā·tra-)
pī́nō, pépomai "I drink" pā́ti, píbati "(he) drinks"; pā·tra- "cup, vessel" [av] Av vispo-pitay- "alltränkend" giving water/drinks to all OCS pijǫ (piti) "to drink", Proto-Slavic pȋvo "drink, beer, beverage" OPrus putun "to drink", puja "a party", Lith puota "party" OIr ibid "drinks" < *pibeti; W yfwn "we drink" əmpem "I drink" "I drink" pāsi "he swallows"
*ǵews- "to test, to taste" choose (< OE ċēosan) Goth kiusan "to prove, to test", kausjan "taste"; OHG kiosan "choose" gustus "taste" geúomai "taste" juşate, joşati "enjoys" Av zaoś- "be pleased" OCS (vŭ)kušati "to offer a meal, to give for tasting" OIr do-goa "choose" desha "I loved"; dashje "liking, taste, preference" (< PAlb *dāusnja) kukuš(-zi) "taste"
"to beget, give birth, produce"
(< OE cynn "kind, sort, family, generation") (> kindred);
kind (< OE (ġe)cynd "generation, nature, race, kind");
(< OE cyning);
OE cennan "produce"
-kunds "born";
knoþs "race, people";
OHG kind "child";
Ger könig, Dut koning "king"
(< PGmc *kuningaz = *kunją "kin" + *-ingaz "from, belonging to")
(> OCS kŭnędzĭ "prince";
Lith kùnigas "priest";
Fin, Est kuningas "king" (esp. in chess))
"I am born, begotten; grow, spring forth";
"I beget, bear, bring forth, engender" ⇒
[note 33];
"born, arisen, made" ⇒
[note 34];
"being born, arising; emerging" ⇒
[note 35];
"created; imparted by birth" ⇒
[note 36];
nātīvitās "birth" ⇒
[note 37];
"nature, quality, essence" ⇒
[note 38];
"birth; race, class; nation, folk" ⇒
[note 39];
"relating to birth, natal" ⇒
[note 40];
genus (generis)
"birth, origin; kind; species; (grammar) gender" ⇒
[note 41];
gēns (gentis)
"tribe; folk, family; Roman clan" ⇒
[note 42];
"huge, vast; extraordinary";
"begotten, engendered" ⇒
[note 43];
"inborn trait, innate character; talent, wits" (> genius);
"natural, indigenous; freeborn" ⇒
[note 44];
"innate quality, nature, disposition; natural capacity; talent" ⇒
[note 45];
indigenus = indu (inside) + genus
"native, indigenous" (> indigenous);
"product, fruit; progeny";
germen (germinis)
"shoot, sprout; germ, origin, seed; fetus" ⇒
[note 46];
"begetter, father, sire";
"begetter, mother";
"birthmark, mole" (> Lat Gnaeus);
"relation to birth, generation; productive" ⇒
[note 47]
"I am born; I beget";
"I come into being; become";
"offspring; seed" (> gonad);
"birth; race, descent; generation; offspring" (> genealogy, etc.);
"offspring, descendant, family; nation, gender";
génna, génnā
"descent, lineage; origin, offspring";
"origin, source, manner of birth" ⇒
[note 48];
"fruit, product; race, descent; begetting; seed";
genétēs, genétōr
"begetter, ancestor; father"
jánati "(she) gives birth";
"is born; becomes";
já-, -ja-
"born; born of, begotten from", e.g., dvi·já- "twice-born";
"child, offspring; creature";
"kinsman, relative";
"mother, birth-giver";
"people, person, race";
"begetting, birth";
"race, class, genus";
jánman, janmá-
"birth, life";
jániman "generation, birth, origin";
janitṛ́ "begetter, father, parent";
jánitrī "begetter, mother";
"people, folk, generation";
"birth, form of existence fixed at birth, position assigned by birth, rank, lineage, caste"
Av zīzǝnti, zīzanǝnti "they give birth"; Kurdish zayîn "to give birth" OCS zętĭ "son-in-law" OPrus gamintun "to give birth", gimdyti "to give birth" OIr -gainethar "who is born" < *ĝn̥-ye-tro;[196] W geni "to be born" cnanim "I am born, bear" dhëndër, dhândër "son-in-law, bridegroom" < *ĝenH̥₁-tr-[ax] AB kän- "to come to pass (of a wish), be realized"
*sewh₁- or *sewh₃-
"to bear, beget, give birth"
(See also *suHnú-)
"(she) begets";
"born, brought forth";
"birth, production"
Av hunāhi “give birth, beget” OIr suth "produce, offspring; milk" šunnai "fills"
*H₂eug-, H₂weg- "to grow, increase"[210] eke (< OE ēacian "to increase"); wax (of the moon) (< OE weaxan "to grow") aukan, auknan "to increase (intr.)", wahsjan "to grow" < orig. caus. *H₂wog-s-éy-onom augeō (augēre) "to increase (tr.)" ⇒
[note 49];
auctor "grower - promoter, producer, author etc" ⇒
[note 50];
augmentum "growth, increase" ⇒
[note 51];
augur < augos "aggrandizement" ⇒
[note 52];
augustus "majestic, venerable" ⇒
[note 53];
auxilium "help, aid; remedy" ⇒
[note 54]
a(w)éksō "I increase (intr.)", aúksō, auksánō "I increase (tr.)" úkṣati "(he) becomes stronger", vakṣáyati "(he) causes to grow"; ójas, ōjmán "strength, vitality, power";[211] ugrá- "immense, strong, hard"; Av uxšyeiti "(he) grows", vaxšaiti "(he) causes to grow" OCS jugъ "south" (the direction to where the Sun rises) OPrus augtwei "to grow", Lith augti " to grow" OIr fēr, W gwêr "fat" < *weg- ačem "I grow, become big" A oksiṣ "(he) grows"; A okṣu, В aukṣu "grown"
*weǵ- "fresh, strong; lively, awake"[212] wake (< OE wacian); watch (< OE wæċċan) gawaknan "wake up, arouse" vegeō (vegēre) "be alert, awake, smart"; vigor "id"; vigil "awake, watching" vā́ja- "strength, energy, vigour, spirit"; vájra- "hard; mace; thunderbolt; diamond"; vājáyati "(s/he) impels"
*gʷiH₃wo- "alive", *gʷiH₃wo-teH₂ "life" quick (< OE cwicu "alive") qius "alive" vīvus "alive"; vīta "life" bíos, bíotos "life", zoo "animal" jīvá-, jīvaka- "alive", jīvita·m, jīvā́tus, jīvathas "life" Av gayō, acc. ǰyātum "life"; Gayōmart "living mortal"; -ǰyāiti- "life-"; Av ǰva-, OPers ǰīva- "alive", NPers ǰavān- "alive"; Kurdish jiyan, jîn "life" OCS živŭ "alive", žitĭ, životŭ "life"; Živa "alive, living (Polabian deity)" OPrus giws "alive", giwata "life", Lith gyvas "alive", gyvatė "snake" Gaul biuo-, bio-,[213][ay]
OIr biu, beo, W byw "alive"; OIr bethu (bethad), W bywyd "life" < Proto-Celtic *bivo-tūts
keam "I live" < *gʷi-yā-ye-mi[196] B śai- "to live" < *gweiH₃-ō
"to grow old, mature"
(See also *ǵr̥h₂-nó-, *gʰreh₁-)
(< OE ċeorl, ċiorl "free man")
Karl (< PGmc "free man") (> Slav korlǐ "king")[az] gérōn, gérontos
"old; elder" (> geronto-);
"old woman";
"gift of honor";
"honorable, majestic, respectable";
Graia > Graikós > Graeco-, Greek
járati, jī́ryati
"grows old; wears out; is consumed, digested";
"old, worn out; digested";
"old, infirm; decayed";
jarā́, jarás, jariman
"old age"
OCS zĭrěti "to ripen"
*mer- "to die" murder (< OE morþor < *mr̥-tro-m) maúrþr "murder" morior (morī) "to die" < *mr̥-yōr, mortalis "mortal" brotós (< *mrotós), mortós "mortal" marati, máratē, mriyátē "(he) dies", mṛtá- "dead", márta-, mortal Av merə- "to die", miryeite "dies"; OPers martiya- "man (someone who dies)", NPers mordan- "to die"; Kurdish mirin "to die" OCS mĭrǫ, mrěti "to die" Lith miŕštu (miŕti) "to die", merdėti "to die slowly" OIr marb, W marw "dead" < *mr̥-wós meṙanim "I die", mard "human" mert "died"
"bald, naked"
"bald, hairless" > Calvin;
"skull, scalp"
"to cough"[222][223]
whoost "cough"
(< OE hwōstan)
"(s/he) coughs"
OCS kašĭljati "to cough"
*perd- "fart"[224][225] fart (< OE feortan) pérdomai párdate "(s/he) farts" Russian perdétь "to fart"

Mental functions and states[edit]

PIE English Gothic Latin Ancient Greek Sanskrit Iranian Slavic Baltic Celtic Armenian Albanian Tocharian Hittite
*k̂leu-(s)- "to hear" listen (< OE hlystan), loud (< OE hlūd) hliuma "hearing, ears (in pl.)" clueō (cluēre) "to be named" ékluon "I heard" śr̥ṇóti "(he) hears" < *k̂l̥-neu-; śrúti "that which is heard" Av surunaoiti "(he) hears" < *k̂lu-n- OCS
slyšati "to hear";
slušati "to listen"
OPrus klausytun "to hear", Lith klausyti "to listen" OIr ro-clui-nethar "hears"; W clywed "to hear";
Gaul cluiou "I hear"[226]
lsem "I hear" Old Tosk kluaj (standard quaj) "to call, to name" < *k̂lu(H)-eH₁- A klyoṣ-, B klyauṣ- "to hear"

*h₂ew- or *h₃ew
"to see, perceive, be aware of"
[227] [228] [201] [229]

OE ēawis "obvious"

"I hear, listen to; pay attention to" ⇒
[note 55]

"I perceive, hear, see, obey";
"I perceive, feel, apprehend, notice" ⇒
[note 56]

"evidently, manifestly, before the eyes, openly"


aviti "to show, appear"

Lith ovytis
"to appear";
"in reality"

*weid- "to see, find; to know" wit (OE wit "intelligence", witan "to know" < PIE perfect tense) witan "to know" videō (vidēre) "to see" é(w)ide "he saw";
perf. oĩda "I know (lit. I have seen)"
vindáti "(he) finds", ávidat "found";
vetti, vēdate, vidáti "(he) knows"; perf. véda "I know"
Av vī̆δaiti, vī̆nasti "(he) finds" OCS viždǫ (viděti) "to see" OPrus widatun "to see"; Lith veidas "face" W gweld "to see" gtanem "I find"
*woid- "to know" Av perf. vaēδa "I know", vīdarǝ "they know" OCS věmĭ (věděti) "to know" OPrus waistun "to know", Lith vaistas "medicine", vyda "he sees, knows" OIr find, W gwn "(I) know" gitem "I know" B ūwe "learned" < PToch *wäwen- < *wid-wo-
*ĝénH₃-, *ĝnéH₃-sk̂-, *ĝn̥-né-H₃- "to recognize, know" can (< OE cann "I know, he knows"), know (< OE cnāwan < *ĝnēH₃-yo-nom), Scot ken "to know" (< OE cennan "to cause to know" < PGerm *kann-jan) kunnan "to know" < *ĝn̥-n-H₃-onom, kann "I know" (g)nōscō ((g)nōscere) "to recognize", nōvī "I know" gignṓskō (aorist égnōn) "I recognize" jānā́mi "I know" < *janā́mi < *ĝn̥-nH₃-mi Av zanā-ṯ, zanąn < *ĝn̥-ne-H₃-ti; OPers a-dānā (impf.) "he knew" < *ĝn̥-ne-H₃-mi, xšnāsātiy (subj.) "he should know"; Kurdish zanîn "to know" OCS znajǫ (znati) "to know" < *ĝneH₃-yoH₂ OPrus zinatun "to recognize, know", Lith žinoti "to know"[230][231] OIr itar-gninim, asa-gninaim "I am wise"; W adnabod "(I) know" čanačʿem, aorist caneay "I recognize" njoh "I know" < *ĝnēH₃-sk̂oH₂ A knā-, e.g. knānmaṃ "knowing" < *ĝneH₃-, kñas-äṣt "you have become acquainted" < *ĝnēH₃-s-
*n̥- + *ĝneH₃-tos "not" + "to know" uncouth (< OE uncūþ "unknown, strange") unkunþs "unknown" ignōtus, ignōrāntem "unknown, ignorant" agnṓs (agnõtos) "unknown" < *n̥- + *ĝnéH₃-ts ajñāta- "unknown" OPrus nezinatun "not to know", Lith nežinoti " not to know" OIr ingnad "foreign" an-can-awtʿ "ignorant, unknown" A ā-knats, B a-knātsa "ignorant"
"to love; desire, covet, want; admire, praise"[232][233]
(< OE lufu);
lief "dear, beloved"
(< OE lēof);
lofe "praise, exalt; offer"
(< OE lofian, lof)
"it is pleasing, agreeable"
"(s/he) desires greatly; longs for, covets; is perplexed";
"(s/he) causes to desire, attract, allure; confound, bewilder";
"perplexity, confusion; impatience, eager desire, longing; covetousness";
"greedy, desirous of, longing after; covetous"
OCS ljubiti "to love";
ljubŭ "sweet, pleasant";
ljuby "love";
Russ ljubímyj "favorite"
*men- "to think"[234][235] mind (< OE (ġe)mynd "memory" < *mn̥t-ís); OE munan "to think";
munan "to think"; muns (pl. muneis) "thought" < *mn̥-is; gamunds (gamundáis) "remembrance" < *ko(m)-mn̥t-ís meminī "I remember" ⇒
[note 57];
"I recollect, remember" ⇒
[note 58]
mēns (mentis) "mind" < *mn̥t-is;
"mindful, remembering" ⇒
[note 59]
"devised, contrived; invented";
"I remind, warn";
"a divine omen; portent" ⇒
[note 60];
mémona "I think of"; maínomai "I go mad";
"I remind, recall";
"I am mindful, remember; woo, court";
"self-willed, unbidden; self-moving, automatic";
"mind; desire; anger";
Méntōr "mentor";
"I learn; know, understand; notices";
"something that is learned, lesson; learning, knowledge" ⇒
[note 61];
mányate "(he) thinks"; mántra- "thought, the instrument of thought";[236]
"thought intention; opinion, notion; perception, judgement";
"thinker, adviser";
"wisdom, intelligence" (See mazdā);
"minister, councilor, counselor" > mandarin
Av mainyeite "(he) thinks";
mazdā "wisdom, intelligence";
OPers mainyāhay "I think", NPers Došman- "Someone who has a bad mind"; Kurdish mejî "brain, mind"
OCS mĭněti "to mean";
OPrus mintun "to guess", minisna "memory", mints "riddle", mentitun "to lie", Lith mintis " thought", minti "to guess", minėti "to mention" OIr do-moiniur "I believe, I mean" mendoj "I think" A mnu "thought"; B mañu "demand (n.)" memmāi "says"

"to remember, care for, be concerned, fall into thinking"
[237] [238] [201] [239]

mammer "to hesitate; to mumble, stammer from hesitation"
(< OE māmrian, māmorian "to think through, deliberate, plan out");
mimmer "to dote, dream"
(< OE mymerian "to keep in mind");
(< OE murnan);
OE mimor "mindful"

"mindful, remembering"[ba]

[note 62];
"delay, any duration of time" ⇒
[note 63]

"baneful, mischievous; captious, fastidious";
"care, thought; anxious mind";
mártus, márturos
"witness" ⇒
[note 64]

"(s/he) remembers, recollects"

mariti(< SE "to care about something/someone")

"to think"
[240] [241] [201]

(< OE þenċan, þenċean);
(< OE þanc "thought, thanks")

"I know"

"to bother, annoy, neglect, disturb, forget, ignore"
[242] [243] [201] [244]

(< OE mierran)

"(s/he) forgets, neglects, disregards"

Lith miršti "to forget, lose, become oblivious"

*sekʷ- "to see, to say" see (< OE sēon); say (< OE sec̣gan < PGerm *sag(w)jan < *sokʷéyonom) saíƕan "to see"; OHG sagen "say" < *sokʷē- īnseque "declare!" énnepe "tell!" śacate "(he) says" OCS sočiti "to announce" Lith sakyti "to say", sekti "to tell a story, to follow" OIr insce "I talk"; OIr rosc "eye" < *pro-skʷo-; OW hepp "(he) said" sheh "(he) sees" A ṣotre, B ṣotri "sign" sakuwāi- "to see"

"to see"
[245] [246] [247] [248]

ME torhte "bright, shining, radiant"

"to see, see clearly; watch";
"look, glance; sight"

[bb][note 65]
"to cause to see, to show";
"seen, visible, apparent, noticed"

"to watch, be looking at, keep looking at"
[249] [250] [247] [251]

(< Fk *spehōn "to spy")

"watcher" > avispex, auspex "bird-watcher"

[note 19];
"I observe, watch, look at"

[note 66];
"seeing, view, look; sight; appearance; point of view; kind, sort, type"

[note 67];
"mark, token; example, pattern, model";
"look, appearance, aspect";
"appearance, image; apparition, spectre"

[note 68];
"looking-glass, mirror"

[note 69]

"I look, behold; inspect"

[note 70];
"watcher; proterctor, guardian"

[note 71];
"I look at; examine; consider, think";
"viewing; observation; doubt"

[note 72]

"spy, watcher; messenger";
"(s/he) sees, looks, beholds";
"clear, visible; obvious, evident; intelligible"

"to see; to show; to seem"
[252] [253] [247] [254]

"goal, end; token"

"(it) is visible, appears; shines";
√caks-, caṣṭe
"to see, look; appear; inform";

Av cašman "eye"

OCS kazati "to show; say, testify"

*wekʷ- "to say" OE wōma "noise" < *wōkʷ-mō(n) OHG giwahanen "mention" < PGerm *gawahnjan (denom. built on *wokʷ-no-) vocō (vocāre) "to call", vōx (vōcis) "voice" eĩpon (aor.) "spoke" < *e-we-ikʷ-om < *e-we-ukʷ-om, (w)épos "word" vákti, vívakti "(he) says", vāk "voice", vácas- "word" Av vač- "speak, say", vāxš "voice", vačah "word", NPers vāk- "voice"; Kurdish vaj "voice", bivaj- "to say" OCS vikǫti "to call, to scream" OPrus enwackēmai "we call" OIr foccul "word", W gwaethl "fight" < * wokʷ-tlo-m gočem "I call" A wak, B wek "voice" ḫuek-, ḫuk- to swear to"
*bʰeh₂- "to speak, say"[255] ban (< PGmc *bannaną "to proclaim, order, summon") fāma "fame"; fās "divine law; will of god, destiny";
for (fārī) "I speak, talk, say";
fātus "word, saying; oracle, prophecy; fate";
fateor (fatērī, fassus sum) "I confess, admit, acknowledge";
fābula "discourse, narrative; tale, fable";
Sp hablar, Pt falar "to speak"
phōnḗ "voice"; phḗmē "prophetic voice; rumor; reputation";
phēmí "I speak, say";
prophḗtēs "one who speaks for a god: proclaimer, prophet";
phásis "utterance, statement, expression"
bhā́ṣā "speech, language"; bhā́ṣati "(s/he) speaks" bajka "fable";[bc] OCS balii "physician, (healer, enchanter)"
*prek̂-, *pr̥-sk̂- < *pr̥k̂-sk̂- "to ask" Scot frain "to ask" (< OE freġnan) fraíhnan "to ask"; OHG forscōn "to ask, to research" precor (precārī) "to pray", poscō (poscere) "to demand, ask" pr̥ccháti "(he) asks" Av pǝrǝsaiti "(he) asks, desires" < *pr̥-sk̂-; OPers aor.? aparsam "(he) asked"; Kurdish pirs "question" OCS prositi "to pray" OPrus prasitun "to ask", Lith prašyti "to ask" OIr imm-chom-arc "mutual questions, greetings"; NIr arco, W archaf "I ask" harcʿanem "I ask" A prak-, B prek- "to ask"
*kelh₁-, (s)kel-dh-
"to call, cry, summon"[256][257]
(< OE halian);
(< ON skald)
"I call, announce solemnly; call out";
"a council, meeting" ⇒
[note 73];
"the armed forces; fleet; group or class" > class;
"the Calends" > calendar;
"I cry out, clamor, shout, yell" ⇒
[note 74];
"clear, bright; renouwned, famous; loud, distinct" ⇒
[note 75]
"I call, hail; summon, invite"
klándati, krándati
"(s/he) laments weeps; cries; sounds";
uṣaḥkala-, uṣakala-
"rooster, lit, dawn-call"
Kurdish kalîn "to moan, to whine, to mourn", dikale "he/she mourns" OCS klakolŭ "bell";
Russ skulítʹ "to whine, whisper"
*bʰeyh₂- "to fear, be afraid"[258] bive, bever "to shake, tremble" (< OE bifian) foedus "foul, filthy, unseemly; vile" bháyate "(s/he) is afraid";
bhī, bhīti, bhayá- "fear"
OCS bojati "to fear, be afraid"
*H₁neH₃mn̥ or *H₁nomn̥- "name" name (< OE nama) namō (acc. pl. namna) "name" nōmen "name" ónoma "name" nā́ma(n)(instrumental sg. nā́mnā) "name" Av nāma "name"; NPers nām- "name"; Kurdish nav "name" OCS imę "name" < Proto-Slavic *inmen < *n̥men OPrus emnes, emmens "name" < *enmen- OIr ainmm n-, OW anu "name";
Gaul anuan < anman "name"[259]
anun "name" Gheg emën, Tosk emër "name" < *enmen- A ñem, B ñom "name" lāman- "name"

General conditions and states[edit]

PIE English Gothic Latin Ancient Greek Sanskrit Iranian Slavic Baltic Celtic Armenian Albanian Tocharian Hittite
"to be sharp; to sting"
(< OE sticca);
(< OE stiċe);
(< OE þistel)
"I stimulate, incite, rouse" > instigate;
stylus (later spelled stylus [bd])
"pointed instrument, spike" ⇒
[note 76]
"I tattoo; mark";
"marking; spot, mark";
"mark, tattoo; spot, stain"
"become sharp; energize";
"sharp ede of a knife; light, brilliance, glow; splendor; fiery power";
"sharp; hot, fiery, pungent; acute, keen";
"sharp, pointed; pungent, scorching, acrid"
Per tez "sharp"

"to melt, thaw; flow"
[264] [265] [266]

(< OE þawian); thone
"damp, moist, wet" (< OE þan)

"decay, foulness; fluid from a wound"; tābeō
"I melt; rot";
"gore; viscous fluid"

"pond, swamp";

toś-, tośate
"drip, distill, trickle";
"rain, mist, tickle, drizzle, wet"


tajati "melt"

Natural features[edit]

PIE English Gothic Latin Ancient Greek Sanskrit Iranian Slavic Baltic Celtic Armenian Albanian Tocharian Hittite
*H₂ster- "star"
(See also: *h₂eHs-)
star (< OE steorra) staírnō "star" stēlla "star" astḗr "star"[be] stṛ inst. pl. stŕ̥bhis, nom. pl. tāra-, fem. nom. sg. tarā "star" Av acc. stā̆rǝm (ablauting)[bf] "star"; Kurdish stêr "star" MIr ser, W seren, Breton sterenn "star"; Celtic Sirona (< *Tsirona) "astral", "stellar" astł "star"; Astłik "deity of love, fertility and skylight" pl. A śreñ, B ściriñ "stars" ḫasterza "star"
*dyēus, déiwos[ii] "sky, day, god" Tues-day (< OE Tīwes-dæġ lit. "day of Tīw"[bg]) ON tīvar "gods", Týr "Tīw" (the war god) Iuppiter (Iovis), Old Latin Diū-piter (Diovis) "Jupiter"; diēs "day", deus, dīvus "god"[bh] Zdeús (Di(w)ós)[ii] "Zeus" d(i)yāús (divás, dyōs)[ii] "heaven", dēvás "god", devī́ "goddess" Av daēva- "demon" (OCS dĭnĭ (dĭne) "day" < *din-is), Ukr. dyvo and Russ. divo "miracle" OPrus deina "day", deiws "god", Lith diena "day", dievas "god" OIr dīe, W dydd "day"; OIr dia (dē), OW duiu- "God" tiw (tuənǰean) "day" (gdhinj "I make day"(? mache Tag) < *-di-n-yoH₂) Šiuš "Hittite sky- or sun-god"[267][bi]
*seH₂wol-, *sH₂un- "sun" sun (< OE sunne) sauil, sunnō "sun" sōl "sun" Homeric hēélios "sun" < *sāwélios;[bj] Helios "deity of the sun" súvar (súra-) "sun, light, heavens", sūra-, sūrya "sun" Av hvarǝ (hūrō) "sun, light, heavens", Hvare-khshaeta "deity of the radiant sun" OCS slĭnŭce "sun" < *sulnika-, Russ. po-solon' "sunwise" OPrus sauli "sun", sawaiti "week", Lith saulė "sun", savaitė "week" OIr sūil "eye"; W haul "sun" ylli "star" < *sūlo- or *sūli-
*meH₁ns- "moon, month" moon (< OE mōna), month (< OE mōnaþ) mēna "moon", mēnoþs "month" mēnsis "month" Att mḗn, Ion meis, Dor mḗs "month", mḗnē "moon" mā́s "moon"; mā́sa- "month" Av mā̊ (mā̊ŋhō) "moon"; NPers māh "moon, month"; Kurdish meh "month", mang "moon" OCS měsęcĭ "moon, month" < *mēs-n̥-ko- OPrus miniks "moon", mins "month", Lith mėnulis "moon", mėnesis "month" OIr mī (mīs) "month" < *mēns;; W mis "month" amis "month" muai "month" A mañ B meñe "month"; A mañ ñkät B meṃ "moon"
*dʰeĝʰom- "earth"
(See also *dʰĝʰemon-)
humus "earth" kʰtʰṓn (kʰtʰonós) "earth", kʰamaí "on the earth"[bk] kṣā́s (acc. kṣā́m, gen. jmá-) "earth" Av zā̊ (acc. ząm, gen. zǝmō) "earth"; Kurdish zevî "farmland", NPers zamin "ground, soil", zamindar "land owner" OCS zemĭ, zemlja "earth"; Russ Chernozem "black soil" OPrus zemê "earth", semmai "on the earth" (adverb); Lith žemė " earth" OIr "place"; Welsh dyn "man" dhe "earth" A tkaṃ (tkanis), B keṃ "earth" tēkan (tagnās) "earth"


(< OE hamer)




kamy, gen. kamene "stone"

Lith akmuõ, gen. akmeñs "stone"



"crag, bare rock"

*wódr̥ (udéns) pl. *wédōr (udnés) "water" water (< OE wæter) watō (watins) "water" Umbrian utur "water", Latin unda "wave" húdōr (húdatos) "water"; Hydra (litt.) "water-animal" udaká- (loc. udán(i), pl. udá), udra "water"; samudra "ocean" (litt. "gathering of waters") Av aoδa- "spring", vaiδi- "stream" OCS voda "water", Russ. vedro "bucket"; Russ vódka "little water" OPrus undan "water", Lith vanduo "water" OIr u(i)sce "water" < *udeskyo-; Eng. Whisky < uisce beatha "water of life" get "river" ujë "water" A wär, B war "water" wātar (wetenas) "water"
*doru, *dreu- "wood, tree" tree (< OE trēo) triu "tree, wood" dóru, drûs "tree, wood" dā́ru, drṓs, drú- "tree, wood" Av dāru- "tree, wood"; Kurdish dar "tree, wood" OCS drěvo "tree" OPrus drawê "hole in a tree, hollow tree", Lith drevė "hole in a tree", dirva "soil" OIr daur "oak", W derwen "oak" tram "firm" dru "tree" AB or "wood" taru "tree"
*H₂weH₁n̥to- "wind", *H₂weH₁- "to blow" wind (< OE wind); OE wāwan "to blow" winds "wind"; waian "to blow" ventus "wind" áenta (acc.) "wind", áēsi "(he) blows" vā́ta- (vānt-)[277] "wind", vāti "(he) blows", Vāyu "lord of winds"; nir·vāṇa- "blow-out, extinction"[278] Av vātō "wind", vāiti "(he) blows", Vayu-Vata "a pair of deities: Vayu/Wind and Vata/Air"; Kurdish ba, wa, va "wind", hewa "air, weather" OCS vějǫ (vějetŭ) "to blow" OPrus witra "wind"; Lith vėjas "wind", vėtra "heavy wind", Vėjopatis "god of winds" W gwynt "wind" A want, B yente "wind" ḫūwanz[279] "wind"
*sneigʷʰ- "to snow" snow (< OE snāw < *snoigʷhos, snīwan "to snow" < *sneigʷhonom) snáiws "snow" nix (nivis) "snow", ninguō (ninguere) "to snow" nípʰa (acc.) "snow", neípʰei "it snows" sneha- "snow" Av snaēža- "to snow"; Shughni žǝnij "snow" < *snaiga- OCS sněgŭ "snow" OPrus snaigs "snow", Lith snigti "to snow" OIr snecht(a)e, W nyf "snow"; OIr snigid "it rains"
*h₁n̥gʷnís "fire" < *h₁engʷ- "to burn";[280]
*h₁óngʷl̥ "charcoal"
ignis "fire" agní "fire";
áṅgāra "charcoal"
OCS ognĭ "fire";
ǫglĭ "coal"
*péH₂wr̥, pH₂unés "bonfire"[bl] fire (< OE fȳr < *fuïr[bl]) fōn (funins)[bl] "fire"; OHG fuïr[bl] (two syllables) < *puwéri Umbrian pir "fire" < *pūr, acc. purom-e "into the fire" < *pur- pũr (purós) "fire" pāru (pēru) "sun, fire" NPers fer "oven, furnace" Czech pýř "glowing ash", Pol perzyna "embers", Slovak pyr, UpSb pyr "ashes"[281] OPrus pannu "fire" hur "fire" A por, B puwar, puwār, pwār "fire" paḫḫur "fire"
*dʰuh₂mós "smoke" < *dʰewh₂- "to smoke"[282] fūmus "smoke" dhūmá- "smoke; mist, fog" OCS dymŭ "smoke"
"to become dry; burn, glow; hearth; ashes"

[283] [284] [266]
(See also: *H₂ster-)

(< OE æsce);
"ash; cinder"
"I am dry; dried up, withered";
"dry, parched, withered, arid" > arid;
"altar; sanctuary, refuge";
"roasted, baked; dried"
"I dry";
"ashes, dust"

"to rub, scrape off; ashes, dust" [285][286]

cinis, cineris
"ashes" ⇒
[note 77]

"ash, dust"

"particle; small grain of dust, rice, corn; atom"

*gʷʰerm- "warm" ?warm (< OE wearm); OE ġierwan "to prepare, cook" < PGerm *garwjan ?warmjan "to warm" formus "warm" tʰermós "warm" gʰarmá- "heat" Av garǝma- "hot, heat"; OPers Garma-pada-, name of the fourth month, corresponding to June/July, orig. (?) "entrance of the heat"; Kurdish germ "hot, warm" Russ. žar "heat", goret' "to burn" < *gʷʰer OPrus garmê "heat, glowing", Lith žarijos "cinders", žėrėti "to glow" OIr gorn "fire" < *gʷʰor-nos ǰerm "warm" Gheg zjarm "fire, heat" A śärme "heat (of summer)"

"to burn; warm, hot"
[287] [288] [266] [289]

"I warm, keep warm; nurture, foster";
"a warm application; lotion";

[note 78] fōmes
"kindling, tinder" febris

[note 79] februum, februarius
"expiatory offerings, means of purification";

[note 80][bm]


"it burns";
"burned, burnt"


žešti (žeg-) "to burn";
žigŭ "burn mark, brand"

Lith dė̃gis "burn scar"

*h₁ews- "to burn";[290][291] ember (< OE ǣmyrġe) ūrō "I burn, consume, inflame";
ustus "burnt, inflamed";
bustum < amb-bustum "a burial mound, tomb";
combūrō "I burn up, cremate, scald" > combust
heúō "I singe" óṣati "(s/he) burns, burns down; punishes";
uṣṭá "burnt";
uṣṇá "warm, hot"
*gel- "to be cold, to freeze" cold (< OE ceald) kalds "cold (of the weather)" gelus "ice", gelidus "icy" gelandros MBulg goloti "ice" Lith gelmenis, gelumà "great cold"
*temH- "(to be) dark"
*témHos "darkness"
OHG demar "twilight" tenebrae "darkness" (< *temebrai < *temasro) támas "darkness, gloom", támisrā "dark night" Av taΘra "darkness", təmah OCS tĭmĭnŭ "darkness", tĭma', Rus temnotá "darkness" Lith tamsa "dark, darkness", tiḿsras "a darker shade of red"; Latv tumšs, timšs "dark", tùmsa "darkness"[292] OIr temel "darkness" (< PCel *temeslos); OW timuil "dark, darkness" B tamãsse "dark"
*nébʰ-os "cloud; mist"[293] OE nifol "dark [misty]" ON Niflheimr "home of mists" nebula "fog, cloud" népʰos "cloud"; nepʰélē "mass of clouds; name of a nymph" nábʰas "mist; sky, cloud"; nábʰāsa "celestial, heavenly; appearing in the sky" nabah- "heavens" (litt. "nimbuses, clouds")[294] OCS nebo "heaven, sky"; Pol niebo "sky"; Cz nebesa "skies"; Rus Небеса "heaven" Lith debesis "cloud" OIr nem "sky"; OBret nem, MBret neff "sky" nēpiš- "sky, heaven"; CLuw tappaš- "heaven"; HierLuw tipas- "heaven"

"dirt, mud"

"I soil, defile, foul" ⇒
[note 81]

"dirt, filth, smut; disgrace"


(< OE sand)

sabulō, sabulum
"sand, gravel"

"sand, grains of sand"

*srew-, *srew-mo, *sru-to "to flow, stream" (in river names)[bn] stream (< OE strēam) ON straumr "a stream" rheûma "flow" srutá- "flow", srava "a flow of, a waterfall" (< *srówos) YAv θraotah- "stream" (< OIA srótas-); OPer rautaʰ- "river" OCS struja "stream", o-strovŭ "island";[bo] Rus strumenı "brook"; Pol strumień "brook, river" Lith sraumuõ "brook, stream"; Latv strāva "current"; Lith sraujà, Latv strauja "stream";[299] Lith sraũtas "flow, torrent" OIr sruaimm, Ir sruth "stream, river"; MW ffrwd "brook, stream"; OBret frut "stream" OArm aṙu "brook; canal" (< srutis-) rrymë "stream, current; flow (of water)"
*dʰenh₂- "to set in motion, to flow";[300]
*déh₂nu "river goddess"
fōns < PItal *ðonts "spring, fountain; fresh water; source" dhánvati "it runs, flows, causes to run or flow";[301]
dhána- "competition, contest; prize";
dā́nu "fluid, drop, dew"
Dnieper < OOss dānu apara "the far river"[302] Danube < PCelt *Dānowyos

"valley, vault; curve, hollow"

(< OE dæl)



dolŭ "valley; depression"

*mori- "lake?, sea?"[bp] OE mere "lake" marei "sea" mare "sea" OCS morje "sea" Lith mårè "sea" OIr muir "sea"


PIE English Gothic Latin Ancient Greek Sanskrit Iranian Slavic Baltic Celtic Armenian Albanian Tocharian Hittite
*per- "through, across, beyond" far (< OE feorr) faírra "far"; faír- "around; (intensifier)" per "through" perí, pér "forward" pári "forward" Av pairi; OPers pariy "forward"; Kurdish ber "in front of, before" OCS prě- "forward" OPrus pro-, pra- "trough, across", Latvian pāri "across", Lith per "across", pra- "to start and finish doing something", pro- "through" OIr ir-, W er "forward" heṙu "far" për, pej, pe "forward" parā, Lycian pri "forth"
*upér(i) "over, above" over (< OE ofer) ufar "over, above, beyond" super "over" (influenced by sub "under") hupér "over" upári "over, above, beyond" Av 'upairi, OPers "over, above, beyond" OCS po "upon, at" OPrus uppin "cloud", OIr for, W gor, gwar "over, on" ver "up" i ver "up" epër "over, above"
*H₂ents "forehead", *H₂entí, *H₂entá "in front of" and (< OE and) and "along, throughout, towards, in, on, among"; OHG enti "previously" < PGerm *andiaz ante "in front of" antí "instead of" anti "opposite to it" Kurdish enî "front, forehead" Lith añt "on" antai "there" OIr étan "forehead" < *antono- ənd "instead of" A ānt, B ānte "surface, forehead" ḫānz, ḫanti "in front"
*en "in" in (< OE in) in "in, into, towards" in "in" en "in" án-īka- "face" < ?*eni-Hkʷ Av ainika "face" < ?*eni-Hkʷ OCS on-, vŭn-, "in" OPrus en "in", Lith į "in" OIr in- "in"; W yn "in" i "in" inj "until" AB y-, yn-, B in- "in" an-dan "inside"
*apó "away" of, off (< OE of) af "from, of, by" (ab-u "from ...?") ab "away" apó "from" ápa "away" Av apa, OPers apa "away" OCS ot, "from, apart of" Lith apačià "bottom" < *apotyā prapë "back" < *per-apë āpa "behind, back" (or ? < *epi)
*deḱs- "the right (side)" Gothic taihswa "right side" dexter dexiós; Myc de-ki-si-wo dákṣina "right, south" Av dašina "right, south"; MPer dašn "right hand, right side" OCS desnŭ "right (side)" Lith dẽšinas Gaul Dexsiva (Dexsiua)
*marǵ-, *merǵ-
"edge; boundary, border"
(< OE mearc);
(< OF markōn)
margō (marginis)
"border, edge" > margin
"limit, mark, boundary";
"way, road, path"
*bʰudʰmḗn "bottom"[308] butt (< OE bytt);
bottom, botham (< OE bodan, botm)
fundus "bottom, ground, foundation; farm, estate" puthmḗn "bottom (cup, jar, sea)" budhná "bottom, ground, base, depth" Gaul bona "base, bottom, village"
(found in several placenames: Bonna > Bonn;
Windo-bona "white village" > Vienna;
Bononia > Boulogne(-sur-Mer))[309]

Basic adjectives[edit]

PIE English Gothic Latin Ancient Greek Sanskrit Iranian Slavic Baltic Celtic Armenian Albanian Tocharian Hittite

"great, tall; hill, elevation";
"high, mighty"
[272][312] [313]

borough, borough, Brough, bur-, burg, burgh, bury, -bury
(< OE burg, burh "city, town, fortification");
(< OE beorg)

baurgs, OHG burg "fortress, citadel";
OHG Burgunt (a female personal name)[314]

fortis "strong, powerful; firm" ⇒
[note 82];
LL Burgundia "Burgundy";
Fr Bourgogne

bṛhát, bṛhánt- "tall, elevated";[314]
bráhman "lit. growth, expansion, development
> outpouring of the heart
> prayer, sacred word, mantra"; brahmán "worshiper";[315][316]
barháyati "to invigorate"

Av barəzah‑ "height", Harā Bərəzaitī "a mythical mountain" (litt. "High Watchpost") OCS

brěgŭ "hill, slope; bank, shore"

MIr brí, MW bre, MBre bre, Gaul -briga "elevation, hill"; Gaul Brigantes (ethnonym); Celt Brigantia (name of a goddess),[314] Ir Brigid (goddess) < PCelt *Brigantī "The High One" barjr "high" A pärk- "to elevate"; B pärkare "long" parkuš "tall"
*weh₁-, *weh₁ros
OE wǣr "true" Ger wahr
Dut waar
"true" (> very,[bq] verify, verity, etc.)
OCS věra "faith, belief"
*medʰyo- "mid, middle" mid, middle (< OE mid, middel) midjis "middle" medius "middle" més(s)os "middle" mádʰya- "middle" Av maiδya- "middle" OCS meždu "between", Russ. meža "boundary" OPrus meddin "forest" (between villages), Lith medis, Latv mežs "tree" OIr mid- "middle" < *medʰu-; MW mei- "middle" < *medʰyo- mēǰ "middle" mes, mjet "in between, middle"
*meĝ- "big" much (< OE myc̣el "big, many") mikils "big" magnus "big" mégas "big" máha-, mahā́nt- "big" Av mazant- "big" OPrus mazs "smaller", Lith mažas "small" OIr mochtae, MIr mag-, maige "big" mec "big" madh "big" A mak, B makā "much" mekkis "big"
*dlongʰos, *dl̥h₁gʰós "long";[320] long (< OE long, lang);
tulgus "holding long; firm, steadfast";
longus "long" dolikhós "long, protracted";
dīrghá- "long" OCS dlĭgŭ "long";
*gʷerH₂- "heavy" kaúrus "heavy" grāvis "heavy" barús "heavy" gurú- "heavy" Av gouru- "heavy-", NPers girān "heavy" < *grāna- (influenced by *frāna "full") OCS gromada "big size, huge", gruz "a load, something heavy", OPrus garrin "tree", Lith geras "good" MIr bair "heavy (?)", W bryw "strong" zor "brute force; great effort" A kra-marts "heavy (?)", B krā-mär "burden" < *gʷroH₂-mVr-
*H₁le(n)gʷʰ-, *H₁ln̥gʷʰ-ro-, *H₁ln̥gʷʰ-u-[br] "light (in weight)" light (< OE lēoht) leihts "light" < *H₁lengʷʰ-tos; OHG lungar "fast" < *H₁ln̥gʷʰ-ros levis "light" < *H₁legʷʰ-us elakʷʰús "small" < *H₁ln̥gʷʰ-us, elapʰrós "light, quick" < *H₁ln̥gʷʰ-ros lagʰú-, ragʰú- "quick, light, small" Av ragu-, fem. rǝvī "fast", superl. rǝnjišta- "fastest" OCS lŭgŭkŭ "light" OPrus langus "light", langsta "window", lankewingis "flexible", linktwei "to bend", Lith lengvas "light", lankstus "flexible", langas "window", lenkti "to bend" OIr laigiu, laugu, MW llei "smaller" lehtë "light-weight" B lankutse "light"
*alyos, *anyos "other"; *anteros "second" else (< OE elles); other (< OE ōþer) aljis, anþar "other" alius "other" állos "other" anyá-, ántara- "other" Av anya-, ainya-, OPers aniya- "other"; Ossetian ändär "other"; East Iranian hal-ci "whoever" Old Sorbian wutory "other" < PSlav *ǫtorŭ OPrus antars "second", Lith antras "second" OIr aile, W ail "other";
Gaul allos "other, second"[321]
ayl "other" A ālya-kə, B alye-kə "another" Lydian aλa- "other"
*néwo- "new" new (< OE nīwe) niujis "new" novus "new" né(w)os "new" náva- "new" Av nava- "new" OCS novŭ "new" OPrus nawas "new", Lith naujas "new" OIr nūë, W newydd "new" nor "new" < *nowero- A ñu, B ñune "new" newa- "new"
*H₂yuHn̥- "young" young (< OE ġeong < *H₂yuHn̥k̂ós) juggs "young" juvenis "young" yúvan- (yū́nas) "young" Av yvan-, yavan- (yūnō) "youth, young man" OCS junŭ "young" Lith Jaunas "young" OIr ōac "young", W ieuanc "young" < *H₂yuHn̥k̂ós
*sen- "old" sineigs "old (person)" senex "old" hénos "former, from a former period" sánas "old" Av hana- "old" OCS sedyi "grey-headed" OPrus sentwei "to get old", Lith senas "old" OIr sen "old", Old Welsh hen "old" hin "old"
*nogʷ- "naked" naked (< OE nacod "naked") naqaþs "naked" nudus "naked" gumnós "naked" nagnás "naked" NPers loxt "naked" OCS nagŭ "naked" OPrus nags "naked", Lith nuogas "naked" OIr nocht "naked"; W noeth "naked, bare" nekumant- "naked, bare"
*bʰosós "bare, barefoot"[322] bare (< OE bær) OCS bosŭ "barefooted, unshod"
*n̥mr̥tós "immortal"[323] ámbrotos "immortal, divine" amṛ́ta- "immortal"
*h₂eḱ- "sharp"[324] edge (< OE eċġ) aceō (acēre) "I am sour";
acidus "sour";
acētum "vinegar";
acus "needle, pin";
astus "craft, guile", astūtus "shrewd, astute"
akmé "point, edge"; oxús "sharp, pointed; quick; clever" Persian āčār "pickle, marinade" OCS ostĭnŭ "sharp point"
*bel- "strong"[325] dēbilis[bs] "feeble, weak" βελτίων "better" bála- "force, strength, power" Russ bolʹšój "big, large, great"

Light and color[edit]

PIE English Gothic Latin Ancient Greek Sanskrit Iranian Slavic Baltic Celtic Armenian Albanian Tocharian Hittite
*leuk- "light, brightness" light (< OE lēoht) liuhaþ (liuhadis) "light" lūceō (lūcēre) "to shine", lūx "light" leukós "bright, shining, white" rócate "(he) shines", roká- "light", loka- "world, place" Av raočant- "shining", raočah "light"; OPers raučah "light"; Kurdish roj "sun, light, day", ron "light" OCS luča "ray, flash" < *loukyā OPrus lauk "bright", lauksna "star", laukas "field", Lith laukas "outside, field" OIr luchair "shine"; W llachar "bright", llug "shimmer" loys "light" AB lyuk/luk- "to shine" luk(k)- "to shine"
*bʰel- "to shine"[326] balefire (< OE bǣlfȳr) ON bál "fire" fulgeō "I flash, glitter";
flagrō "I burn, blaze";
flamma "flame, fire"
phlégō "I scorch, kindle";
phlégma "flame, inflammation"; phalós "white"
bhrája- "fire, shining";
bhāla- "splendor"
OCS bělŭ "white" Lith baltas, Latv balts "fair, white"
*h₂erǵ- "shining, bright"

*h₂r̥ǵn̥tóm "white metal (silver)"[327]

argentum "silver (metal)"; Fal arcentelom "a small silver coin" Myc a-ku-ro,[328] árguros "silver"; argós "white, bright"[bt] Skt rajatá- "silver; silver-coloured"; árjuna- "white, clear, silvery"[330] Av ərəzatəm "silver" Celtib arkato[bezom] "silver [mine]"; Ir Airget[lám] "silver[-hand] (title of Nuada)"; OIr argat, OW argant "silver" arcat‘ "silver" A ārkyant "silver"; A ārki-, B ārkwi "white" ḫarkiš "white, bright"

"to shine, white"
[331] [332] [333] [334]

(< OE hwīt)


"white; bright";
"to shine";
"to become bright"

Av spaēta "white; bright";
NPers sefid "white"

OCS světŭ "light, world";
"to shine, illuminate";
"to get bright";
"bright color; bloom, flower"

Lith šviesà "light";
šviẽsti "to shine"

"black; dark, dusky"
[335] [336] [333] [337]

"black, dark, dark-blue" > Kṛṣṇa-

NPers kersne "dirt, dirty"

OCS črŭnŭ "black"

[note 83]

Lith kir̃snas "black (of a horse)";
OPrus kirsnan "black"

*H₁reudʰ-, *H₁roudʰ-os, *H₁rudʰ-rós[br] "red" red (< OE rēad < *H₁roudʰ-os) rauþs (raudis) "red" < *H₁roudʰ-os ruber "red" < *H₁rudʰ-rós; Umb rufru "red" Myc e-ru-ta-ra, e-ru-to-ro;[338] erutʰrós "red" < *H₁rudʰ-rós; Erytheia "name of a nymph" (litt. "the red one"); rudʰirá- "red" < *H₁rudʰ-rós mixed with *H₁rudʰ-i-; rṓhita- "red"; lōhá- "reddish" < *H₁roudʰ-os Av raoiδita- "red" OCS rudŭ "red"; Czech rudá "red";[bu] Pol rudy "red-haired"[340] Lith raũdonas "red", rudas "brown" OIr rúad, W rhudd "red", rhwd "rust";[341] Gaul Roud- (in personal names)[342] A rtär, B ratre "red" < *H₁rudʰ-rós
*gʰel-, ǵʰelH₃- "green, yellow"[343] gold; yellow (< OE geolu); yolk (< OE ġeoloca) gulþ "gold" helvus "honey-yellow"; gilvus "pale yellow (of horses)"[344][bv] kʰlōrós "pale green"[bw] híraņya- "gold"; hári- "yellow" Av zaranyam "gold"; zári "yellow" OCS zelenĭ "green"; Rus zóloto "gold";
Pol złoty "gold"; żółty "yellow"
Latv zèlts "gold"; Lith geltas "yellow"; žel̃vas "golden"; žalias "green" MWel gell "yellow"

"grey, dark shade"
[348] [349] [333] [350]

(< OE hīew "appearance, form; hue, color")

"form, show, appearance"

"dark; deep brown";
"dark, black, blue, brown, grey"

[note 84]

Av siiāuua "dark"

Pol siwy "grey"

Lith šývas "light grey"

*bʰer-, bʰerH-
[351] [352] [333] [353]
(See also *bʰébʰrus)

bear (animal)
(< OE bera);
(< OE brūn)

ON bjǫrn
"bear (animal)";


"deep brown, reddish brown; tawny"

Lith bė́ras "reddish brown"

Positive qualities[edit]

PIE English Gothic Latin Ancient Greek Sanskrit Iranian Slavic Baltic Celtic Armenian Albanian Tocharian Hittite
"good, excellent"
(Germanic names, e.g., Wisigoth-
"the Visigoths")
"excellent, good; beneficient; goods, property"
Av vohū "good" OCS veselŭ "merry, joyful, happy" Gaul Vesu- (in personal names: Vesuavus, Segovesus, Bellovesus) Luw wāsu- "good"; Pal wašu "well"[358]
"good, well" (when used prefixally), e.g.,
"well-bearing" (> "euphoria");
"good grace";
"bringing good news"
"good" (used prefixally), e.g.,
"good morning" (See also bhā́s);
"inquiry as to welfare, lit. good question"
OCS sŭ- "good" (used prefixally), e.g., sŭ-čęstĭnŭ "happy, lit. good part"; sŭdravĭje "health", Russ zdoróv'je;
sŭrěsti "to meet, encounter"
"being, existing, real, true"
(See also *H₁es-)
(< OE sōþ "truth");
(< OE sōþian "to prove the validity of, to confirm as true");
soothsayer (originally "truth-teller")
(< PGmc sanþaz + sagjaną "truth + say");
sin (implying "truly guilty")
(< OE synn);
OE sōþlīċe "truly, really", later "amen"
"true, truthful, correct"
"guilty, criminal" (compare sin);
"innocent"; [bx]
"dangerous, serious, critical"
"being, essence, reality" (also used in compounds, e.g., sad·guru);
"essence, existence, spirit; creature";
"true,real, genuine; sincere, honest, valid";
"good, virtuous, faithful wife" (> suttee)

Construction, fabrication[edit]

PIE English Gothic Latin Ancient Greek Sanskrit Iranian Slavic Baltic Celtic Armenian Albanian Tocharian Hittite
*h₂éyos "copper, bronze"[138] ore (< OE ār) aes "copper, bronze, brass; money, fee" áyas "metal, iron"
*dʰwer- "door, doorway, gate" door (< OE dor, duru) daúr, daúrō "door" forēs (pl.) "door" tʰurā "door" dvā́r, dvā́ras (pl.) "door" Av dvarǝm (acc.) "gate, court"; OPers duvarayā "at the gate" NPers dar "door" OCS dvĭri "door" OPrus dwarris "gate, goal",dwars "estate", Lith durys "door", dvaras "estate", vartai "gate", Latg durovys "door", vuorti "gate" OIr dorus "door" < Proto-Celtic *dworestu-, W dôr "door" < *dʰureH₂ duṙn "door" derë "door" B twere "doors" an-durza "within"
h₂(e)nh₂t- "doorpost"[365] antae "anteroom" ā́tā "doorpost"
"to build (up), put together"
(< OE timber "building material");
(< OE temian "to fit");
(< OE toft)
"to build, construct, make"
*domo-, *domu- "house", "home" timrjan "to build, erect" domus (domūs) "house" dómos "house" dámas "house" Av dąm, dąmi "in the house"; dǝmā̆na-, nmāna- "house" < *dm-ā̆na- OCS domŭ "house" OPrus dimstis "porch",

Lith dimstis "entryway"

MIr dom-liacc "house of stones" tun "house" dhomë "room" ?A tem-, B tam- "be born"
*gʰerdʰ-, *gʰordʰ-os- "enclosure, fence" yard (< OE ġeard "enclosure"); garden (< AngNor gardin < Frank *gardo) gards "yard, court"; ON garðr "fence, enclosed space" hortus "garden" kʰórtos "feeding place for animals" gṛhá "house" Av gərəδa "daeva cave" OCS gradŭ "fortification; city" Latv gãrds; Lith gar̃das "fold, pen" OIr gort "standing crop", W garth "cliff; enclosure" OArm gerdastan "the body of servants and captives; estate" (either a borrowing from Iranian or inherited) gardh "fence, enclosure, barricade"
*kʷekʷlo- "wheel"
(See also *kʷel-)
wheel (< OE hwēol, hweogol < PGerm *hweg(w)ulaz < *kʷekʷlós) ON hjōl, hvēl "wheel" < PGerm *hweh(w)ulaz < *kʷékʷlos kúklos "circle", (pl.) "wheels" cakrá- "wheel" Av čaxra- "wheel" OCS kolo "wheel" OPrus kellin "wheel", Lith kaklas "neck" W cylch "circle" A kukäl, B kokale "wagon" kugullas "donut"[369]
*Hrót-h₂-os "wheel", "wagon" OHG Rad "wheel" rota "wheel", "wagon" rátha "chariot, car" Av raθa "wagon", "chariot" Lith rãtai "wagon" (pl.), rãtas "wheel" (sg.) OIr roth "wheel", "circle" rreth "ring, hoop, tyre (for carriages)" (< *Hróth₂ikos)
*néh₂us "vessel, boat" OE nōwend "shipmaster, sailor" ON naust "boathouse"; OIc nōr "ship" nāvis "ship" naûs "ship";

Myc na-u-do-mo "shipbuilders"[370]

naú, nāva "ship" Pers nâv "boat, ship" (archaic) OIr , nau "boat" OArm naw "ship, boat"
*h₂wĺ̥h₁neh₂ "wool" wool (< OE wull) wulla "wool" lāna "wool" lênos "wool, fleece (pl.)", Dor lânos ū́rṇā "wool, woolen thread" Av varənā "wool" OCS vlĭna "wool", OESlav vŭlna "wool" Latv vil̃na, Lith vìlna "wool", OPrus wilna "skirt (made of wool)" OIr olann, MBret gloan, glan, OW gulan "wool" OArm gełmn "fleece, wool" ḫulanaš "wool"
*s(y)uH- "to sew" sew (< OE sēowan) siujan "to sew" suō (suere) "to sew"; sūtūra "thread, suture"[371] humḗn "sinew" sī́vyati "(he) sews", syūtá- "sewn"; sū́tra- "thread, string"[372] OCS šijǫ (šiti) "to sew" OPrus šutun "to sew", Lith siūti "to sew", Latg šyut "to sew" sum(m)anza(n), šuel (?), šuil (?) "thread"
*teks- "to fashion, construct" OE þeox "spear" OHG dehsa, dehsala "hatchet" texō (texere) "to weave" téktōn "carpenter", tíktō "I give birth" takṣati, tā́ṣṭi "(he) fashions" Av tašaiti "(he) cuts out, manufactures"; OPers us-tašanā "stairway" < "*construction"; MPers tāšīδan "to do carpentry" OCS tešǫ (tesati) "to hew", OPrus tesatun "to hew", Lith tašyti "to hew" OIr tāl "axe" < *tōkslo- takkeszi "puts together"
*webʰ- "to weave" weave (< OE wefan), web (<P.Gmc. *wabjan) OHG weban "to weave"; ON vefa hupʰaínō "I weave" ubʰnā́ti "ties together"; ūṛna-vābhi- "spider" (litt. "wool-weaver") Av ubdaēna- "made of cloth"; NPers bāfad "(he) weaves" viti "weave" Lith vyti "to twist" W gwau "knit, weave" venj "I weave" < *webʰnyō A wpantär (them. pres.),[373][374]

B wāp- "to weave"

wēpta- "wove"[375]
*werĝ- "to work" work (< OE weorc, wyrc̣an) waúrkjan "to work" urgeō (urgēre) "to push, drive" (w)érgon "work", érdō, hrézdō "I work" < *wérĝ-yoH₂, *wréĝ-yoH₂ varcas "activity" (? not in Pokorny) Av varəza- "work, activity", vərəzyeiti "(he) works"; NPers varz, barz "field work, husbandry" vrǔšiti "to act, to do" OPrus wargs "bad, evil, malicious, vicious", wargtwei "to torment oneself, to suffer", Lith vargas "the state of going through bad/unlucky events" MW gwreith "deed" < *wreĝ-tu- gorc "work " rregj "to clean" A wärk-, B wārk- "to shear"
*wes- "to clothe, wear clothes" wear (< OE werian) wasjan "to clothe" vestis "clothing" héstai "gets dressed" váste "(he) gets dressed" Av vaste, vaŋhaiti "(he) gets dressed" veshch "thing, cloth", veshchi "cloth items" Serbian veš "underwear" OPrus westi "corset", wesseli "wedding", Lith vestuvės "wedding", vesti "to lead" W gwisg "clothing" z-genum "I put on (clothes)" < *wes-nu- vesh "dress"
veshje "clothing"
B wastsi, wästsi "clothing" wassezzi "(he) clothes"

Self-motion, rest[edit]

PIE English Gothic Latin Ancient Greek Sanskrit Iranian Slavic Baltic Celtic Armenian Albanian Tocharian Hittite
*H₁es- "to be", *H₁es-ti "is", *H₁és-mi "am"
Cf. Indo-European copula
(See also *h₁sónts)
is (< OE is), am ist "is" sum (esse) "I am (to be)"; est "it is" estí "is,"; Dorian Greek entí "(they) are" <- *H₁s-enti ásti "is"; ásmi "am" Av asti "is"; Persian hast "is" OCS jestŭ "is" OPrus ast "is", ēst "almost", Lith esti "is" OIr is "is"; Old Welsh hint "(they) are" <- *H₁s-enti em "I am" është "is" B ste "is" ēszi "is"
*bʰuH₂- "to become"
Cf. Indo-European copula
be (< OE bēon); OE būan "to dwell" bauan "to dwell" fuī "I was" pʰúomai "I become", épʰū "became" bʰávati "become, is", ábʰūt "became, was" Av bavaiti, OPers bavatiy "(he) becomes" OCS byti "to become, be" OPrus butwei "to be", Lith būti "to be" Gaul biiete "be! (imperative)";[376][by]
OIr buith "being", W bod "to be"
busanim "sprout up" buj, bûj "I dwell, stay overnight" < *bunjō
*sed-, *si-zd- "to sit" sit (< OE sittan < *sed-yo-nom) sitan "to sit" sedeō (sedēre) "to sit", sīdō "I sit down" < *si-zd-oH₂ hézdomai "I sit" < *sed-yo-, hizdō "I set" < *si-zd-oH₂ sátsi "(he) sits", aor. ásadat "sat"; sī́dati "(he) sits" < *si-zd-eti; Upaniṣad lit. "sit-down-beside" < upa: 'by, beside', ni: 'down', sad: 'sit' Av ni-šaŋhasti "(he) sits down", opt. hazdyā-t "(he) should sit", hiδaiti "(he) sits" < *si-zd-eti; OPers caus. niya-šād-ayam "I set" OCS sěždǫ (sěděti) "to sit" OPrus sistwei "to sit down", Lith sedėti "to be sitting", sėstis "to sit down" OIr sa(i)did "sits"; Br hezañ "to stop" nstim "I sit" (< *ni-zdyō), hecanim (< *sed-s-an-yō) "I sit on, I ride" shëtis "to walk"
*legʰ- "to lie down" lie (< OE lic̣gan) ligan "to lie down" lectus "bed" lékʰomai "I lie down" leṭyati "(he) lies down" NPers ley "lie down" OCS ležǫ (ležati) "to lie down" OPrus laztwei "to lie down" OIr laigid "lies down" lagje "city quarter" A läk- "to lie", B lyśalyñe "(act of) lying down" lagari "(he) lies down"
"to lie down; settle, bed, cozy, familiar"
home (< OE hām "village, home" < *k̂oi-mos);
hewe "domestic, servant"
(< OE hīwa "family member")
háims (háimáis) "village, town" < *k̂oi-mis;
cīvis "city dweller, citizen" < *k̂ei-wis
[note 85];
"cradle; nest";
(Roman goddess who protects infants in the cradle)
"I put in motion; act, move, stir; rouse" ⇒
[note 86]
"I lie (idle, sick, dead, etc.)";
"I go" (Homeric);
"I move, set in motion, remove; inflect (grammar); meddle; stir on" (> kinetic, cinema, etc.);
"bed, place of rest; lair; lodging";
"I put to bed, cause to rest"
śētē (older śáyē) "(he) lies", śērē "they lie";
"dear, precious";
"favorable, happy, fortunate; auspicious" (later applied to the god Rudra, first as Śiva-rudra, then simply Śiva; also spelled Shiva)
Av saēte "(he) lies", sōire "they lie" OCS sěmija "family";
sěmĭ "household member"
OPrus seimi "family", kaims "village", Lith šeima "family", kaimas "village";
sieva "wife"
OIr cóim, cóem, OW cum "dear" sirem "I love" < *k̂eiro- kitta, kittari "lies"; Luwian ziyari "lies"
"to settle, live; cultivate"
"I let, permit, allow; set down";
"permitted, allowed; laid, set down; placed" ⇒
[note 87];
"I leave off, cease, desist" (> desinence);
pōnō < po + sinō
"I place, put, lay; set up" ⇒
[note 88]
"I found, build, establish; populate; produce";
"well-built, nice place";
"a founding, settling; creature";
"tame, docile, obidient";
"colony, foundation"
"(s/he) abides, stays, dwells; remains";
"abode, habitation, dwelling; the earth"
*steH₂- "to stand (i.e. be standing)" stand (< OE standan) standan "to stand"; OHG stān, stēn "to stand" stō (stāre) "to stand", sistō (sistere) "to cause to stand" Doric hístāmi "I stand" sthā- / tíṣṭhati "(he) stands" Av hištaiti "(he) stands"; OPers impf. a-ištata "(he) stood" OCS stajǫ (stati) "to stand up" OPrus stalitwei "to stand", Lith stovėti "to stand" OIr tair-(ṡ)issiur "I stand"; W sefyll "to stand" stanam "I build; gain" mbështet, pshtet "I support" B stäm- "to stand", ste "is", "stare" "(they) are" istanta- "to stay, delay"
*H₁ei- "to go" yede (< OE ēode "went") iddja "went" eō (īre) "to go" eĩmi "I (will) go" éti "(he) goes", yánti "(they) go" Av aēiti "(he) goes", yeinti "(they) go"; OPers aitiy "goes" OCS jiditi "to move away, to arrive", jidene "coming" OPrus eitwei "to go", Lith eiti "to walk" W wyf "I am"; OIr ethaid "goes" < *it-āt- iǰanem (aorist ēǰ) "I climb down" < *i-gh- iki "to leave; flee" *H₁(e)i-K- A "he went", B yatsi "to go" < *yā- īt "go!"
*gʷem- "to come"[387] come (< OE cuman) qiman "to come"; OSax cuman [an liudi] "to come (to people) [to be born]" veniō (venīre) "to come"[bz] baínō "I go" gámati "(he) goes", aor. ágan, gan "(he) went" Av ǰamaiti "goes"; OAv inj. uz-ǰǝ̄n "(he) goes", pl. gǝmǝn "they go" OPrus gimtwei "to be born", Lith gimti "to be born", Latv dzimt "to bear (a son)" ekn (< *h₁e-gʷem-t) "(he) came" A käm-, kum-, B käm-, kam-, śem "to come" Luw zammantis "newborn child" (?)
"to move swiftly, to move upright, to rise (as if to fight)"[388][389]
iubeō "I authorize, legitimate; bid, command, order";
iussus "order, command, decree, ordinance"
euthús "straight, direct";
eîthar "at once, immediately, forthwith";
husmī́nē "battle, conflict, combat"
"to fight, battle; wage war";
"to engage in battle; to overcome in war, to be a match for; to lead to war, to cause to fight";
"battle, fight, war";
"fighter, warrior, soldier";
"hero, warrior"
OCS oiminŭ "warrior";
Pol judzić "to incite, instigate"
"to spread out; fly (spread wings)"
(See also *péth₂r̥)
(< OE fæþm)
"I ask, beg, request; aim; attack, thrust at";
"I am open; accessible, attainable; increase, extend" (> patent);
"I spread, open out, extend; unfold, expand" (> expand);
passus < *pat-s-tus
"spread out; step, pace" (> pass);
"attack, assault; rapid motion";
"impudent, wanton; petulant" > petulant;
"broad flat dish, saucer";
"favorable, well-disposed" (> propitious)
"I fly; rush, dart; make haste";
"I fall, throw self down";
"I spread out, open";
"fall; misfortune, calamity; ruin" (>
"falling; (grammar) case, inflection";
"capable of inflexion";
pétalon "leaf (plant, flower or tree)" >
"(s/he) flies; descends, falls";
"(s/he) causes to fly, throws; causes to fall; pours, spills"
"to walk, step; stumble, fall"
(See also *pōds)
(< OE feter);
OE fæt "step; stride; pace, gait
"I hinder, impede, obstruct" (>
"I unfetter; remove impediments; prepare" (> expedite);
pecco < *ped-co
"I sin, transgress; offend" ⇒
[note 89];
"fetter, shackle; snare";
pessum < *ped·tum
"to the lowest part; to the bottom; in ruin";
"worst, lowest" (>
"worse" (>
"town" (step > ground > town)
"ground, earth";
"open country, plain, field; female genitals";
"oar blade, oar";
"steering paddle";
pezós < *peďďós
"on foot, walking; on land, infantry";
"base" ⇒
[note 90]
"(s/he) moves, goes; falls";
"(s/he) causes to fall, drops";
"step, stride, pace; footstep, vestige; plot of ground; a fourth"
padati, pasti
"to fall";
"on foot, pedestrian";
"fall; downfall, disaster";
"ground, floor"
*sekʷ- "to follow" OE sec̣g "follower, companion, man" ON seggr "hero" sequor (sequī) "to follow" ⇒
[note 91]
hépomai "I follow" sácate "(he) follows" Av hačaitē, hačaiti "(he) follows" šagati "to walk, stride, step";
Russ šag "step"
OPrus sektwei "to shallow [To breathe lightly]", Lith sekti "to follow" OIr sechithir "follows"
"to go, climb, march"
(< OE stǣġer);
(< OE stīgan);
(< OE stiġel, stigol)
Ger steigen "to ascend, climb, rise" vestīgō
"I follow a track, search" (>
"footprint, track; trace, mark; sole of foot" (> "vestige")
"a row (of soldiers); a line of poetry" > Russ stix "verse, a line of poetry; poem (plu)";
"row, course, file";
"one of a row, one of a series; element" > stoichio- (> stoichiometry, etc.);
"pillar of brick; target"
"(s/he) steps, steps up, mounts"
OCS stignǫti "to attain; reach";
"to turn, rotate"
(< OE -weard "facing, turned toward");
worth (obsolete meaning "to become", compare German werden)
(< OE weorþ);
(< OE wyrd, wurd "fate, destiny");
OE weorþung "an evaluation, appreciation"
Ger werden
"to become, to get; to turn; to be, happen";
"sausage, wurst" (< PGmc "something twisted")
"I turn, revolve; turn around, reverse, retreat" ⇒
[note 92];
vertex, vortex "whirlpool";
vertīgō "giddiness";
prōsus, prorsus < proversus
"forwards, towards" > prose;[ca]
re- < PIE *wret-, metathesis of *wert-
"re-" (> re- (again, repetition, etc.))
"(it) turns, rotates; moves, advances; occurs";
"a turning; conduct, behavior, intercourse";
"(it) turns" (transitive, causative);
"track; way, course, path"
OCS vrĭtěti "to turn";
"to return";
"gate, door";
"turn, rotor, wheel";
vrěmę < *vertmen "hour; time" (Compare Skt vártman)
*bʰegʷ- "to run, flee"[402] phobéō "I put to flight, terrify, alarm; threaten"; phóbos "fear, terror; fright, panic; flight, retreat" bhājáyati "(s/he) causes to flee" Kurdish bazdan "to run, to escape" OCS běgati, běžati "to flee, run, escape";
*bʰewg- "to flee"[403] fugiō "I flee"; fuga "flight, escape" pheúgō "I flee"; phugḗ "flight, escape"

Object motion[edit]

PIE English Gothic Latin Ancient Greek Sanskrit Iranian Slavic Baltic Celtic Armenian Albanian Tocharian Hittite
*bʰer- "to carry" bear (< OE beran);
burden, burthen (< OE byrþen)
baíran "to carry" ferō (ferre) "to carry"; lucifer "light-bearing, light-bringing" pʰerō "I carry"; khristóphoros "Christ-bearing" bʰarati "(he) carries" Av baraiti "(he) carries"; OPers barantiy "they carry" NPers bordan "to carry" Kurdish birin "to carry, to take" OCS berǫ (bĭrati) "to carry" Lith berti "to pour non liquid" OIr biru "I carry"; W beru "to flow" berem "I carry" bie "I carry"; barrë "load, burden"
*weĝʰ- "to convey" weigh (< OE wegan "carry"); way (< OE weġ); wain "wagon" (< OE wæġn)[cb] ga-wigan "to move, shake" vehō (vehere) "to convey" Pamphylian wekʰétō "he should bring"; Cypriot éwekse "brought there" váhati "(he) drives"; vahana- (< vah) "divine mount or vehicle of Hindu deities" (lit. "a carrying") Av vazaiti "(he) leads, carries" OCS vezǫ (vesti) "to drive" OPrus weztun "to ride", Lith vežti "to drive" OIr fēn, W gwain (type of wagon) < *weĝʰ-no-; W arwain "to lead" vjedh "I steal" Hier Luw wa-zi/a- "drive"
*yew-, *yewg-
"to join, yoke, tie together"
(See also yugóm)
ON eykr
draft animal;
ON eyki
vehicle, cart
"I yoke, join" ⇒
[note 93];
"nearly; near, close to";
coniunx, coniux
"spouse, partner (husband or wife)"
"I yoke, saddle; join, link together";
"band, bond, that which is used for joining; bridge of boats";
"pair, two things, persons or animals seen as a pair"
"(s/he) yokes, harnesses, joins";
"yoking, act of joining; yoke, team, vehicle; employment, use, performance; remedy, cure; means, device, way, manner, method; trick, fraud; undertaking; connection, relation; fitness, suitability; application, concentration, union, yoga";[406]
"fastening or tying instrument; rope, thong, halter";
"pair, couple; Gemini (zodiac sign); junction, confluence";
"union, alliance";
"a vehicle, chariot; draft animal";
yuj (root noun)
"a yoke-fellow, companion, associate; pair, couple; the Aśvins"
*H₂eĝ- "to lead, drive" ON aka "to drive" agō (agere) "to drive, do" ágō "I lead" ájati "(he) drives" Av azaiti "(he) drives" Kurdish ajotin "to drive" ehati "to drive" OIr ad-aig "compels"; OW agit, hegit "goes" acem "I lead" A ak-, B āk- "go, lead"
*h₂eḱs- "axis, axle" < *H₂eĝ-[138][407] OE eax axis "axle" ákṣa- "axle" Russian osь "axis, axle"
*dʰeH₁-, dʰH̥₁- "to place, put" do (< OE dōn) deds "deed" faciō (facere) "to do" < *dʰH̥₁-k-yoH₂; con-ditus "built" (orig. "put together"), ab-ditus "removed" (orig. "put away") < Proto-Italic *-θatos < *dʰH̥₁-tos títʰēmi "I put" < *dʰí-dʰeH₁-mi dádʰāti "(he) puts" < *dʰé-dʰeH₁-ti Av daδāiti "(he) puts"; OPers impf. adadā "(he) established" OCS děti "to lay" OPrus ditun "to put", Lith dėti "to put" Gaulish dede "he put (pt.)"; W dodi "to place, to put";OIr -tarti "he gives" < Proto-Celtic *to-ro-ad-dīt < *-dʰeH₁-t dnel "to put"; ed "he put (past)" dhatë "place, location" < *dʰH̥₁-teH₂ A tā-, täs-, tas-, B tes- "to lay" < *dʰeH₁-s- dāi "puts"
"to put, place, locate; be set, firm"
(< OE steall);
stell (non-standard) "to place, set up"
(< OE stellan)
Ger stellen
"to put, place, position"
locus < *stlocus
"place, spot, location" ⇒
[note 94];
stultus, stolidus
"foolish, stupid";
"shoot, branch" >
stolon (botany);
stolus < AG stólos
"navigation; fleet equipment"
"I send; make ready, prepare; summon";
"expedition; army, fleet";
"one sent forth; messenger, envoy" >
epistolḗ < epistéllō
"message, letter; commission; will" ⇒
[note 95];
"block of stone, buttress; boundary post" >
stele, stela
"place, ground, location"
OCS stĭlati "to spread"
*deH₃-, dʰH̥₃- "to give" dō (dare) "to give";
dator "giver, donor";
dōnum "gift"
dídōmi "I give" dádāti "(he) gives";
dātṛ "giver, donor";
dānam "gift, giving"
Av dadāiti "(he) gives"; OPers impv. dadātuv "let him give" NPers dãdan "to give" OCS damĭ "I will give" OPrus datun "to give", Lith duoti "to give" OIr dān, W dawn "gift" tam "I give" dhashë "I gave" < *dH̥₃-sm̥ dāi "takes"
*kap- "to grab"[411][412] have (< OE habban), heave (< OE hebban);
haban "to have", hafjan "to lift" capiō (capere) "to take" káptō "I snatch, swallow";
"cup" > Lat caucus
kapaṭī "two handfuls" NPers časpīdan, čapsīdan, cafsīdan "to grasp, seize" Ukrainian khapaty "to grab" OPrus kaps "grave", Lith kapas "grave", kapt "expression to indicate grabbing. OIr cacht "female slave", W caeth "slave, captive" < *kap-tos "taken" kap "I grasp, grab", kam "I have"
*gʰabʰ- "to seize, take" give (< OE ġiefan) giban "to give" habeō (habēre) "to have" gábʰastis "forearm, hand" OPers grab "to seize"; Kurdish girtin "to take, to seize Russ. xvatátʹ "to snatch, suffice" OPrus gabtun "to catch", Lith gauti " to get" OIr gaibid "takes"; W gafael "to take hold, to grip"
*gʷʰen- "to strike, kill" bane (< OE bana "murderer") banja "blow, wound, ulcer" dē-fendō (dēfendere) "to ward off, defend", of-fendō (offendere) "to bump, offend" tʰeínō "I kill" < *gʷʰen-yoH₂, épepʰnon "I killed" < redup. + *gʷʰn-om hánti "(he) strikes, kills" < *gʷʰen-ti, gʰnánti "they strike, kill"; vṛtra·han "Vṛtra-killer, a name of Indra" Av ǰainti "(he) strikes, kills", ni-γne (mid.) "I strike down"; OPers impf. ajanam "I struck down" OCS ženǫ (gŭnati) "drive (animals to pasture)", žĭnjǫ (žęti) "reap" OPrus gintun "to defend", Lith ginti " to defend", ganyti "to drive animals to pasture" OIr gonim "I wound, kill"; W gwanu "to stab" ǰnem "I strike" < *gʷʰen-oH₂, ǰnǰem "I destroy" < *gʷʰen-yoH₂ gjanj "I hunt" < *gʷʰen-yoH₂ B käsk- "to scatter to destruction" < *gʷʰn̥-sk- kuēnzi "kills" < *gʷʰen-ti
*bʰeyd- "to split, cleave"[413] bit (< OE bite);bite (< OE bitan); bait (< ON beita) 'findō "I split";
fissus < fid·tus "split";
fissiō "splitting, fission"
bhid-, bhinátti "(s/he) splits, breaks";
bhedati "(s/he) splits"; bhinná < bhid·ná "split, cloven"
*der- "to tear, crack; split, separate"[414] tear (< OE teran);
turd (< OE tord)
*taurþs "destruction, a teardown" dérō "to skin, flay";
dérma "skin, hide"
dṛṇā́ti "(s/he) tears, rends, rips; splits open, bursts" OCS dĭrati "to tear, flay"
*bʰreg- "to break"[415] break (< OE brecan);
breech, breeches (< OE brēċ)
frango "I break, shatter";
frāctus "broken";
fragilis "breakable"
"to cut off, sever"[416][417][cc]
saw (tool) (< OE sagu);
sax "slate hammer" (< OE seax);
seax (directly borrowed from OE seax);
zax (< OE seax)
secō, sectum "I cut, cut off; cleave; castrate; wound; hurt" ⇒
[note 96];
segmen, segmentum "piece; a cutting, cut; slice; segment";
signum "sign, mark, signal; seal, signet; emblem, etc";
sexus "division; sex; gender";
saxum "stone, rock"
> Saxon
OCS sěšti "to cut, to mow"
Pol siekać "to cut"
"to cut"[418][419]
(See also: *sek-)
(< OE scieran);
(< OE sċearu);
shard, sherd
(< OE sċeard );
(< OE sċrēad);
(< ON skrapa);
(< ON skrapa);
(< OE sċort);
< PGmc *skirmiz
"fur, hide"
> Yid shirem "umbrella";
Italian schermo "screen";
Russ šírma
"screen, shield";
(< OE sċyrte);
(< ON skyrta);
(< PGmc *skardaz
"gap, cut");
(< OE scoru)
"short; broken";
"skin, hide, leather";
carō, carnis "flesh, meat, pulp" ⇒
[note 97];
"dinner, supper ('portion')";
cortex "bark of a tree, cork"
> cork;
"a skin, hide; harlot";
scrautum "a quiver made of hide";
scrūta "rubbish, broken trash" > Lat scrūtor
"I search, examine thoroughly" ⇒
[note 98];
"a rough sharp stone; anxiety, uneasiness";
"a small sharp or pointed stone; anxiety, uneasiness, doubt" ⇒
[note 99]
keírō "I shear, shave, cut hair; ravage; destroy; cut short, lessen";
kormós "trunk of a tree; log of timber";
kérma "fragment; coin; cash"
kartati, kṛṇátti, kṛntáte "(s/he) cuts";
"skin; hide, pelt";
kṛtí "knife, dagger"
OCS skora "bast, skin";
kora "bark";
OCS xrabrŭ "brave"
"to split, dissect, divide"[420][421]
(See also: *sek-, *(s)ker-)
(< OE sċēadan);
sheath, sheathe
(< OE sċēaþ);
"a piece of wood, firewood" (< OE sċīd);
shite, shit
(< OE sċītan)
sciō "I can, know, understand, have knowledge" > science;
scindō, scissus "I cut, tear, rend; tear off; destroy"
skhízō "I split, cleave" > schizophrenia;
skhísma "split, divided; division" > schism;
skhísis "cleaving, parting, division; vulva"
chítti "split, division";
√chid-, chinatti "(s/he) splits, cuts off, divides"[422]
OCS cěditi "to strain, filter";
čistiti "to clean, purify";
štedrŭ "generous";
štitŭ "shield"
*h₃er- "to move, to stir; to rise, spring; quarrel, fight"[423][424] orior "I rise, get up";
oriēns "rising" > orient;
origo "act, event or process of coming into existence; source" > origin
órnūmi "I set upon, awaken, raise, excite, stir up";
oûros "fair wind";
éris "strife, quarrel; rivalry"
ṛṇoti "to attack, rise";
ṛtí "quarrel, strife; attack"
OCS ratĭ "war, battle"
*h₃reyH- "to move, set in motion; flow, stream (of water); pour, rain; churn"[423][424] ride (< OE rīdan);
raid (< OE rād);
run (< OE iernan);
-rith "small stream (found in surnames and placenames)"(< OE rīþ)
rīvus "stream" > rival (lit. "using the same stream as another"), derive;
irrīto "to irritate"
riṇā́ti "to make flow, release";
rītí "motion, course; current; custom, rite";
rétas "flow, gush, current, stream; seed, sperm"
OCS rinǫti "to push, shove" Gau rēda "chariot";
Gau rēnos "river, waterway" > Lat Rhēnus > Rhine
"to let go, send, release"
(< OE āsolcen < āseolcan "to be slow; weak, slothful")
"(it) lets go, discharges, emits";
"causes to let loose, creates";
"let go, discharged, abandoned";
"letting go, emission; production, procreation; creation, creation of the world";
"pouring, rush";
"arrow, spear"
*kʷel-, kʷelh₁-
"to turn"
(See also *kʷekʷlo-)
halse "neck, throat"
(< OE heals)
"I till, cultivate (land); inhabit";
"tilled, cultivated" ⇒
[note 100];
"farmer; colonist, inhabitant";
"inhabitant; tiller, cultivator; worshipper";
"colony, settlement; possession" ⇒
[note 101];
"distaff; spun thread";
"neck , throat (one that turns)" ⇒
[note 102];
"sojourner, tenant, lodger"[cd]
"in motion, go; become";
"pivot, hinge; axis, pole star" > pole;
"back, backwards; again, once more" ⇒
[note 103];
"completion, maturity; fulfilment; result, product" > teleology, etc.;
"excellent perfection";
"bring about, complete, fulfill; perform, accomplish";
"far off, far away" ⇒
[note 104];
"long ago";
"old, aged; ancient" > paleolithic, etc.
"it moves, walks, stirs; travels";
caraṇa-, calana-
"motion; action; behavior, conduct"
OCS kologŭ "Yule (lit. turn)";
"circulation, whirlpool; wheel and axle";
Bul kolovóz
"rut, wheel track";
"a type of (round) bread"
*welH-, *wel-
"to turn, to wind, roll"
(< OE wielwan);
well (up) (gush)
(< OE wellan, willan);
well (water source, where the water 'wells up')
(< OE wielle);
wall (to boil, spring)
(< OE weallan);
wall (rampart)
(< Lat vallum "wall, rampart");
(< OE wealcan);
(< OE walu "ridge, bank")
"to roll";
Ger Walz (< walzen "to dance")
"the waltz";
"I roll, tumble" ⇒
[note 105]
"roll, scroll, book; turn; fold" > volume;
"valley; hollow" ⇒
[note 106];
"wall, rampart";
"space between walls" > interval;
"a worm, caterpillar";
"knock-kneed, unstraight";
"folding door" > valve;
"I wrap, enfold; crawl";
"anything twisted" ⇒
[note 107];
"round, smooth stone; cylindrical bow, dial"
valati, valate
"(it) turns, turns to; moves to; covers";
"cover, envelope; womb, vulva";
OCS vlĭna "wave";
"undulation, swell; turmoil, agitation";
Russ valítʹ
"to knock down, kill; cut, fell";
"roller, billow; rampart; shaft"
Lith vilnìs "wave"
*weyp- or *weyb-
"to shake, tremble, agitate; sway, swing; turn, wind"
(< OE wīpian);
(< OE wippen);
weave ("to wander")
(< ON veifa "wave, flag");
OE wifer "arrow, missile; sword";
(< OE swifan + el);
waive < waif ("ownerless, homeless")
(< ON veif);[ce]
(< OF wimpil "head scarf");
(< AF wimble "drill")>
"to wind around, wrap";
"to bind, muzzle"
"I shake, agitate; tremble; glimmer" > veer, vibrate, etc.
vip-, vépate
"it trembles, shakes, shivers, vibrates, quivers";
"excited, stirred; inspired"
Lith viẽpti "to make a face, gape";
"to grimace, bend";
"to swing, turn around"
*leikʷ-, *li-ne-kʷ- "to leave behind" OE lēon "to lend" leiƕan "to lend" linquō (linquere) "to leave behind" leípō, limpánō "I leave behind" riṇákti "(he) leaves behind", 3rd. pl. riñcanti "they leave behind" Av -irinaxti "(he) frees"; NPers rēxtan "to pour out" OBulg otŭ-lěkŭ "something left over", lišiti "to rob" < *leikʷ-s-, Ukr lyshyty "to leave behind"[442] OPrus palaistun "to leave behind", Lith likti "to stay" OIr lēicid "(he) leaves behind, releases" lkʿanem "I leave behind" Alb Lej leave
"to dig, till (soil)";
"to dig, to root"[443][444]
(See also *Hrew-, *Hrewp-)
rock (as in 'to move, sway') (< OE roccian);
rag (< ON rǫggr)
runcō "I weed, clear of weeds, weed out";
ruō "I dig out";
rutrum "shovel"
luñcati "(s/he) plucks, pulls out, tears off; peels" OCS ryti "to dig";
OCS rylo "spade, snouts"
"to break, tear up"[443][444]
(See also *Hrew-, *Hrewk-)
reave, reeve, reve, bereave (< OE (be)rēofan) rumpō "I break, burst, tear, rend; split" > rout, ruption, abrupt, etc. rópa- "disturbing, confusing; fissure";
lopa- "breaking, injury, destruction"
*h₁reh₁- "to row"[138][445] rudder (< OE rōþor) rēmus "oar" erétēs "(in the plural) oars" áritra- "propelling, driving"


PIE English Gothic Latin Ancient Greek Sanskrit Iranian Slavic Baltic Celtic Armenian Albanian Tocharian Hittite

[446] [447] [448] [449]

Scot noo
(< OE )


num, nunc (num + -ce)
"lately, recently"

nûn, nun, nu

"now, so now, now then; at once";
"current, present"

OCS nyně "now";


Lith nū, nù "now";
"now, today";
"now, today, nowadays"


"now, and"
*dʰĝʰyés "yesterday" yesterday (< OE ġeostra) gistra- "tomorrow (?)" heri "yesterday" kʰtʰés "yesterday" hyás "yesterday" < *gʰyés Av zyō, Old Persian diya(ka) "yesterday" OIr in-dē, W ddoe "yesterday" dje "yesterday"
*nokʷts (nekʷts) "night" night (< OE neaht, niht < *nokʷtis) nahts (nahts) "night" < *nokʷts nox (noctis) "night" núks (núktos) "night" nák (instr. pl. náktīs) "night" Proto-Iranian *náxts, Kurdish nixte "rainy, cloudy (lack of sunlight)" OCS noštĭ "night" OPrus nakts "night", Lith naktis "night" OIr i-nnocht, OW henoid "on this night" natë "night" A n[a]ktim "nightly", B nekciye "in the evening" nekuz (gen. sg.) "of evening", nekuzzi "it becomes dark"
*wek(ʷ)speros "evening" vesper "evening" hésperos "of the evening; western"[cf] OCS večerŭ "evening"; Rus Zorya Vechernyaya "deity of the evening star" Latv vakars, Lith vãkaras "evening"; Vakarine "goddess of the evening star" OIr ucher "evening" OArm gišer "night; darkness"
*H₂eusōs "dawn", *H₂eus-tero- "east", *H₂euso- "gold" eastern (< OE ēasterne) ON austr "east" aurōra "dawn" (< *ausōsa, by rhot), aurum "gold" Doric āṓs "dawn"; Aeolic aúōs, ā́wōs "dawn" uṣās (uṣásas), acc. uṣā́sam "dawn" Av ušā̊ (ušaŋhō), acc. ušā̊ŋhǝm "dawn" OCS (j)utro "morning" OPrus austra "dawn", auss "gold"; Lith aušra "dawn", auksas "gold"; Latv ausma, ausmina "dawn" OIr fāir "sunrise", W gwawr "dawn" < *wōsri- ?os-ki "gold" ?A wäs "gold"
"to arise, begin"
(< OE beginnan)
"to begin"
"new, fresh, young" > recent
"new, recent; fresh, unused; unusual" > Cenozoic
kanyā̀, kaníyā
"maiden, virgin; daughter";
"young, youthful"
OCS načęti "to begin";
"beginning, end";
"young animal"
*ĝʰyem-, ĝʰeim- "winter" ON gói "winter month" hiems "winter" kʰeĩma "winter" híma- "winter", hemantá- "in winter" Av zyā̊ (acc. zyąm, gen. zimō) "winter" OCS zima "winter" OPrus zeima "winter", Lith žiema "winter" Gaul Giamonios "winter month";[cg][454][455]

OIr gam "winter", gem-adaig "winter night"; OW gaem "winter"

jmeṙ "winter", jiwn "snow" Gheg dimën, Tosk dimër(ë) "winter" ? A śärme "winter"; ? B śimpriye "winter".[ch] gimmanza "winter", gimi "in winter"
*semh₂- "summer" summer (< Old English sumor) OHG sumar, OIc sumar "summer" sámā "season; year" Av ham- "summer"; Pers hâmin "summer"; Khot-Saka hamāñarva "summer season" Gaul Samon(ios) "summer month";

OIr sam "summer"; OW ham, OBret ham "summer"

OArm am "year", amaṙn "summer" A şme "summer"; B ṣmāye "summer" (adj.), ywārś-ṣmañe "midsummer"[458]
*wés-r̥, wes-n-és "spring" ON vár "spring" vēr "spring" (w)éar "spring" vasan-tá- "spring" Av vaŋri "in spring"; OPers ϑūra-vāhara- OCS vesna "spring" OPrus wassara "spring", Lith vasara "summer", pavasaris "spring", vėsu "cool" OIr errach "spring"< *ferrach < *wesr-āko-; OW guiannuin "in spring" < *wes-n̥t-eino- garun "spring"< *wesr-
*wet- "year", *per-ut- "last year" wether "castrated male sheep" (< OE weþer), OHG widar "male sheep", MHG vert "last year" <- *per-ut-, ON fjorð "last year" <- *per-ut- vetus (veteris) "old" (perīre) "to die" (w)étos "year", pérusi "last year" vatsá-, vatsará- "year", par-út "last year" Sogdian wtšnyy (read wat(u)šanē) "old" OCS vetŭchŭ "old" OLith vẽtušas "old" MIr feis, Cornish guis "sow" < *wet-si- heru "last year" < *peruti vit (pl. vjet) "year" witt- "year"
*h₂et- "to go, year"[459] annus < atnus "year" átati "(it) goes, walks, wanders"; hā́yana- "yearly"
*yeH₁r- "year" year (< OE ġēar) jēr "year" hōrnus "this year's" < *hōyōr- hōra "time, year" < *yoH₁r- Av yārə "year" Russ. CH jara "spring" OLith Jórė "spring festival" W iâr "hen", MIr eir-īn "fowl"
*h₂óyu "long time, lifetime" age (< Lat. aetat-), aiws aevum aeternum, aeternitas "lifetime" āyus "life, age" (as in the word āyur·veda, "knowledge of (long) life") Gaul aiu- "eternity, longevity"[460]

Ideas and rituals[edit]

PIE English Gothic Latin Ancient Greek Sanskrit Iranian Slavic Baltic Celtic Armenian Albanian Tocharian Hittite
*ǵʰew- "to pour, libate, invoke"[323] god (< OE god < PIE. ǵʰutós "invoked, libated") fundō "I pour" hotrá "libation"; hotṛ "priest, offerer of libations"; juhóti "to worship, sacrifice, present an oblation"; hóma "oblation, a Vedic ritual"
*h₁yaǵ- "to sacrifice, worship"[323] ieientō "to eat breakfast" hágios "devoted to the gods, holy, pious" yájati "(s/he) worships"; yajña "worship, devotion, prayer"; yájus "religious reverence, worship, sacrifice";
*ḱréd·dʰh₁eti "to believe" < *ḱred- “heart” + *dʰh₁eti "place"[323]
(See also *k̂erd-)
creed, credo < Lat crēdō crēdō "I believe, I trust in, I confide in" śraddhā́ "faith, trust, confidence, loyalty", śrad-dadʰāti "(he) trusts, believes" Av zrazdā- "to believe" < *srazdā[ci] Old Irish cretim, W credaf "I believe"
"to praise, express approval; to elevate"
"grace, thankfulness";
"freely given, free"
"(s/he) praises, invokes";
"(s/he) calls, invokes, mentions with praise, extols";
"agreeable, pleasing, lovely; approved, welcome";
"approval, praise; benediction"
OCS žrĭti "to sacrifice";
"sacrifice, offering";
OIr bard, W bardd "bard"
*h₁wegʷʰ- "to promise, vow; praise"[464][465] voveō, vōtum "I vow, promise; dedicate, devote; wish for" eúkhomai "I pray, vow, wish for; profess";
eûkhos "prayer, object of prayer; boast; vow"
óhate "(s/he) says";
ukthá "saying; sentence, verse; eulogy"
Av uxδa "word"
*ḱwen-, *ḱwen-tos "holy"[323][466] Av spəṇta "holy"[467] OCS svętŭ "holy" Lith šveñtas "holy"
sanciō "I render, appoint as sacred; devote, consecrate, dedicate";
sānctus "sacred, made inviolable; venerable, blessed, saintly";
sacer "sacred, holy, dedicated, consecrated; devoted"


PIE English Gothic Latin Ancient Greek Sanskrit Iranian Slavic Baltic Celtic Armenian Albanian Tocharian Hittite
*gʰedʰ- "to unite, join, suit"[470] good (< OE gōd);
gather (< OE gaderian);
together (< OE togædere)
godǔ "suitable time, holiday, feast, right time, time, term, year"; [cj]
OCS godina "hour; time";
*bʰed- "to improve, make better"[471] better (< OE betera);
batten (< ON batna "to grow better, improve, recover");
boot[ck] (< OE bōt "help, relief, advantage, remedy")
bhadrá- "blessed, auspicious, fortunate, prosperous, happy; good, gracious, friendly, kind; excellent, fair, lovely, pleasant, dear"
*h₂el- "to grow, nourish"[472] old (< OE eald, ald); alderman (< OE ealdorman) aljan "to cause to grow fat, fatten" *oleō (*olēre) "I grow";
alō (alere) "I foster, I nourish; I raise";
alimentum "food, nourishment; obligation to one's parents";
alumnus "nourished, fostered";
alimōnia "food, nourishment";
altus "high, tall";
indolēs "innate, inborn; talent";
adolescēns "growing up";
adultus "grown-up, matured"
*h₃erdʰ- "to increase, grow; upright, high"[473][474] arbor (< OLat arbōs < PIta *arðōs) "tree (high plant)";
arduus "lofty, high, steep, elevated; arduous"
orthós "straight, upright, erect; straight forward" ūrdhvá "rising, raised, erected; upright, high, above";
ṛ́ddhi "growth, increase; prosperity; elevation"
*bʰeh₂g- "to divide, distribute, allot"[475] baksheesh (< Pers baxšidan "to give, grant, bestow") éphagon "I ate, devoured (took my share)" > -phagy, (o)esophagus bhakṣá- "food, drink, delight"; bhájati "to distribute, divide, allot, chooe, serve"
"to share, divide"[476][477]
time (< OE tīma);
tide (< OE tīd)
daíomai "I divide, share; host (a feast)";
dêmos "district, country, land; the common people; free citizens, sovereign people; deme";
daís "feast, banquet";
daitrós "one who carves and portions out meat at table";
daímōn "god, goddess; departed soul; demon"
dītí "brightness, time";
dā́ti, dyáti "(s/he) cuts, clips, mows, separates, divides";
dātrá- "allotted share"
"to sacrifice, lose"[476][477]
tap "hit lightly" (< OE tappen);
tip "touch quietly, bump quietly" (< OE tippen)
daps "a sacrificial or solemn feast, religious banquet; meal";
damnum < dapnum "damage, injury; (financial) loss; fine"
dáptō "I eat, devour; consume, corrode";
dapánē "cost, expenditure; extravagance"
dāpayati "(s/he) divides"
"to split, divide"[478][479]
tell, teller (< OE tellen);
tale (< OE talu);
talk (< OE tealcian)
dolō "I hew, chop into shape; fashion, devise";
doleō "I hurt, suffer; I grieve for, lament";
dolor "pain, ache, hurt; anguish, grief, sorrow"
dalati "it bursts";
dālayati "(s/he) splits, cracks";
dala- "deal, portion, piece, half";
OCS delěti, odolěti "to overcome, defeat";
Russ dólja "share, fate"
"part, watershed"
deal (< OE dǣl);
dole (< OE dāl)
OCS děliti "to divide";
OCS dělŭ "part"
*bʰeh₂- "to shine, glow"[480] faveō "I favor";
favor "id";
faustus "favorable, fortunate";
fautor "patron, protector, promoter"
phaínō "I shine, appear, bring to light" bhā́s "light"; bhānú "light, ray, sun"
*bʰewg- "to enjoy, benefit"[481] fungor "I perform, execute, discharge; finish, complete, end" > fungible, defunct;
fūnctiō "performance, execution (of a task)" > function
bhuj-, bhunákti "(s/he) enjoys; consumes, eats, drinks; uses, utilizes"
*bʰruHg- "to make use of, have enjoyment of"[482] brook (< OE brūcan) "(old meaning) to use, enjoy";
Ger brauchen "to need, require"
fruor "I enjoy, derive pleasure from";
frūctus "enjoyment, delight, satisfaction; produce, product, fruit; profit, yield, outcome" ⇒
[note 108];
frūmentum "corn, grain";
frūx, frūgēs "fruits of the earth, produce" > frugal
*deyḱ- "to point out";[483] toe (< OE );
token (< OE tācn);
teach (< OE tǣċan)
dīcō "I say, utter; mention, talk";
digitus "finger, toe, digit"
díkē "custom, manner, fashion; law, order, right; judgement, justice";
δεῖγμᾰ "specimen, sample; pattern"
diśáti "(s/he) points out, shows;teaches, informs; orders, commands, bids";
deśá- "point, region, spot, part; province, country"
*h₂eyḱ- "to own, obtain, come in possession of";
*h₂eh₂óyḱe- "to possess, own"[484][485]
(< OE āgen);
(< OE āgan);
OE āga "owner";
ought, aught (< OE ǣht)
√īś, īṣṭe "(s/he) owns, possesses, is master of; rules";
īśá- "owning";
īśāná-, īśvara- "owner, master; ruler; epithets of the god Śiva"
"to hold, overpower"[486][487]
OE siġe "victory" < PGmc segaz (In personal names, e.g., Sigmund, Siegfried, etc.) sigis "victory";
sigislaun "prize, spoils"
sevērus "severe, serious, strict, stern, stringent, austere, harsh, grave" ékhō "I have, possess; hold, am able" ⇒
[note 109];
ískhō "I hold back, restrain; stay; hold fast, maintain";
iskhū́s "strength, power, might";
héxis "possession, act of having; a certain state, condition" ⇒
[note 110];
skhêma "form, shape, figure; appearance, show; bearing, look, air; stateliness, dignity; fashion, manner; character, persona; state, nature; species, kind; dance; sketch, outline, plan, scheme" ⇒
[note 111];
okhurós "firm, lasting, stout";
skholḗ "leisure, free time; rest; philosophy; place where lectures are given" ⇒
[note 112];
Héktōr lit. "conqueror";
skhétlios "able to hold out, steadfast, unflinching"
sáhate "(s/he) overcomes, vanquishes, conquers, prevails; is able, capable; bears, endures";
sáhas "strength, power, force";
sā́ḍhṛ[cl] "conqueror"
Gaul Sego- (in personal and tribal names) "victory"[488]
*h₃erbʰ- "to change status, ownership";
*h₃órbʰos "servant, worker, slave; orphan"[489][490]
erf "heritage, inheritance" (< OE erfe); Ger arbeit "work" orbus "orphaned, parentless" orphanós "orphan; childless; bereft" árbha- "orphan; child; small" OCS rabŭ "servant, slave" (< *ārbǔ);[491]
Czech orbota "hard work, slavery" > robot;
Pol robić "to make, to do"
*Hrew- "to tear out, dig out, open, acquire"[443][444]
(See also *Hrewp-, *Hrewk-)
rudis "rough, raw, uncultivated; unrefined, unskilled" ⇒
[note 113]
róman "hair, body hair" OCS runo "fleece"


  1. ^ maternal, maternity, matron, matrimony, matrix, matriculate, material, matter, madeira, alma mater, etc.
  2. ^ paternal, paternity, patron, patronize, pattern, patrimony, patriot, expatriate, patrician, perpetrate, compadre, etc.
  3. ^ fraternal, fraternity, fraternize, friar,[b] confrere
  4. ^ sorority
  5. ^ nepotism
  6. ^ gamete, monogamy, bigamy, etc.
  7. ^ avuncular
  8. ^ human, , humanity, ad hominem, exhume, etc
  9. ^ virile, virtue, triumvir(ate), etc.[n]
  10. ^ regal, regalia, regicide, royal, etc.
  11. ^ corps, corpse, corporal, corporation, incorporate, etc.
  12. ^ cap, cape, chapeau, capital, chapter, capitulate, decapitate, per capita, kaput, etc.
  13. ^ language, lingo etc.
  14. ^ ocular, binoculars, etc.
  15. ^ core, cordial, record, accord, discord, concord, accordion, misericordia, courage, etc.
  16. ^ cruel, crude
  17. ^ tripod, podium, etc.
  18. ^ manual, manufacture, manuscript, manipulate, manifest, maintain, manage, manumission, emancipate, mandate, demand, commend, countermand, mandatory, masturbate etc.
  19. ^ a b auspices, auspicious
  20. ^ lox
  21. ^ grain, granary, granule, granite, pomegranate, etc.
  22. ^ agrarian, agriculture, pilgrim, peregrinate, etc.
  23. ^ promulgate, emulsion, etc.
  24. ^ molar (tooth)
  25. ^ immolate
  26. ^ maul, mallet, malleable
  27. ^ Spanish 'zumo' via Arabic
  28. ^ fervent, fervor, fervid, effervescence
  29. ^ saline, salsa, sauce, salad, sausage (salchicha, saucisse), salami, salary
  30. ^ semen, seminar, seminary, seminal, disseminate, inseminate, season, sative, etc.
  31. ^ member, membrane
  32. ^ "dorm, dormitory, dorter"
  33. ^ progeny, progenitor
  34. ^ nee [aw]
  35. ^ nascent
  36. ^ native, nativity, etc.
  37. ^ Spa Navidad "Christmas"
  38. ^ nature, natural, etc.
  39. ^ nation, national, etc.
  40. ^ Natalia, Natalie, Natasha, Noël, etc.
  41. ^ general, generic, generate, generous, congenital, degenerate, gender, genre, etc.
  42. ^ gent, gentle, gentleman, gentile, genteel, etc.
  43. ^ genitive, primogeniture, etc.
  44. ^ ingenuous, ingenu, ingenue
  45. ^ ingenious, engine, engineer, gin (instrument, as in cotton gin), etc.
  46. ^ germ, germinate, germane, etc., but not German
  47. ^ genitals, genitalia
  48. ^ genesis, genes, genetic, etc.
  49. ^ auction, etc.
  50. ^ author, etc.
  51. ^ augment, etc.
  52. ^ augury, inaugurate, etc.
  53. ^ August, etc.
  54. ^ auxiliary, etc.
  55. ^ "audio, audience, obey, obedience, auditorium, etc."
  56. ^ aesthetic
  57. ^ memento
  58. ^ reminisce
  59. ^ memory
  60. ^ monster
  61. ^ mathematics
  62. ^ "memory, remember, etc."
  63. ^ "mora, moratory, moratorium"
  64. ^ "martyr"
  65. ^ dekko
  66. ^ aspect, inspect, respect, prospect, perspective, retrospect, despicable, conspicuous, perspicuous, perspicacious, spectacle, spectacular, etc etc.
  67. ^ species, spice, special, specify, specific
  68. ^ spectre, spectrum
  69. ^ speculate
  70. ^ scope, -scope, -scopy
  71. ^ bishop, episcopal
  72. ^ skeptic, skeptical, skepticism
  73. ^ council, conciliate, etc.
  74. ^ clamor, claim, exclamation, etc.
  75. ^ clear, clarify, etc.
  76. ^ stylus, style (originally same meaning as stylus: a particular form of writing > style)
  77. ^ "incinerate, cinerary, cinerarium"
  78. ^ "foment, fomentation"
  79. ^ "fever, febrile"
  80. ^ "February"
  81. ^ pollute, pollution
  82. ^ fort, forte, fortitude, fortification, force, effort, etc
  83. ^ chernozem, chernukha, Cherno(byl)
  84. ^  ?Siam
  85. ^ civic, city, citizen, etc.
  86. ^ cite, incite, excite, Incitātus (Caligula's horse), resuscitate, solicit, etc.
  87. ^ site, situation, etc.
  88. ^ expose, exponent, depose, deponent, oppose, opponent, proponent, posit, position, positive, post, etc.
  89. ^
    impeccable, impeach
  90. ^ podium, pew
  91. ^ sequence, second, segue, etc.
  92. ^ vert-, verse, versus, version, invert, convert, inverse, reverse, controversy, anniversary etc.
  93. ^ join, joinder, joint, junction, juncture, conjugal, conjugate, conjunct, adjunct, injunction, rejoin, rejoinder, jostle, joust, adjust, etc.
  94. ^ local, locate, locality, locomotion, allocate, etc.
  95. ^ epistle, pistle, epistolary, etc.
  96. ^ sect (or possibly from Lat. sequi, "follow"), -sect, sectile, section, sector, dissect, insect, intersect, resect, transect, etc.
  97. ^ carnal, carnage, carnation, carnival, carrion, caruncle, carnivorous, charnel, charcuterie, incarnate, etc., Spa carne
  98. ^ scrutiny, scrutinize, inscrutable, etc.
  99. ^ scruple, scrupulous, etc.
  100. ^ cult, culture, cultivate, incult, etc.
  101. ^ colony, colonial, etc.
  102. ^ collar, accolade, decollate, etc
  103. ^ palindrome, palimpsest, palinode
  104. ^ telegraph, television, etc.
  105. ^ evolve, revolve, involve, involucrum, convolve, devolve, voluble etc.;
  106. ^ vale, valley
  107. ^ helix, helical, helicopter
  108. ^ fruit, fructose
  109. ^ eunuch (lit. bed-keeper)
  110. ^ hectic
  111. ^ scheme, schematic
  112. ^ school, scholar, scholastic
  113. ^ rude, rudimentary, erudite


  1. ^ Reflexes of the stem in daughter languages also refer to deified beings and deities within their respective mythologies/religions: Old English Mōdraniht ('Night of the Mothers'); Celtic and Germanic Matres and Matronae (Latin for 'Mothers and Matrons'); Latvian Māte ('Mother'); Gaulish Dea Matrona ('Divine Mother Goddess'); Sanskrit Matrikas ('Divine Mothers').
  2. ^ e.g., black friar
  3. ^ Phralipe, or Pralipe, "brotherhood", name of several Gypsy/Romany organizations, including a music band and a literary magazine.
  4. ^ kʿoyr *swesōr; kʿeʿ < *swesros; kʿor-kʿ < *swesŏres.
  5. ^ Varias García (2017) pointed out that a tablet from Mycene uses "tu-ka-te", whereas tablets from Knossos, Pylos and Thebes use "ko-wa" (*korwa, later koré 'maiden, girl').[21]
  6. ^ Although this word is attested in Hittite, it is considered a loanword from Luwian. While scholarship recognizes the likelihood of its being the reflex of the root in Anatolian, its appearance in Hittite and Luwian would indicate a different meaning, however.[25][26]
  7. ^ The root could also be found in Anatolian languages with later attestation: Isaurian personal name Τουάτρης Touatris; Pisidian name Δωταρι Dotari.[27] However, Simon Zsolt questions the interpretation of Dotari as a reflex, since this word is attested as a compound in male names.[28]
  8. ^ Other interpretations are "son of the yew" or "son of the boar".[33]
  9. ^ The word is attested in Plate III of the Botorrita plaques. Patrizia de Bernardo Stempel interprets "-SUNOS" as the remnant of the root in the Celtic branch.[34][35]
  10. ^ This is the other possible attestation of the root in the Celtic branch.[36]
  11. ^ As argued by Peyrot and Meng (2021).[41]
  12. ^ cf. divide
  13. ^ bridegome in Middle English, subsequently influenced by groom (archaically "servant, man").
  14. ^ But not virus
  15. ^ These reflexes are suggested by Belarusian scholar Siarhiej Sanko.[54]
  16. ^ See also Thr goni "woman".[55]
  17. ^ See also Phry knaiko, knaikan "woman".[56]
  18. ^ Joseph Vendryes had suggested that compound names with the stem seem to be common around the southeast and the Balkans.[65] However, the stem "is attested ... in Messapic, in Osco-Umbrian, in Venetic, in Gaulish, in Celtiberian, in Brittonic languages, in Welsh, in German and in the Baltic languages",[66] as seen, for instance, in Illyrian Teuta (a Illyrian female ruler); Messapic teuta (community) and Taotor (name of deity); tribal name Teutons.
  19. ^ However, Robert Beekes suggests a non-Indo-European, substrate origin for the stem and its reflexes.[67]
  20. ^ Woudhuizen lists possible reflexes: Phrygian totos, teutous; Mycenaean te-u-ta-(ko-ro).[70] Another reflex appears in Thracian personal name Tautomedes, cited by J. P. Mallory,[71] and Ancient Macedonian (Pelasgian?) general Teutamus.[72]
  21. ^ hēm- < *ām- (with h- after hum- "you (pl.)") < *asm- < *n̥sm-.
  22. ^ a b OE ēow (acc., dat.) and ēow-ic̣ (acc., with the same -c̣ ending visible in 1st. sg. acc. mēc̣ "me", also modern German mich "me"), likewise Old High German iuwih "you (acc./dat. pl.)" (modern euch), appear to have the same origin as izw- in Gothic izwis "you (acc./dat. pl)", with unexplained loss of -z-. izwis appears to come from stem izw- plus originally genitive -is, where izw- comes ultimately from PIE *us-we with the loss of u- also visible in Avestan and Celtic, followed by the addition of a prothetic i-. (Ringe, 2006)
  23. ^ Cf. Latin ne-que, Gothic ni-h, Hittite ni-kku, Lydian ni-k "and not, nor".
  24. ^ All suggested etymologies of një "one" are highly speculative, at best. This etymology is one of two given by E. Hamp in Indo-European Numerals (Jadranka Gvozdanović, ed., 1992), pp. 903-904; the other is simply from PIE *eni- (or H₂en-), a PIE deictic particle visible in Sanskrit anyá- "the other", OCS onŭ "that one", Lithuanian anàs "that one". Michiel de Vaan, in a review of Demiraj's Sistemi i numerimit, suggests PIE *H₂en-io-no- > pre-Proto-Albanian *ëńán > Proto-Albanian *ńâ > një. M. Huld (Basic Albanian Etymologies, p. 101) attempts to derive një from PIE *sm-iH₂, feminine of *sem "one" and reflected in Ancient Greek mía; this etymology is also tentatively suggested in Don Ringe et al. "IE and Computational Cladistics", p. 75 (Transactions of the Philological Society 100, 2002).
  25. ^ For example, qñnã-tba "twelve" (litt. "ten" plus "two").[76]
  26. ^ See also: Umb peturpursus "quadruped".
  27. ^ Cf. Thr ketri- "four".[79]
  28. ^ See also: Osc pomp- "five".[81]
  29. ^ See also Phry pinke "five".[82]
  30. ^ Built upon osmŭ "eighth" < *H₁ok̂t-mo-.
  31. ^ With nasalization after *septḿ̥ "seven".
  32. ^ There is the possibility that Lycian sñta could mean either "ten" or "(one) hundred".[86][87]
  33. ^ But not kephalḗ!
  34. ^ Possible Anatolian reflex of the root, as posited by Sasseville (2020).[111]
  35. ^ Only in *aíƕatundi "bramble", literally "horse-tooth".
  36. ^ Expected form is *vōs, not *bōs; evidently this is a borrowing from Oscan or Umbrian.
  37. ^ bóu, báu are archaic genitives; later báo, bó.
  38. ^ Celtic river-goddess
  39. ^ In the latter case, a direct parallel to Skt. go·vinda- "cow-finder"
  40. ^ River in Ireland
  41. ^ Proposed by Yakubovich and Sasseville (2018).[125]
  42. ^ whence Eng. pecunious, impecunious
  43. ^ Cf. also Phry ἔξις or ἔζις (ezi) "hedgehog".
  44. ^ In ancient Roman tradition, the Avernus was a lake where birds died as they flew near it.
  45. ^ See also Illyrian tribal name Enchele "eel-people".
  46. ^ The name migrated to Eastern Europe,[152] assumed the form "azhdaja" and the meaning "dragon", "dragoness"[153] or "water snake"[154] in Balkanic and Slavic languages.[155]
  47. ^ See also Ovinnik 'a spirit of the barn'.[194]
  48. ^ a b Lit. drinking implement
  49. ^ Via French né, née
  50. ^ Cf. Sanskrit janitár-, Greek genetḗr, genétōr, Latin genitor "procreator".
  51. ^ Seen in many personal or tribal names: Biuitoni, Biuonia, Dago-bius, etc
  52. ^ This borrowing is found in almost every Slavic language and is said to be "without doubt the most famous Germanic loanword in Slavic" (Pronk-Tiethoff (2013))
  53. ^ Derived by some from *men- "to think"
  54. ^ standard present tense formed using a suppletive root
  55. ^ all Slavic languages
  56. ^ Under the misguided influence of Greek stûlos "pillar"
  57. ^ Cf. Asteria (litt.) "starry one"; Astraeus "god of dusk" (litt. "starry"); Astraea "star-maiden"; Cretan king Asterion "starry".
  58. ^ acc. stā̆rǝm, gen. stārō, pl. nom. staras-ča, stārō, acc. strǝ̄uš, gen. strǝ̄m, dat. stǝrǝbyō.
  59. ^ Tīw < *deiwos was the Germanic god of war, but originally was a sky-god and head of the gods, like Zeus.
  60. ^ *deiwos > Lat. deus; gen. *deiwī > Lat. dīvī. From each stem a full declension was formed.
  61. ^ According to linguist Vitaly Shevoroshkin, the noun exists in other Anatolian languages: Lycian ziw-; Lydian civ-; Luwian Tiwa-; Palaic Tija-.[268]
  62. ^ Other dialectal variants are Cretan awélios or ābélios; Doric āélios.
  63. ^ Seen in chamomile (from khamaimēlon "earth-apple") and chameleon (from khamailéōn "earth-lion").[269]
  64. ^ a b c d It is unclear how the original PIE forms produced the attested daughter-language forms. After the loss of laryngeals, original *péH₂wr̥, pH₂unés would regularly produce *pāwr̥, punés. It is possible that this form was considered too strange-looking, with the result that the u vowel was borrowed from the second stem into the first, yielding *púwr̥, punés. This compressed to *pūr, punés, and this stem set, or its regularized version *pūr, purés, might form the basis of the Umbrian, Greek and Armenian forms. For Germanic, however, something else must be at work. Ringe (2006) suggests that the following sequence of events produced Gothic fōn: Collective péH₂wōr -> pH₂uṓr (cf. Tocharian B puwar) > puōr > Proto-Germanic fuwōr > fwōr > fōr -> fōn (using -n- from the oblique stem), where -> indicates a change due to analogy, while > indicates a regular sound change. His explanation of funins and fuïr is very tentative and complicated. Pokorny's suggestion for Germanic is rather different. He derives fōn from *fwōn, with no further derivation, but probably different from Ringe's. fuïr comes from *puweri, a locative that could be formed from a nominative *púwr̥ or possibly from a stem *pur-. It suffices to say that the processes involved are not well understood.
  65. ^ Februārius mēnsis - Roman month of expiation
  66. ^ Cf. Thracian river name Struma and river-god Strymon; Illyrian toponyms Stravianae and Strevintia; Lith. (dial.) river name Straujà; Old Prussian place-names Strewe, Stromyke and Strowange.[297] Stravianae (or Stravijanu) is tentatively located by scholars near the modern day city of Našice, in east Croatia.[298]
  67. ^ The literal meaning is "place between the rivers".
  68. ^ Scholarly opinion seems to agree that the word must have referred to a large body of water.
  69. ^ Replaced OE sār, compare Ger sehr
  70. ^ a b *H₁le(n)gʷʰ- and *H₁reudʰ- are both roots that form Caland-type adjectives. These roots are notable in that they form zero-stem adjectives with certain characteristic suffixes, especially -ro- and -u-, along with -i- in compounds. Other examples are *H₂erĝ- "white" (cf. Greek argós < *argrós "white", Sanskrit ṛjrá- "brilliant", Tocharian B ārkwi "white", Greek argi-kéraunos "with bright lightning") and *dʰeub- "deep" (cf. Lithuanian dubùs "hollow" < *dʰub-u-, Tocharian B tapre "high" < *dhub-ro-).
  71. ^ contested
  72. ^ Cf. also Thrac arzas "white".[329]
  73. ^ Etymon rudá appears in idiomatic expressions denoting "anger".[339]
  74. ^ Latin etymons galbus ("yellow") and galbinus ("greenish-yellow") are also suggested to derive from this root.[345]
  75. ^ See also: Phr glouros "gold".[346][347]
  76. ^ Not cognate
  77. ^ ibetis uciu andecari biiete - 'drink from here and be nice' - Limé (Aisne) inscrpition
  78. ^ See also Umbrian benust (Latin uenerit) and Oscan kúm-bened (Latin conuentio).
  79. ^ Now compare 'prose' and 'verse'
  80. ^ wagon is a loan-word from Dutch.
  81. ^ Some of these words might instead derive from *sekʷ- "to follow"
  82. ^ Not related to Spanish alquilar
  83. ^ Probably
  84. ^ See also Hesperus "evening star"; Hesperides "daughters of the evening; nymphs of the west".
  85. ^ Attested in the Coligny calendar, written in Gaulish language.
  86. ^ Douglas Q. Adams reads the words as "winter, wintry", although there are other interpretations.[456][457]
  87. ^ Influenced by zǝrǝd "heart".
  88. ^ Range of meanings across the different Slavic languages
  89. ^ as in 'to boot', 'bootless'
  90. ^ exact cognate of Héktōr

Tabular notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Complex ablauting stem:
    Singular Plural
    Language Nom Acc Gen Dat Nom Acc Gen
    PIE gʷōus gʷōm gʷous gʷówei gʷōwes gʷōs gʷowōm
    Sanskrit gáus gā́m gṓs gávē gā́vas gā́s gávām
    Avestan gāuš gąm gāuš gave gā̆vō gā̊ gavąm
  2. ^ a b c Complex ablauting stem:
    Language Nom Acc Voc Gen Dat Loc Instr Pl
    PIE d(i)yēus dyēum dyĕu diw-és, -ós diwéi dyéwi and dyēu ?
    Greek Zdeús Zdẽn Zdeũ Di(w)ós Di(w)í
    Sanskrit d(i)yāús dyā́m ? divás, dyōs divḗ dyáví, diví dyú-bhis


  1. ^ Dnghu, pp. 1993-1994.
  2. ^ Pokorny, pp. 700-701.
  3. ^ a b Dnghu, p. 2394.
  4. ^ a b Pokorny, p. 829.
  5. ^ a b Mallory & Adams (2006), p. 210.
  6. ^ Dnghu, pp. 485-486.
  7. ^ Pokorny, pp. 163-164.
  8. ^ a b Mallory & Adams (2006), p. 214.
  9. ^ Yūsuke, Sumi (2018). New Express Romani (Gypsy). p. 142.
  10. ^ Kenrick, Donald (2007). Historical Dictionary of the Gypsies. pp. 195, 204. ISBN 978-0-8108-5468-0.
  11. ^ Zair, Nicholas (2012). The Reflexes of the Proto-Indo-European Laryngeals in Celtic. Brill. p. 110. doi:10.1163/9789004233096. ISBN 978-90-04-22539-8.
  12. ^ Campbell, George L. with King, Gareth. Compendium of the World's Languages. Routledge. 2013. p. 86. ISBN 978-0-415-62191-5
  13. ^ Dnghu, p. 3027.
  14. ^ Pokorny, p. 1051.
  15. ^ Witczak, Krzysztof Tomasz. "Gaulish SUIOREBE ‘with two sisters’". In: Lingua Posnaniensis. LVII (2). 2015. pp. 59-62. doi:10.1515/linpo-2015-0011
  16. ^ Kloekhorst, Alwin. "The accentuation of the PIE word for ‘daughter’". In: Accent Matters. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill|Rodopi, 2011. pp. 235–243. doi:
  17. ^ Dnghu, pp. 757-758.
  18. ^ Pokorny, p. 277.
  19. ^ Mallory & Adams (2006), p. 213.
  20. ^ García, Carlos Varias. "De synonymia Mycenaea: términos griegos equivalentes de distintos reinos micénicos". In: Conuentus Classicorum: temas y formas del Mundo Clásico. Coord. por Jesús de la Villa, Emma Falque Rey, José Francisco González Castro, María José Muñoz Jiménez, Vol. 1, 2017. pp. 382-383. ISBN 978-84-697-8214-9
  21. ^ García, Carlos Varias. "De synonymia Mycenaea: términos griegos equivalentes de distintos reinos micénicos". In: Conuentus Classicorum: temas y formas del Mundo Clásico. Coord. por Jesús de la Villa, Emma Falque Rey, José Francisco González Castro, María José Muñoz Jiménez, Vol. 1, 2017. p. 388. ISBN 978-84-697-8214-9
  22. ^ Bernardo Stempel, Patrizia de. "Celtic ‘son’, ‘daughter’, other descendants, and *sunus in Early Celtic". In: Indogermanische Forschungen 118, 2013 (2013): 259-298, doi:
  23. ^ Stifter, David (2006). "Contributions to Celtiberian Etymology II". In: Palaeohispanica: revista sobre lenguas y culturas de la Hispania Antigua, 6. p. 238. ISSN 1578-5386
  24. ^ Oshiro, Terumasa. "On Kinship Terms in Hieroglyphic Luwian". In: Orient. Report of the Society for Near Eastern Studies in Japan 26. 1990. pp. 90-91.
  25. ^ Milanova, Veronika. "Chapter 13: MUNUS/fduttarii̯ata/i- and Some Other Indo-European Maidens". In: Hrozný and Hittite: The First Hundred Years. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill, 2019. pp. 277–294. doi:
  26. ^ Kloekhorst, Alwin. Etymological Dictionary of the Hittite Inherited Lexicon. Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series 5. Leiden, The Netherlands; Boston, 2008. pp. 1042-1044.
  27. ^ Blažek, Václav. “Indo-European kinship terms in *-ə̯2TER.” (2001). In: Grammaticvs: studia linguistica Adolfo Erharto quinque et septuagenario oblata. Šefčík, Ondřej (editor); Vykypěl, Bohumil (editor). Vyd. 1. V Brně: Masarykova univerzita, 2001. p. 25.
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  29. ^ a b Dnghu, p. 2642.
  30. ^ a b Pokorny, pp. 913-914.
  31. ^ a b c Mallory & Adams (2006), p. 211.
  32. ^ a b Monier Williams, p. 1240.
  33. ^ Schrijver, P. C. H. (2015). "The meaning of Celtic *eburos". In: Oudaer, Guillaume, Hily, Gael, Le Bihan, Herve (eds.). Mélanges en l'honneur de Pierre-Yves Lambert. pp. 65-76. ISBN 978-2-917681-27-5
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Further reading[edit]

On numerals:

  • Bjørn, Rasmus. "Nouns and Foreign Numerals: Anatolian ‘Four’ and the Development of the PIE Decimal System". In: Dispersals and Diversification. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill, 2019. pp. 54–76. doi:
  • Bomhard, Allan R. "Some thoughts on the Proto-Indo-European cardinal numbers". In: In Hot Pursuit of Language in Prehistory: Essays in the four fields of anthropology. In honor of Harold Crane Fleming. Edited by John D. Bengtson. John Benjamins Publishing Company. 2008. pp. 213–221.
  • Prósper, Blanca María. "The Indo-european ordinal numerals 'fourth' and 'fifth' and the reconstruction of the Celtic and Italic numeral systems". In: Die Sprache Vol. 51, Nº. 1, 2014–2015, pp. 1–50. ISSN 0376-401X
  • de Vaan, Michiel. "Proto-Indo-European *sm and *si ‘one’". In: The Precursors of Proto-Indo-European. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill|Rodopi, 2019. pp. 203–218. doi:

On nature and the passage of time:

  • Huld, Martin E. "Proto- and Post-Indo-European Designations for ‘sun’." Zeitschrift Für Vergleichende Sprachforschung 99, no. 2 (1986): 194-202.
  • Maciuszak, Kinga (2002). “The Names of Seasons of the Year in Iranian Languages”. In: Studia Etymologica Cracoviensia 7: 67–78.

On animals:

  • Gąsiorowski, Piotr. "Gruit grus: The Indo-European names of the crane". In: Studia Etymologica Cracoviensia Vol. 18. Issue 1. 2013. pp. 51–68. doi:10.4467/20843836SE.13.003.0940
  • Hammer, Niels. "Eurasian Cranes, Demoiselle Cranes, PIE *ger- and Onomatopoetics". In: The Journal of Indo-European Studies (JIES), Vol. 43, nº. 1–2, 2015. pp. 81–99. ISSN 0092-2323
  • Huld, Martin E. (2014). "Armenian agṙaw and an Indo-European Word for 'Crow, Raven'. In: JIES 42 (3-4): 294-301.
  • Huard, Athanaric. "On Tocharian B kents* and PIE *g̑hans- ‘goose’". In: wékwos: Revue d'études indo-européennes. Volume 5. Les Cent Chemins. 2019. ISBN 979-8581017487.
  • Palmér, Axel I., Anthony Jakob, Rasmus Thorsø, Paulus van Sluis, Cid Swanenvleugel, and Guus Kroonen. "Proto-Indo-European ‘fox’ and the reconstruction of an athematic ḱ-stem". In: Indo-European Linguistics (published online ahead of print 2021). pp. 1–30. doi:
  • Nurkiyazova, Sevindj. "The English Word That Hasn’t Changed in Sound or Meaning in 8,000 Years"

On kinship and family:

  • Blažek, Václav. "Indo-European *suHnu- 'son' and his relatives". In: Indogermanistik und Linguistik im Dialog. Akten der XIII. Fachtagung der Indogermanischen Gesellschaft von 21. bis 27. September 2008 in Salzburg, hrg. Thomas Krisch & Thomas Lindner. Wiesbaden: Reichert, 2011. pp. 79–89. ISBN 978-3-89500-681-4
  • Cooper, Brian. "The Lexicology and Etymology of Russian Family Relationships". In: Studia Etymologica Cracoviensia Vol. 14. Issue 1. Kraków: 2009. pp. 153–176. ISBN 978-83-233-2758-5
  • Friedrich, Paul. "Proto-Indo-European Kinship." Ethnology 5, no. 1 (1966): 1-36. Accessed November 15, 2020. doi:10.2307/3772899.
  • Galton, Herbert. "The Indo-European Kinship Terminology." Zeitschrift Für Ethnologie 82, no. 1 (1957): 121–38. Accessed November 15, 2020.
  • Hettrich, Heinrich. "Indo-European Kinship Terminology in Linguistics and Anthropology." Anthropological Linguistics 27, no. 4 (1985): 453–80. Accessed November 15, 2020.
  • Heltoft, Lars. "The Malt stone as evidence for a morphological archaism: Reconstructing the Proto-Nordic and Proto-Germanic systems of kinship terms". In: NOWELE - North-Western European Language Evolution, Volume 73, Issue 1, Apr 2020, p. 4 - 20 ISSN 0108-8416. [DOI:]
  • Humphreys, S. C. "Proto-Indo-European Kinship and Society: Kin Terms". In: Journal of Indo-European Studies. Washington Vol. 45, Ed. 3/4, (2017): 373–425. ISSN 0092-2323
  • Kullanda, Sergey. "Indo‐European “Kinship Terms” Revisited." Current Anthropology 43, no. 1 (2002): 89-111. Accessed November 15, 2020. doi:10.1086/324127.
  • Milanova, Veronika. "Brothers and Many Others: The Concept ‘Offspring’ and its Semantic Extensions in Indo-European Languages". In: Journal of Indo-European Studies (JIES). Vol. 48/Numbers 1 & 2 (Spring/Summer 2020): 189–217.
  • Pârvulescu, Adrian. "Blood and IE. Kinship Terminology". In: Indogermanische Forschungen 94, no. 1 (1989): 67–88.
  • Rau, Jeremy. "Indo-European Kinship Terminology: *ph₂tr-ou̯-/ph₂tr̥-u̯- and Its Derivatives." Historische Sprachforschung / Historical Linguistics 124 (2011): 1-25.
  • Starke, Frank. "Die Vertretungen Von Uridg. *dHUgh₂tér- "Tochter“ in Den Luwischen Sprachen Und Ihre Stammbildung". In: Zeitschrift Für Vergleichende Sprachforschung 100, no. 2 (1987): 243–69. Accessed March 8, 2021.

On agriculture and produce:

  • Blažek, Václav. "On Indo-European ‘barley’". In: Simmelkjaer Sandgaard Hansen, Bjarne; Nielsen Whitehead, Benedicte; Olander, Thomas; Olsen, Birgit Anette. Etymology and the European Lexicon. Proceedings of the 14th Fachtagung der Indogermanischen Gesellschaft (17-22 September 2012, Copenhagen). Wiesbaden: Reichert Verlag, 2016. pp. 53–68. ISBN 978-3-95490-202-6
  • Hyllested, Adam. "Did Proto-Indo-European Have a Word for Wheat? Hittite šeppit(t)- Revisited and the Rise of Post-PIE Cereal Terminology". In: Dispersals and Diversification. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill, 2019. pp. 130–143. doi:
  • Mikić, Aleksandar. "A note on some Proto-Indo-European roots related to grain legumes", Indogermanische Forschungen 116, 2011 (2011): 60–71, doi:
  • Mikić, Aleksandar. "Palaeolinguistics and Ancient Eurasian Pulse Crops." Current Science 108, no. 1 (2015): 45–50.
  • Romain Garnier, Laurent Sagart, Benoît Sagot. "Milk and the Indo-Europeans". In: Martine Robeets; Alexander Savalyev. Language Dispersal Beyond Farming. John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2017. pp. 291–311. ISBN 978-90-272-1255-9. ff10.1075/z.215.13garff. ffhal-01667476f
  • Schürr, Diether. "Urindogermanisch Wein und Met in den anatolischen Sprachen". In: ARAMAZD: ARMENIAN JOURNAL OF NEAR EASTERN STUDIES VOLUME XIII, ISSUE 1, 2019. pp. 44–58. ISSN 1829-1376.

On colors:

  • Shields, Kenneth. “Indo-European Basic Colour Terms.” Canadian Journal of Linguistics/Revue Canadienne De Linguistique 24, no. 2 (1979): 142–46. doi:10.1017/S0008413100023409.

On verbs related to action and motion:

  • Verkerk, Annemarie (2015). "Where do all the motion verbs come from? The speed of development of manner verbs and path verbs in Indo-European". In: Diachronica, 32(1): 69–104. doi:10.1075/dia.32.1.03ver.

On bodily functions:

External links[edit]