Indo-European vocabulary

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The following is a table of many of the most fundamental Proto-Indo-European language (PIE) words and roots, with their cognates in all of the major families of descendants.


The following conventions are used:

  • Cognates are in general given in the oldest well-documented language of each family, although forms in modern languages are given for families in which the older stages of the languages are poorly documented or do not differ significantly from the modern languages. In addition, modern English forms are given for comparison purposes.
  • Nouns are given in their nominative case, with the genitive case supplied in parentheses when its stem differs from that of the nominative. (For some languages, especially Sanskrit, the basic stem is given in place of the nominative.)
  • Verbs are given in their "dictionary form". The exact form given depends on the specific language:
  • In place of Latin, an Oscan (c. 100 BC) or Umbrian (c. 200 BC) cognate is occasionally given when no corresponding Latin cognate exists. Similarly, a cognate from another Anatolian language (e.g. Luvian, c. 1400 BC; Lycian, c. 400 BC) may occasionally be given in place of or in addition to Hittite (c. 1400 BC).
  • For Tocharian, both the Tocharian A (c. 800 AD) and Tocharian B (c. 800 AD) cognates are given whenever possible.
  • For the Celtic languages, both Old Irish (c. 800 AD) and Welsh cognates are given when possible. For Welsh, normally the modern form is given, but occasionally the form from Old Welsh (c. 800 AD) is supplied when it is known and displays important features lost in the modern form. A Middle Irish (c. 1000 AD) cognate is given when the Old Irish form is unknown, and Gaulish (c. 0 AD[clarification needed]), Cornish (?? c. 1200–1700 AD?) and/or Breton (modern) cognates may occasionally be given in place of or in addition to Welsh.
  • For the Baltic languages, Lithuanian (modern) and Old Prussian (c. 1350 – 1600 AD) cognates are given when possible. (Both Lithuanian and Old Prussian are included because Lithuanian often includes information missing in Old Prussian, e.g. due to lack of written accent marks in the latter.) Similarly to the Celtic situation, Old Lithuanian (c. 1600 AD) forms may occasionally be given in place of modern Lithuanian; Latvian (modern) may occasionally be given in place of or in addition to Lithuanian.
  • For the Slavic languages, Old Church Slavonic (c. 1000 AD) cognates are given when possible. Forms from modern Slavic languages or other Church Slavic dialects may occasionally be given in place of Old Church Slavonic.
  • For English, a modern English cognate is given when it exists, along with the corresponding Old English (c. 1000 AD) form; otherwise, only an Old English form is given.
  • For Gothic (c. 350 AD), a form in another Germanic language (Old Norse, c. 800 AD; Old High German, c. 900 AD; or Middle High German, c. 1200 AD) is sometimes given in its place or in addition, when it reveals important features.


PIE English Gothic Latin Ancient Greek Sanskrit Iranian Slavic Baltic Celtic Armenian Albanian Tocharian Hittite
(predominant dialects used:) modern, c. 2000 AD; Late West Saxon OE, c. 1000 AD c. 350 AD c. 100 BC Classical Attic, c. 400 BC Vedic Sanskrit, c. 1700-1100 BC (?) (Rig Veda) Old Avestan, c. 1700-1200 BC (??); Younger Avestan, c. 900-400 BC (??); Old Persian, c. 525 BC (Behistun inscription) Old Church Slavonic, c. 1000 AD modern Lithuanian, c. 2000 AD; Old Prussian, c. 1350-1600 AD Old Irish, c. 800 AD; modern Welsh, c. 2000 AD Classical Armenian, c. 405 AD modern, c. 2000 AD Tocharian A and B, c. 800 AD c. 1400 BC
*méH₂tēr- "mother" mother (< OE mōdor) ON móðir "mother" māter "mother" mḗtēr "mother" mā́tṛ, mātṛ́ "mother" Av mātar- "mother" NPers mādar OCS mati, mater- "mother" Lith móteris "woman", motina; OPrus muti "mother" OIr māthir "mother"; W modryb "auntie" mayr "mother" motër "sister" A mācar, B mācer "mother"
*pH₂tér- "father" father (< OE fæder) fadar "father" pater "father" patḗr "father" pitṛ́ "father" Av pitar- (nom. also pta, ta), OPers pita "father", NPers padar OIr athir "father"; Welsh edrydd hayr "father" A pācar, B pācer "father"
*bʰréH₂ter- "brother" brother (< OE brōþor) brōþar "brother" frāter "brother" pʰrā́tēr "member of a phratry (brotherhood)" bʰrā́tṛ "brother" Av brātar-, OPers brātar-, Ossetian ärvád "brother, relative", NPers barādar Kurdish bira OCS bratrŭ "brother" Lith brõlis, OPrus brati "brother OIr brāth(a)ir, W brawd (pl. brodyr) "brother" ełbayr (gen. ełbawr) "brother" A pracar, B procer "brother" Lyd brafr(-sis) "brother"[1]
*swésor "sister" sister (< OE sweostor, influenced by ON systir) swistar "sister" soror "sister" éor "sister" svásṛ "sister" Av x̌aŋhar- "sister" NPers ḫwāhar "sister" OCS sestra "sister" Lith sesuõ (seser̃s), OPrus sestra "sister" OIr siur, W chwaer "sister" kʿoyr (kʿeṙ), kʿor-kʿ "sister"[2] vashë, vajzë "girl" (< *varjë < *vëharë < PAlb *swesarā) A ṣar', B ṣer "sister"
*dʰugH₂-tér- "daughter" daughter (< OE dohtor) daúhtar "daughter" Oscan futír "daughter" tʰugátēr "daughter" dúhitṛ "daughter" Av dugədar-, duɣδar-, NPers doḫtar "daughter" Kurdish dot "daughter" OCS dŭšti, dŭšter- "daughter" Lith dukteris, OPrus dukti "daughter" Gaulish duxtir "daughter"; Celtib TuaTer (duater) "daughter"[3][4] dustr "daughter" A ckācar, B tkācer "daughter" túwatara "daughter"
*suHnú- "son" son (< OE sunu) sunus "son" huiós "son" sūnú- "son" Av hunuš "son" OCS synŭ "son" Lith sūnùs, OPrus suns "son" ustr "son" çun "boy/son" A se, B soyä "son"
*nepot- "nephew, grandson" obsolete neve "nephew, male cousin, grandson" (< OE nefa) OHG nevo "nephew" nepōs (nepōtis) "grandson, nephew" népodes "descendants" nápāt- "grandson, descendant" Av napāt-, naptar-, OPers napāt- "grandson, descendant" OLith nepotis, OPrus neputs "grandson" OIr nïæ "sister's son", W nai "nephew" nip "grandson, nephew"
*dāiH₂u̯ēr- "husband's brother, brother-in-law" OE tācor "husband's brother" OHG zeihhor "husband's brother" levir "husband's brother" dāēr "husband's brother" devṛ́, devará "husband's brother" OCS děverĭ "brother-in-law" Lith dieveris "husband's brother" W daw(f) "brother-in-law" taygr "husband's brother"
*snusós "daughter-in-law" OE snoru "daughter-in-law" OHG snur "daughter-in-law" nurus "daughter-in-law" nuos "daughter-in-law" snuṣā- "daughter-in-law" Old Ir. *(s)nušáh Bactrian ασνωυο (asnōuo) NPers. sunoh / sunhār "daughter-in-law" OCS snŭxa "daughter-in-law" W gwaudd "daughter-in-law" nuse "bride" nu "daughter-in-law"
*su̯ek̂rū́- "mother-in-law" OE sweger "mother-in-law" swaihr "mother-in-law" socrus "mother-in-law" ekurā "mother-in-law" śvaśrū́- "mother-in-law" OCS svekry "mother-in-law" Lith šešuras "father-in-law", OPrus swasri "mother-in-law" W chwegr "mother-in-law" skesur "mother-in-law" vjehërr "father-in-law"


PIE English Gothic Latin Ancient Greek Sanskrit Iranian Slavic Baltic Celtic Armenian Albanian Tocharian Hittite
*dʰĝʰemon- "person, human (litt. of the earth)" OE guma "person, man", brȳdguma "bridegroom"[5]

guma "man" homō "person" khthōn "the earth"; khamai "on the ground" Kurdish zevî "farmland" NPers zamin "ground, soil" OCS zem(l)janinъ "earthling" OLith žmuõ "person"; OPrus zmunents "human" OIr duine, W dyn "person" < *dʰĝʰom-yo- A śom "boy"; B śaumo "person"
*H₂ner- "man, hero" ON Njǫrðr (name of a God) Ner-ō (personal name), neriōsus "strong" anḗr (andros) "man" nár- (nom. ) "man, person" Av nar- (nom. ) "man, person" Kurdish nêr "male animal, masculine" OCS naravŭ "character, custom"; Lith nóras "wish, want", narsa; OPrus nàrs "courage" W nêr "lord, prince, leader; hero" ayr (aṙn) "man, person" njer "man, person"
*wiH-ro- "man" werewolf (< OE wer "man") waír "man" vir "man" vīrá- "man, hero" Av vīra- "man, hero" (possibly) OCS viro- "self-minded" Lith výras "man"; OPrus wirs "man, husband" OIr fer, W gŵr "man" burrë "man" A wir "young"
*gʷén-eH₂- "woman, wife" queen (< OE cwēn "queen, woman, wife") qēns (qēnáis), qinō "woman, wife" gunḗ (gunaikos) "woman, wife" < *gʷun-eH₂ gnā (gnā́s-) "wife of a god", jániḥ, jánī "woman, wife" Av gǝnā, γnā, ǰaini-, NPers zan "woman, wife" Kurdish jin "woman, wife" OCS žena "woman, wife" Lith žmoná "wife", OPrus gena "woman, wife" OIr ben (mná) "woman, wife" < *gʷén-eH₂ (*gʷn-eH₂-s), (neut.) "wife < *gʷén; W benyw "woman" kin (knoǰ) "woman" zonjë "lady, wife, woman" < *gʷen-yeH₂; Gheg grue, Tosk grua "wife" < *gʷn-ōn A śäṁ (pl. śnu), B śana "woman, wife" Luwian wanatti "woman, wife"

Pronouns, particles[edit]

PIE English Gothic Latin Ancient Greek Sanskrit Iranian Slavic Baltic Celtic Armenian Albanian Tocharian Hittite
*egH₂ "I" I (< OE ic̣) ik "I" egō "I" < *egoH₂ egṓ, egṓn "I" ahám "I" < *egH₂-om Av azǝm, OPers adam, Parth. az "I" < *egH₂-omKurdish ez "I (direct case)" OCS azŭ "I" Lith àš, OLith , OPrus as, Latv es "I" es "I" es "I" u, unë "I" (-në possibly originally a suffix) ñuk "I" ūk "I" influenced by ammuk "me"
*H₁me- "me (acc.)" me (< OE , mec < *H₁me-ge) mik "me (acc.)" mē(d) "me (acc.)" emé, me "me (acc.)" mām "me (acc.)" < *H₁mē-m, "me (acc. encl.)" Av mąm "me" OCS "me (acc.)" < *H₁mē-m Lith manè "me (acc.)" OIr me-sse, mé, W mi "I" is "me (acc.)" <? *H₁me-ge mua, mue "me (acc.)" < *H₁mē-m ammuk "me (acc., dat.)" < *H₁me-ge, -mu "me (acc. encl.)"
*H₁meĝʰi "me (dat.)", *(H₁)moi "me (dat. encl.)" me (< OE ) mis "me (dat.)" mihi "me (dat.)" moi "me (dat., gen. encl.)" máhya(m) "me (dat.)", mḗ, me "me (dat. encl.)" Av maibya "me (dat.)" (? not in Pokorny), me (Old Avestan moi) "me (dat. encl.)" OCS mi (dat enc.) < *(H₁)moi Lith man "for me", OPrus maiy "me (dat. encl.)" OIr infix -m- "me"; W -'m infixed accusative first person singular pronoun "me" inj "me (dat.)" meje ammuk "me (acc., dat.)" < *H₁me-ge, -mi "me (dat. encl.)"
*H₁meme-, *H₁mene- "of me, mine"; * H₁mo-yo-, * H₁me-yo- "my" my, mine (< OE mīn < *H₁mei-no-) meins "my"; meina "of me" meī "of me"; meus "my" < *H₁me-yo- emeĩo "of me"; emós "my" máma "of me"; ma/mā "my" < *H₁mo- Av mana, OPers manā "of me"; Av ma (m/n), (f) "my" OCS mene "to me", moj/a/e (m/f/n) "mine" Lith mana(s), OPrus mais/maia "my" W fyn "of me, my"; Breton ma "of me, my" im "my" im "my" (article i + em) AB ñi "my" < Proto-Tocharian *mäñi miš "my" < *H₁me-yo-
*tu "you" (nom. sg.) thou (< OE þū "you") þu "you" "you" Doric (standard ) t(u)vám "you"; Av "you"

NPers to "you"

OCS ty "you" Lith , OPr tu "you" OIr tū, tu-ssu, tu-sso, W ti du "you" ti "you" A tu, B t(u)we "you" zik, zikka "you" < *tega < *te + *egō
*wei "we"; *n̥s-mé, encl. *nos "us" we (< OE ), us (< OE ūs < PGerm *uns < *n̥s) weis "we", uns "us" nōs "we, us" hēm- "we, us";[6] Aeol ámme "us" < *asme < *n̥sme vay-ám "we" < *wei-óm, asmān "us" < *n̥sme + acc. -ān, encl. naḥ "us" < *nos Av vaēm "we", ahma "us", encl. nǝ̄, nā̊, nō "us" Bulg nìe "we", OCS gen. nasŭ "us" < *nōs-sōm Lith mès "we"; OPr gen. nōuson "ours" < *nōs-sōm OIr ni "we, us" <? *s-nēs, gen. ar n- < *n̥s-rō-m; W ni "we" < *nēs na "we" < *nŏs, ne "us" < *nōs A was, B wes "we" wēs "we" < *wei-es, anzāš "us", encl. naš "us"
*yū "you (nom. pl.)"; *us-wé, *us-mé,[7] encl. *wos "you (acc./dat. pl.)" ye (< OE "you (nom. pl.)"), you (< OE ēow[8] "you (acc./dat. pl.)") jūs "you (nom. pl.)", izwis[8] "you (acc./dat. pl.)" vōs "you (nom./acc. pl.)" hum- "you (pl.)"; Aeol úmme "you (acc. pl.)" < *usme yūyám "you (nom. pl.)", yuṣmā́n "you (acc. pl.)" < y- + *usme + acc. -ān, encl. vaḥ "you (obl. pl.)" Av yūžǝm, yūš "you (nom. pl.)", yūšmat̃ "you (abl. pl.)", encl. vā̊ "you (obl. pl.)" OCS vy "you (nom./acc. pl.)", vasŭ "yours (pl.)" Lith jũs "you (nom. pl.)", jũsų "yours (pl.)"; OPr iouson "yours (pl.)" OIr sī, sissi "you (nom. pl.)" < *sw-, uai-b "of you (pl.)" < *ō-swī, NIr far n- "your (pl.)"; W chwi "you (nom. pl.)" < *sw- ju "you (nom. pl.)" < *u < *vos A yas, B yes "you (nom. pl.)" sumes < *usme
*s(w)e- "oneself"; (reflexive pronoun) self (< OE self, seolf) swes (ref. gn. pn.), OHG sih (ref. pn.) (ref. pn.) (ref. pn.) sva- (ref. pn.) Avestan hva- (ref. pn.) Bulg sèbe "oneself", OCS svoji (ref. gn. pn.) Lith sava(s), OPrus swajs "my own, myself" OIr fein (self, himself); W hun(an) "self, myself, himself/herself etc" iwr self, himself/herself vetë A ṣn-i, B ṣañ "(one's) own" Lydian s'fa- (ref. pn.), Carian sfes (ref. pn.)
*kʷid, kʷod "what" what (< OE hwæt) ƕa "what" quid "what?", quod "what…, that…" "what?", "what…" kím "what" NPers či, če "what" Bulg kakvò "what", OCS čь-to "what?" Lith kàd "that..."; OPrus kawids "which, what a" OIr cid "what?" *i (ēr) (< *hi), inčʿ (< *hi-nč’) "what?" çfarë "what?" kuit (?) "what", kuit-ki "whatever"; Luvian kuit "what?"
*kʷis, kʷos, kʷei/kʷoi "who" who (< OE hwā < *kʷoi) ƕas "who?" quis "who?", quī "who..." tís, Thess kís, CyprArc sís "who?", tìs "who…" káḥ, kíḥ "who?" Av kō (ka-hyā, ča-hyā) "who?, which?", čiš "who" Bulg kòj "who", OCS kъ-to (česo) "who?" Lith kàs "who?"; OPrus kas "who" OIr cia, W pwy "who" о (oyr) "who?"


"A" "B" kush acc. "who?" A kus, B kuse "who, which" kuiš "who, which"
*-kʷe "and; any" -(u)h "and", ƕaz-uh "whoever" -que "and", quis-que "each one, whoever"; Venetic -ke "and"; South Picenian -p "and" -te "and", tís te, hós-te "whoever" -ca "and", káś-ca "whoever" Av ča, OPers čā "and"; Av čiš-ca, OPers čiš-čiy "whoever" Bulg če "but, and, because"; Old Czech a-če, "if" OIr na-ch, MW nac "not" < "*and not";[9] Lepontic -pe "and" o-kʿ "whoever" Lydian -k "and"; Hitt kuis-ki, Lycian ti-ke "whoever"
*n̥- "not, un-" un- (< OE un-) un- "un-" in- (archaic en-) "un-" a-, an- "un-" a-, an-, na- "un-" Av, OPers a-, an- "un-" OCS ne- "not" < *ne- Lith ne- < *ne-, OPrus ni- "not" OIr in-, ē-, an-, W an- "un-" an- "un-" nuk "not" AB a(n)-, am-, e(n)-, em-, on- "un-"


PIE English Gothic Latin Ancient Greek Sanskrit Iranian Slavic Baltic Celtic Armenian Albanian Tocharian Hittite
*sem- "one, together" same (< ON samr); OE sam- "together"; [also German Language zusammen] sama "same" sem-el "once", sem-per "always", sim-plex "single, simple", sin-gulī "one each, single" heĩs, hén, mía "one" < *sems, *sem, *smiH₂ sam- "together", samá "same, equal, any" Av hama-, OPers hama- "any, all" OCS samŭ "self, alone, one" Lith sam-, są- "with"; OPrus sa-, sen- "with, dividing" OIr samlith "at the same time"; W hafal "equal" mi "one" A sas, B ṣe "one" < *sems
*ói-nos, ói-wos "one" one (< OE ān) ains "one" ūnus (archaic oinos) oĩnos "one (on a die)", oĩ(w)os "alone" (ēka- < *oi-ko-; Late Proto-Indic aika-vartana "one turn (around a track)") Av aēva-, OPers aiva- "one, only, alone" OCS inŭ "one, another" Lith víenas, OPrus ains "one" OIr ōen, W un "one" andr-ēn "right there", ast-ēn "right here" ? Gheg tânë, Tosk tërë "all" < PIE *tod-oino-; ??? një "one" < *ňân < PIE *eni-oino-[10] B -aiwenta "group" < "*unit"
*dwóH₁ , neut. *dwóy(H₁) "two" two (< OE twā) twái (fem. twōs, neut. twa) "two" duo "two" dúō "two" dvā́(u) "two" Av dva, fem. neut. baē "two"

NPers do "two"

OCS dŭva "two" Lith , OPrus dwai "two" OIr da, W dau (fem. dwy) "two" erku "two" dy "two" A wu, B wi "two" dā-, Lycian cbi-/tbi- "two"
*tréyes (fem. *tisres,[11] neut. *tríH₂) "three" three (< OE þrīe) þreis "three" trēs "three" treĩs "three" tráyaḥ (fem. tisráḥ) "three" Av ϑrayō, ϑrayas (fem. tisrō, neut. ϑri), OPers çi-, Parth hrē "three" OCS trĭje "three" Lith trỹs, OPrus tris, Latg treis "three" OIr trí (fem. téoir), W tri (fem. tair, teir) "three" erekʿ "three" tre masc., tri fem. "three" A tre, B trai "three" tri- "three"
*kʷetwóres (fem. *kʷétesres, neut. *kʷetwṓr) "four" four (< OE fēower) fidwor "four" (In Germanic influenced by pénkʷe "five") quattuor "four" téssares "four" masc. catvā́raḥ (acc. catúraḥ), neut. catvā́ri, fem. cátasraḥ "four" Av masc. čaϑwārō (acc. čaturąm), fem. čataŋrō "four"; NPers čahār "four" OCS četyre "four" Lith keturì, OPrus ketturei "four" OIr ceth(a)ir (fem. cethēoir, influenced by fem. tēoir "three") "four"; W pedwar (fem. pedair) "four" čʿorkʿ, kʿaṙ (rare) "four katër "four" A śtwar, B śtwer "four"
*pénkʷe "five" five (< OE fīf) fimf "five" quīnque "five" pénte "five" páñca "five" Av panča "five" OCS pętĭ "five" Lith penkì, OPrus penkei "five" OIr cóic, W pum(p) "five" hing "five" pesë "five" A päñ, B piś "five"
*swék̂s "six" six (< OE siex) sáihs "six" sex "six" héx, dial. wéx "six" ṣáṣ "six" Av xšvaš "six" OCS šestĭ "six" Lith šešì, OPrus uššai "six" OIr , W chwe(ch) "six" vecʿ "six" gjashtë "six" A ṣäk, B ṣkas "six"
*septḿ̥ "seven" seven (< OE seofon) sibun "seven" septem "seven" heptá "seven" saptá "seven" Av hapta "seven" OCS sedmĭ "seven" Lith septynì, OPrus septinnei "seven" OIr secht, W saith "seven" eawtʿn "seven" shtatë "seven" A ṣpät, B ṣukt "seven" sipta- "seven"
*H₁ok̂tō(u) "eight" eight (< OE eahta) ahtáu "eight" octō "eight" oktṓ "eight" aṣṭā́(u) "eight" Av ašta "eight" OCS osmĭ "eight"[12] Lith aštuonì, OPrus astonei, Latg ostoni "eight" OIr ocht n- "eight";[13] W wyth "eight" utʿ "eight" tetë "eight" < *H₁ok̂tō-t- A okät, B okt "eight"
*(H₁)néwn̥ "nine" nine (< OE nigon) niun "nine" novem "nine" ennéa "nine" náva "nine" Av nava "nine" OCS devętĭ "nine" < *newn̥-ti- (Influenced by dékm̥t "ten") Lith devynì (influenced by dékm̥t "ten"), OPrus newinei "nine" OIr noí n-, W naw "nine" inn "nine" nëntë "nine" < *newn̥-ti- AB ñu
*dék̂m̥t "ten" ten (< OE tien) taíhun "ten" decem "ten" déka "ten" dáśa "ten" Av dasa "ten" OCS desętĭ "ten" Lith dẽšimt, OPrus desimtan "ten" OIr deich, W deg, deng "ten" tasn "ten" dhjetë "ten" < *dék̂m̥t-i- A śäk, B śak "ten"
*wī́k̂m̥tiH₁ "twenty" < *dwi-dk̂m̥t-iH₁ "two tens" (remodelled) (remodelled) vīgintī "twenty" eíkosi "twenty" viṁśatí "twenty", dviṁśatí "twenty" Av vīsaiti, Ossetian insäi "twenty" (remodelled) Lith dvidešimt "twenty" OIr fiche (fichet), OW uceint "twenty" kʿsan "twenty" zet "twenty" A wiki, B ikäṃ "twenty"
*k̂m̥tóm "hundred" < *dk̂m̥tóm hundred (< OE hund, hund-red) hunda (pl.) "hundred" centum "hundred" he-katón "hundred" śatám "hundred" Av satǝm "hundred" OCS sŭto "hundred" Lith šim̃tas, OPrus simtan "hundred" OIr cét, W can(t) "hundred" A känt, B kante "hundred"

Body parts[edit]

PIE English Gothic Latin Ancient Greek Sanskrit Iranian Slavic Baltic Celtic Armenian Albanian Tocharian Hittite
*(d)ákru- "tear" tear (< OE tēar, tæhher) tagr "tear" lacrima "tear" dákru "tear" áśru "tear" Av asrū- "tear" OPrus assara "tear", Lith ašara "tear OIr dēr, W deigr "tear"; Cornish dagr "tear" artawsr "tear" < *drak̂ur A ākär "tear", B pl. akrūna "tears" isḫaḫru "tear"
*dn̥ĝʰuH₂-, *dn̥ĝʰwéH₂ "tongue" tongue (< OE tunge) tuggō "tongue" lingua "tongue" (archaic dingua) jihvā́ "tongue" < *ĝiĝʰwā, juhū́ Av hizvā < *ĝiĝʰwā, OPers hizān, Parth ezβān "tongue"[14] OCS języ-kŭ "tongue" < *n̥ĝʰū-k- OPrus inzuws "tongue", Lith liežuvis "tongue" teng "tongue"; W tafod "tongue, language" lezu "tongue" (influenced by lizem, "I lick") Alb Gjuhë "tongue" (*Guh) A käntu, B kantwo "tongue" (*kantwa < *tankwa)
*ésH₂r̥, *esH₂nés "blood" archaic aser, sanguis "blood" éar "blood" ásṛj, ásr̥k, asnáḥ "blood" Lat asins, Ltg asnis (gen. ašņa) "blood" ariwn "blood" A ysār "blood" ēsḫar (esḫanas) "blood"
ĝ(o)nH₂dʰos "jaw, cheek, chin" chin (< OE c̣inn) kinnus "cheek" gena "cheek" génus (génuos) "chin, jaw"; gnátʰos, gnatʰmós "jaw" < *ĝnH₂dʰ- hánu-ṣ "jaw" < *ĝʰenu-s, gaṇḍa "cheek" Av zānu- "jaw-" < *ĝʰenu-s, OPers danūg < *danu-ka-, Parth zanax "chin, jaw" NPers gune "cheek" chune "jaw" OPrus żauna "jaw", Lith žándas "cheek" OIr gi(u)n "mouth"; W gên, pl. geneu "cheek, chin"; Old Cornish pl. genau < *genewes "cheeks, chins" cn-awt "jaw, cheek" Alb Gushë neck A śanwe-m "jaw"
*ĝénu, ĝnéus "knee" knee (< OE cnēo) kniu "knee" genū "knee" gónu (Hom gen. gounós < *gonwós) "knee", pró-kʰnu "with outstretched knee" < *pró-gʰnu jā́nu "knee", pra-jñuḥ "bow-legged" Av acc. žnūm, dat./abl. pl. žnubyō "knee", fra-šnu- "holding the knee forward"; Parth zānūk, NPers zānū "knee" cunr, nom pl. cungkʿ "knee" gjuni "knee" < Post-PIE *ĝnu-n(o)- A kanweṃ, B keni "two knees" genu "knee"
*H₁dónt-, *H₁dn̥t- "tooth" tooth (< OE tōþ < *H₁dont-) tunþus "tooth" < *H₁dn̥t- dēns (dentis) "tooth" < *H₁dn̥t- odṓn (odóntos) "tooth" < Proto-Greek *edónt-, cf. Aeol. édontes "teeth" dán, dántaḥ "tooth" Av dantan-, dātā "tooth" NPers dandân "tooth" Russ. desná "gum" < *H₁dent-sn- OPrus dants "tooth", Lith dantis "tooth" OIr dēt "tooth", W dant "tooth" atamn "tooth" dhëmb "tooth"
*H₂óst- "bone" os (ossis) "bone" ostéon "bone" ásthi (asthnáḥ) "bone" Av ast-, asti- (gen. pl. astąm, instr. pl. azdbīš) "bone" NPers ostoxan "bone" OCS kostĭ "bone" OIr asil "limb", MIr asna "rib" <? *astonyo-; MW ass-en, asseu "rib", W asgwrn "bone" < *ost-ko- os-kr "bone" asht, ahstë "bone" B āy, pl. āsta "bone" ḫastāi- "bone"
*H₂ous- "ear" ear (< OE ēare) áusō "ear" auris "ear" oũs "ear" ūṣa "cavity of the ear" Av uši "both ears"; NPers hoš "ear" OCS ucho (ušese) "ear" OPrus auss "ear", Lith ausis "ear" OIr āu, ō "ear" unkn, nom pl. akanǰkʿ "ear" vesh "ear" < *ōus, *ōs-
*H₃okʷ- "eye" eye (< OE ēage) áugō "eye" oculus "eye" < *ōkʷelo-s ósse "both eyes"; ómma "eye" < *óp-mn̥; ökkon[15] "eye" ákṣi (akṣṇáḥ) "eye" Av aši "both eyes" OCS oko "eye" OPrus aks "eye", Lith akis "eye" OIr enech, W enep "face" akn, nom pl. ačʿkʿ "eye" sy "eye" A ak, B ek "eye"
*k̂erd- "heart"; *k̂red-dʰē- "to believe" heart (< OE heorte) haírtō "heart" cor (cordis) "heart"; crēdō "I believe" < *krezdō- < *k̂red-dʰē- kardíā, Homeric kradíē, Cypriot korízdā "heart" < *k̂r̥d(y)ā; poetic kẽr (kẽros) "heart" < *k̂ērd hṛd "heart" < post-PIE *ĝhr̥d; hṛdaya, hārdi "heart"; śrad-dadʰāti "(he) trusts, believes" Av zǝrǝd "heart" < post-PIE *ĝhr̥d; zrazdā- "to believe" < *srazdā[16] OCS sŭrdĭce "heart", serda "medium, core" OPrus siran "heart", serds "core", Lith širdis "heart", šerdis "core" OIr cride "heart"; W craidd "center"; Old Irish cretim, W credaf "I believe" sirt "heart" A kri "will", B pl. käryāñ "hearts" Hitt karz (kardias) "heart"; Luw zarza "heart"[17]
*nas- "nose" nose (< OE nosu) ON nǫs "nose" nāsus, nāris "nose" nas- "nose" Av nāh-, nā̊ŋhan-, OPers acc. sg. nāham "nose" OCS nosŭ "nose" OPrus nasi "nose", Lith nosis "nose" Alb Hundë/Hun nose
*pōds, *ped- "foot" foot (< OE fōt) fōtus "foot" pēs (pedis) "foot" poús (podós) "foot" pāt (padáḥ) "foot" Av pad-, OPers pād, Parth pāδ "foot" NPers pa "foot" OCS pěšǐ "on foot" OPrus pida "foot", Lith pėda "foot" OIr īs "below" < PIE loc. pl. *pēd-su; W is(od) "below, under; lower (than)" otn "foot", otkʿ "feet" poshtë "below" A pe "foot", B paiyye "foot" pata-, Luvian pata- "foot"
*yḗkʷr̥, yekʷnés "liver" jecur (jecinoris) "liver" hẽpar (hḗpatos) "liver" yákr̥t (yaknáḥ) "liver" Av yākarǝ, NPers ǰigar, Pashto yī̆na "liver" Serbian jetra "liver", Serbian and Macedonian ikra "fish roe" OPrus jakna, Lat aknas "liver", Lith jeknos W (i)afu "liver"; MIr i(u)chair (i(u)chrach) "fish roe" leard "liver"

*ǵʰésr̥ ~ *ǵʰs-r-és



"hand" (rare, anatomical)





Av zas-ta



"hand, arm"



A tsar,

B ṣar "hand"


"hand",[18] Luwian īssaris "hand"


PIE English Gothic Latin Ancient Greek Sanskrit Iranian Slavic Baltic Celtic Armenian Albanian Tocharian Hittite
*ék̂wos "horse", "fast animal" OE eoh "horse" aíƕa- "horse"[19] equus "horse" híppos "horse" áśvaḥ "horse" Av aspa-, OPers asa- "horse"; Ossetian yäfs "horse" < *yék̂wos

NPers asp "horse"

OCS jastrębъ "hawk" (literally "a fast bird") OPrus kaiwi "mare", Lith ašva "mare OIr ech; MW ebawl "horse" < PBryth *ep-ālos ēš "donkey" A yuk, B yakwe "horse" Luwian ásùwa "horse"
*gʷōus "cattle"[20][21] cow (< OE ) Old Saxon , OHG chuo "cow" bōs (bovis) "cattle"; Umbrian acc. bum "cow"[22] boũs, Dor bõs (bo(w)ós) "cattle, cow" gáuḥ (gṓḥ)[20] "cow" Av gāuš (gāuš)[20] "cow" NPers gāv "cow" Croatian gòvedo "cattle" < PSlav *govędo; OCS gu-mǐno "threshing floor" Latvian gùovs "cow", Lith karvė "cow", galvijas "a cattle" OIr bó (bóu/báu)[23] "cow"; OW buch "cow" < *boukkā, bu-gail "cowherd" < *gʷou-kʷolyos kov "cow" ka "ox" A ko "cow", B keu "cow" HierLuv wawa-, Lycian wawa-, uwa- "cow"
*H₂ówi- "sheep " ewe (< OE ēow "sheep", ēowu "ewe") awistr "sheepfold"; OHG ouwi, ou "sheep" ovis "sheep" ó(w)is "sheep" ávi- "sheep" Wakhi yobc "ewe" < PIran *āvi-či- Bulg ovèn "ram", OCS ovĭ-ca "ewe" OPrus awwins "ram", Lith avis "female sheep" avinas "ram" OIr ōi "sheep"; W ewig "deer" hov-iw "shepherd" B eye "sheep", ā(u)w "ewe" Luvian hāwa/i-, Lycian χawa- "sheep"
*H₂rtk̂os "bear"[24] ursus "bear" árktos "bear" ŕ̥kṣaḥ "bear" YAv arša, Ossetian ars "bear" , NPers xers "bear" Lith urgzti "to growl" MIr art, W arth "bear" arǰ "bear" arí "bear" ḫartaqqas (name of a beast of prey)
*k̂won- "hound, dog"[25] hound (< OE hund "dog") hunds "dog" canis "dog" kúōn (kunós) "dog" śvan(śunaḥ) "dog" Av spā (acc. spānǝm, pl. gen. sū̆nam), MPers sak, Kurdish se, seg, Wakhi šač "dog" Bulg kùt͡ʃe "dog", OCS suka "bitch (female dog)" OPrus sunnis "dog", Lith šuo "dog" OIr cú (con), W ci "dog" šun "dog" possibly qen (disputed, possible Latin loan) AB ku "dog" (acc. A koṃ, B kweṃ) Hittite kun- HierLuv suwanni "dog"
*muH₁s- "mouse" mouse (< OE mūs) ON mús "mouse" mūs "mouse" mũs "mouse" mū́ṣ- "mouse" OPers muš "mouse" (? not in Pokorny; Pokorny has NPers mūš "mouse") Kurdish mişk "mouse" OCS myšĭ "mouse" mukn "mouse" mi "mouse"
*suHs- "pig" sow (< OE ) ON sýr "sow" sūs "pig" hũs, sũs "pig" sū-kara "pig"; Hindi sūvar "pig" Av (gen. sg.) "pig" , NPers xuk "pig" Bulg svinjà "swine, sow" Latvian suvẽns, sivẽns "piglet" OIr socc sáil "sea pig"; W hwch "sow, swine" khos "pig" thi "pig" B suwo "pig"
*wl̥kʷos "wolf" wolf (< OE wulf) wulfs (wulfis) "wolf" lupus "wolf" lúkos "wolf" vŕ̥kaḥ "wolf" Av vǝhrka- "wolf" , NPers gorg "wolf" Bulg vɤ̞lk "wolf", OCS vlĭkŭ "wolf" OPrus wilks "wolf", Lith vilkas "wolf" OIr olc (uilc) "evil" aghves "fox" ujk < OAlb ulk "wolf" B walkwe "wolf" ulippana "wolf"
*ĝʰans- "goose" goose (< OE gōs) OHG gans "goose" (h)ānser "goose" kʰḗn "goose" haṁsáḥ "goose" Av zāō "goose" (? not in Pokorny); Sogdian z’γ "kind of bird" , NPers ɣaz "goose" Bulg gɤ̞ska "goose", OCS gǫsǐ "goose" OPrus zansi "goose", Lith žąsis "goose" OIr gēiss "swan" W gwydd "goose" gatë "heron"
*H₂enH₂-t(i)- "duck" Scot ennet "duck" (< OE ened) OHG enita "duck" ānas "duck" nessa, netta "duck" ātí- "waterfowl" Ossetic acc "Wild duck" , NPers ordak "duck" , NPers ɣu "swan" Russ. utka "duck" OPrus ants "duck", Lith antis "duck" W hwyad(en) "duck" baht "duck" rosë "duck"
*H₁elH₁ēn "deer" élaphos "deer"; Hom ellós "young of the deer" OSl jeleni "deer"; Russ oleni "red deer" Lith élnis "red deer"; Lith élnė "hind" < *H₁elH₁ēniHx "hind, cow-elk" NWel elain "hind" < *H₁elH₁ēniHx "hind, cow-elk"

OIr elit "doe"[26]

ełn "hind" B yal, ylem "gazelle"[27]

B ylaṃśke "young gazelle"[28]

*H₁eĝʰis "hedgehog" OE igil "hedgehog" MycGr e-ki-no;[29] ekhînos "hedgehog" Oss wyzyn "hedgehog" OSl jezĭ "hedgehog"; Rus "hedgehog" Lith ežȳs "hedgehog" ozni "hedgehog"
*bʰébʰrus "beaver" beaver (< OE beofer) OHG bibar "beaver"; OIc biorr "beaver" fīber "beaver" babʰrú "mongoose" Av baβra- "beaver" Rus bobr "beaver" Lith bebrùs "beaver"; Pruss bebrus "beaver" Gaul bebru- ; OIr Bibar


PIE English Gothic Latin Ancient Greek Sanskrit Iranian Slavic Baltic Celtic Armenian Albanian Tocharian Hittite
*ĝr̥H₂-no- "grain" corn (< OE corn "grain") kaúrn "corn" grānum "grain" dhānya "grain, cereal" OCS zrŭno "grain" OPrus zirni "grain", Lith žirnis "pea", girna "millstone" OIr grān, W grawn "grain" cʿorean "wheat, grain, corn" grurëTosk grun, gruni Gheg "grain"
*H₂éĝros "field" acre (< OE æcer "field") akrs "field" ager (agrī) "field" agrós "field" ájraḥ "meadow" art "soil" arë "field"
*H₂erH₃- "to plow" OE erian "to plow" arjan "to plow" arō (arāre) "to plow", arātrum "plow" aróō "I plow" < *H₂erH₃-oH₂, árotron "plow" hala "plow" OCS orjǫ (orati) "to plow", ralo < *ar(ə)dhlom "plow" OPrus artun "to plow", Lith arti "to plow" MIr airim "I plow", W arddu "to plow" < *arj-; MIr arathar, W aradr "plow" < *arətrom < *H₂erH₃-trom ara-wr "plow" arë "arable land" *H₂r̥H₃-uer- AB āre "plow"
*H₂melĝ- "to milk" milk (< OE meolc, mioluc) miluks (miluks) "milk" mulgeō (mulgēre) "to milk" amélgō "I milk" mā́ršti, mā́rjati, mr̥játi "(he) wipes, cleans" Av marǝzaiti, mǝrǝzaiti "(he) grazes (barely touches)" Russ. CS mŭlzu (mlěsti) "to milk", Pol mleko "milk" OPrus milztun "to milk", Lith melžti "to milk" W blith "milk, dairy produce; full of milk", MIr bligim "I milk" < *mligim, melg "milk" miel, mil "I milk" A malke B malk-wer "milk"
*melH₂- "to grind" meal (< OE melu) malan "to grind" molō (molere) "to grind" múllō "I grind" mr̥ṇāti, mr̥nati "(he) grinds" Av mrāta- "tanned soft" OCS meljǫ (mlětĭ) "to grind" OPrus maltun "to grind", Lith malti "to grind" OIr melim "I grind"; W malu "grind" mał "sieve" mał-em "I grind, crush" mjell "flour" A malywët "you press"; B melye "they trample" mallai "grinds"
*meli-t, *mel-nés "honey" mildew (< OE mele-dēaw "honeydew") miliþ "honey" mel (mellis) "honey" méli (mélit-) "honey" milinda "honey-bee" Bulg med "honey" OIr mil, W mêl "honey" mełr "honey" mjal, mjaltë "honey" milit "honey"
*médʰu "honey", "mead"" mead (< OE medu) midus "mead" mēdus "a type of mead"[30] métʰu "wine" mádʰu "sweet drink, honey" Proto-Iranian mádu "honey, wine" OCS medŭ "honey" OPrus meddu "honey", Lith medus "honey", Ltg mads "honey" OIr mid "mead"; W medd "mead" B mit "honey"[31]
*sal- "salt" salt (< OE sealt) salt "salt" sāl (salis) "salt" háls (halós) "salt" sal-ilá- "salty" OCS solǐ "salt" OPrus sals "salt", saldus "sweet OIr salann, W halen "salt" "salt" ngjel-bëtë, ngjel-mëtë "salty", njel-m "to be salty" A sāle, B salyiye "salt"
*seH₁- "to sow (seed)", *séH₁mn̥ "seed" sow (< OE sāwan) saian "to sow"; OHG sāmo "seed" serō (serere) "to sow" < *si-sH₁-oH₂, sēmen "seed" sī́ra- "Saatpflug" (seed plow?) OCS sějǫ (sějati) "to sow", sěmę "seeds" OPrus situn "to sow", simen "seed", Lith sėti "to sow", sekla "seed", semenis "linseed" OIr sīl, W hil "seed" < *seH₁-lo- sermn "seed" isḫūwāi "(he) sows"
*yugóm "yoke" yoke (< OE ġeoc) juk "yoke" iugum "yoke" zugón "yoke" yugám "yoke" Av yaoj-, yuj- "to harness" OCS igo "yoke" OPrus jugtun "yoke", Lith jungas "yoke" W iau "yoke" luc "yoke" A yokäm "door" yugan "yoke"

Bodily functions and states[edit]

PIE English Gothic Latin Ancient Greek Sanskrit Iranian Slavic Baltic Celtic Armenian Albanian Tocharian Hittite
*H₂enH₁- "to breathe" OE ōþian "breathe hard" < PGerm *anþōjanã *uz-anan "to expire", ON anda "to breathe" anima "breath" ánemos "wind" ániti "(he) breathes" Av ā̊ntya, parā̊ntya (gen.) "breathing in and out" OCS vonja "smell" < *H₂en-yeH₂[32] OIr anāl "breath" < *H₂enH̥₁-tlo- ; W anadl "breath" hołm "wind", anjn "person" Gheg âj Tosk ēnj "I swell" AB āñm- "spirit", B añiye "breath", B anāsk- "breathe in"
*swep- "to sleep", *swepnos "dream (n.)" archaic sweven "dream, vision" (< OE swefn); NoEng sweb "to swoon" (< OE swebban "to put to sleep, lull") ON sofa "sleep (v.)"; Svafnir[33] "Sleep-Bringer (a name of Odin)" somnus "sleep (n.)"; sōpiō[34] (v.) "make asleep" húpnos "sleep (n.)" svápnaḥ "sleep, dream (n.)" Av xᵛafna- "sleep (n.)" NPers xwãb- "sleep" OCS sŭpati[35] "sleep (v.)", sŭnŭ "sleep (n.), dream (n.)" OPrus supnas "dream", Lith sapnas "dream" OIr sūan, W hun "sleep (n.)" kʿnem "I sleep", kʿun "sleep (n.)" gjumë "sleep (n.)" TA ṣpäṃ, TB ṣpane "sleep (n.), dream (n.)" sup-, suppariya- "to sleep"
*sweid- "sweat" sweat (< OE swǣtan "to sweat") ON sveiti sūdor "sweat (n.)" (e)ĩdos "sweat (n.)" svḗda- "sweat (n.)" Av xᵛaēda- "sweat (n.)" Latvian sviêdri (pl.) "sweat (n.)" W chwys "sweat (n.)" < *swidso- kʿirtn "sweat (n.)" dirsë, djersë "sweat (n.)" < *swí-drōxty- B syā-lñe "sweating" < *swid-yé-
*H₁ed- "to eat" eat (< OE etan) itan "to eat" edō (ēsse) "to eat", ēst "(he) eats" édō "I eat", Homeric athematic infinitive édmenai "to eat" ádmi "I eat", átti "(he) eats" Av subj. aδāiti "(he) should eat" OCS jamĭ "I eat" < *H₁ēd-mi, jastŭ "(he) eats" OPrus istun "to eat", ėsti, Lith "to eat", ėdmi "I eat" OIr ci-ni estar "although he doesn't eat"; W ys "eats" < *H₁ed-ti utem "I eat" < *ōd- ha "to eat" ēdmi "I eat"
*peH₃- "to drink" potable (< OF potable)

imbibe (< Lat. bibere "to drink" via OF imbiber)

bibō (bibere) "to drink", pōtus "drink (n.)" pī́nō, pépomai "I drink" pā́ti, píbati "(he) drinks" Av vispo-pitay- "alltränkend" giving water/drinks to all OCS pijǫ (piti) "to drink" OPrus putun "to drink", puja "a party", Lith puota "party" OIr ibid "drinks" < *pibeti; W yfwn "we drink" əmpem "I drink" "I drink" pāsi "he swallows"
*ĝenH₁-, *gi-ĝnéH₁(-sk̂)-, *ĝn̥-néH₁- "to give birth" kind (< OE (ġe)cynd); OE cennan "produce" -kunds "born"; OHG kind "child" gignō (gignere) "to produce" (OLat. genō); nā-scor (nāscī) "to be born" < *ĝn̥H₁-skṓ-r gígnomai "I become" jánati "(he) gives birth", jajanti "they give birth" Av zīzǝnti, zīzanǝnti "they give birth" OCS



OPrus gamintun "to give birth", gimdyti "to give birth" OIr -gainethar "who is born" < *ĝn̥-ye-tro;[32] W geni "to be born" cnanim "I am born, bear" dhëndër, dhândër "son-in-law, bridegroom" < *ĝenH̥₁-tr-[36] AB kän- "to come to pass (of a wish), be realized"
*H₂eug-, H₂weg- "to grow, increase" eke (< OE ēacian "to increase"); wax (of the moon) (< OE weaxan "to grow") aukan, auknan "to increase (intr.)", wahsjan "to grow" < orig. caus. *H₂wog-s-éy-onom augeō (augēre) "to increase (tr.)" a(w)éksō "I increase (intr.)", aúksō, auksánō "I increase (tr.)" úkṣati "(he) becomes stronger", vakṣáyati "(he) causes to grow" Av uxšyeiti "(he) grows", vaxšaiti "(he) causes to grow" OCS jugъ "south" (the direction to where the Sun rises) OPrus augtwei "to grow", Lith augti " to grow" OIr fēr, W gwêr "fat" < *weg- ačem "I grow, become big" A oksiṣ "(he) grows"; A okṣu, В aukṣu "grown"
*gʷiH₃wo- "alive", *gʷiH₃wo-teH₂ "life" quick (< OE cwicu "alive") qius "alive" vīvus "alive"; vīta "life" bíos, bíotos "life", zoo "animal" jīvá-, jīvaka- "alive", jīvitam, jīvā́tuḥ, jīvathaḥ "life" Av gayō, acc. ǰyātum "life", -ǰyāiti- "life-"; Av ǰva-, OPers ǰīva- "alive" OCS živŭ "alive", žitĭ, životŭ "life" OPrus giws "alive", giwata "life", Lith gyvas "alive", gyvatė "snake" OIr biu, beo, W byw "alive"; OIr bethu (bethad), W bywyd "life" < Proto-Celtic *bivo-tūts keam "I live" < *gʷi-yā-ye-mi[32] B śai- "to live" < *gweiH₃-ō
*mer- "to die" murder (< OE morþor < *mr̥-tro-m) maúrþr "murder" morior (morī) "to die" < *mr̥-yōr, mortalis "mortal" brotós (< *mrotós), mortós "mortal" marati, máratē, mriyátē "(he) dies", mṛtá- "dead", mártaḥ, mortal Av merə- "to die", miryeite "dies"; OPers martiya- "man" OCS mĭrǫ, mrěti "to die" Lith miŕštu (miŕti) "to die", merdėti "to die slowly" OIr marb, W marw "dead" < mr̥-wós meṙanim "I die", mard "human" mert "died"

Mental functions and states[edit]

PIE English Gothic Latin Ancient Greek Sanskrit Iranian Slavic Baltic Celtic Armenian Albanian Tocharian Hittite
*k̂leu-(s)- "to hear" listen (< OE hlystan), loud (< OE hlūd) hliuma "hearing, ears (in pl.)" clueō (cluēre) "to be named" ékluon "I heard" śr̥ṇóti "(he) hears" < *k̂l̥-neu- Av surunaoiti "(he) hears" < *k̂lu-n- OCS slyšati "to hear" OPrus klausytun "to hear", Lith klausyti "to listen" OIr ro-clui-nethar "hears"; W clywed "to hear" lsem "I hear" Old Tosk kluaj (standard quaj) "to call, to name" < *k̂lu(H)-eH₁- A klyoṣ-, B klyauṣ- "to hear"
*weid- "to see, find; to know" wit (OE wit "intelligence", witan "to know" < PIE perfect tense) witan "to know" videō (vidēre) "to see" é(w)ide "he saw"

perf. oĩda "I know (lit. I have seen)"

vindáti "(he) finds", ávidat "found"

vetti, vēdate, vidáti "(he) knows", perf. véda "I know"

Av vī̆δaiti, vī̆nasti "(he) finds" OCS viždǫ (viděti) "to see" OPrus widatun "to see", Lith veidas "face" W gweld "to see" gtanem "I find"
*woid- "to know" Av perf. vaēδa "I know", vīdarǝ "they know" OCS věmĭ (věděti) "to know" OPrus waistun "to know", Lith vaistas "medicine", vyda "he sees, knows" OIr find, W gwn "(I) know" gitem "I know" B ūwe "learned" < PToch *wäwen- < *wid-wo-
*ĝénH₃-, *ĝnéH₃-sk̂-, *ĝn̥-né-H₃- "to recognize, know" can (< OE cann "I know, he knows"), know (< OE cnāwan < *ĝnēH₃-yo-nom), Scot ken "to know" (< OE cennan "to cause to know" < PGerm *kann-jan) kunnan "to know" < *ĝn̥-n-H₃-onom, kann "I know" (g)nōscō ((g)nōscere) "to recognize", nōvī "I know" gignṓskō (aorist égnōn) "I recognize" jānā́mi "I know" < *janā́mi < *ĝn̥-nH₃-mi Av zanā-ṯ, zanąn < *ĝn̥-ne-H₃-ti; OPers a-dānā (impf.) "he knew" < *ĝn̥-ne-H₃-mi, xšnāsātiy (subj.) "he should know" < *ĝneH₃-sk̂e-eti OCS znajǫ (znati) "to know" < *ĝneH₃-yoH₂ OPrus zinatun "to recognize, know", Lith žinoti "to know OIr itar-gninim, asa-gninaim "I am wise"; W adnabod "(I) know" čanačʿem, aorist caneay "I recognize" njoh "I know" < *ĝnēH₃-sk̂oH₂ A knā-, e.g. knānmaṃ "knowing" < *ĝneH₃-, kñas-äṣt "you have become acquainted" < *ĝnēH₃-s-
*n̥- + *ĝneH₃-tos "not" + "to know" uncouth (< OE uncūþ "unknown, strange") unkunþs "unknown" ignōtus, ignōrāntem "unknown, ignorant" agnṓs (agnõtos) "unknown" < *n̥- + *ĝnéH₃-ts ajñāta- "unknown" OPrus nezinatun "not to know", Lith nežinoti " not to know" OIr ingnad "foreign" an-can-awtʿ "ignorant, unknown" A ā-knats, B a-knātsa "ignorant"
*men- "to think" mind (< OE (ġe)mynd "memory" < *mn̥t-ís); OE munan "to think" munan "to think"; muns (pl. muneis) "thought" < *mn̥-is; gamunds (gamundáis) "remembrance" < *ko(m)-mn̥t-ís meminī "I remember"; mēns (mentis) "mind" < *mn̥t-is mémona "I think of"; maínomai "I go mad" mányate "(he) thinks" Av mainyeite "(he) thinks"; OPers mainyāhay "I think" OCS mĭněti "to mean" OPrus mintun "to guess", minisna "memory", mints "riddle", mentitun "to lie", Lith mintis " thought", minti "to guess", minėti "to mention" OIr do-moiniur "I believe, I mean" mendoj "I think" A mnu "thought"; B mañu "demand (n.)" memmāi "says"
*sekʷ- "to see, to say" see (< OE sēon); say (< OE sec̣gan < PGerm *sag(w)jan < *sokʷéyonom) saíƕan "to see"; OHG sagen "say" < *sokʷē- īnseque "declare!" énnepe "tell!" śacate "(he) says" OCS sočiti "to announce" Lith sakyti "to say", sekti "to tell a story, to follow" OIr insce "I talk"; OIr rosc "eye" < *pro-skʷo-; OW hepp "(he) said" sheh "(he) sees" A ṣotre, B ṣotri "sign" sakuwāi- "to see"
*wekʷ- "to say" OE wōma "noise" < *wōkʷ-mō(n) OHG giwahanen "mention" < PGerm *gawahnjan (denom. built on *wokʷ-no-) vocō (vocāre) "to call", vōx (vōcis) "voice" eĩpon (aor.) "spoke" < *e-we-ikʷ-om < *e-we-ukʷ-om, (w)épos "word" vákti, vívakti "(he) says", vāk "voice", vácas- "word" Av vač- "speak, say", vāxš "voice", vačah "word" OCS vikǫti "to call, to scream" OPrus enwackēmai "we call" OIr foccul "word", W gwaethl "fight" < * wokʷ-tlo-m gočem "I call" A wak, B wek "voice" ḫuek-, ḫuk- to swear to"
*prek̂-, *pr̥-sk̂- < *pr̥k̂-sk̂- "to ask" Scot frain "to ask" (< OE freġnan) fraíhnan "to ask"; OHG forscōn "to ask, to research" precor (precārī) "to pray", poscō (poscere) "to demand, ask" pr̥ccháti "(he) asks" Av pǝrǝsaiti "(he) asks, desires" < *pr̥-sk̂-; OPers aor.? aparsam "(he) asked" OCS prositi "to pray" OPrus prasitun "to ask", Lith prašyti "to ask" OIr imm-chom-arc "mutual questions, greetings"; NIr arco, W archaf "I ask" harcʿanem "I ask" A prak-, B prek- "to ask"
*H₁neH₃mn̥ or *H₁nomn̥- "name" name (< OE nama) namō (acc. pl. namna) "name" nōmen "name" ónoma "name" nā́ma (instrumental sg. nā́mnā) "name" Av nāma "name" OCS imę "name" < Proto-Slavic *inmen < *n̥men OPrus emnes, emmens "name" < *enmen- OIr ainmm n-, OW anu "name" anun "name" Gheg emën, Tosk emër "name" < *enmen- A ñem, B ñom "name" lāman- "name"

Natural features[edit]

PIE English Gothic Latin Ancient Greek Sanskrit Iranian Slavic Baltic Celtic Armenian Albanian Tocharian Hittite
*H₂ster- "star" star (< OE steorra) staírnō "star" stēlla "star" astḗr "star" stṛ inst. pl. stŕ̥bhiḥ, nom. pl. tāraḥ, fem. nom. sg. tarā "star" Av acc. stā̆rǝm (ablauting)[37] "star" MIr ser, W seren, Breton sterenn "star" astł "star" pl. A śreñ, B ściriñ "stars" ḫasterza "star"
*dyēus, déiwos[38] "sky, day, god" Tues-day (< OE Tīwes-dæġ lit. "day of Tīw"[39]) ON tīvar "gods", Týr "Tīw" (the war god) Iuppiter (Iovis), Old Latin Diū-piter (Diovis) "Jupiter"; diēs "day", deus, dīvus "god"[40] Zdeús (Di(w)ós)[38] "Zeus" d(i)yāúḥ (diváḥ, dyōḥ)[38] "heaven", dēváḥ "god" Av daēva- "demon" (OCS dĭnĭ (dĭne) "day" < *din-is), Russ. divo "miracle" OPrus deina "day", deiws "god", Lith diena "day", dievas "god" OIr dīe, W dydd "day"; OIr dia (dē), OW duiu- "God" tiw (tuənǰean) "day" (gdhinj "I make day"(? mache Tag) < *-di-n-yoH₂)
*seH₂wol-, *sH₂un- "sun" sun (< OE sunne) sauil, sunnō "sun" sōl "sun" Homeric hēélios "sun" < *sāwélios súvar (súraḥ) "sun, light, heavens", sūra-, sūrya "sun" Av hvarǝ (hūrō) "sun, light, heavens" OCS slĭnŭce "sun" < *sulnika-, Russ. po-solon' "sunwise" OPrus sauli "sun", sawaiti "week", Lith saulė "sun", savaitė "week" OIr sūil "eye"; W haul "sun" ylli "star" < *sūlo- or *sūli-
*meH₁ns- "moon, month" moon (< OE mōna), month (< OE mōnaþ) mēna "moon", mēnoþs "month" mēnsis "month" Att mḗn, Ion meis, Dor mḗs "month", mḗnē "moon" mā́s "moon"; mā́sa "month" Av mā̊ (mā̊ŋhō) "moon"; NPers māh "moon, month" OCS měsęcĭ "moon, month" < *mēs-n̥-ko- OPrus miniks "moon", mins "month", Lith mėnulis "moon", mėnesis "month" OIr mī (mīs) "month" < *mēns;; W mis "month" amis "month" muai "month" A mañ B meñe "month"; A mañ ñkät B meṃ "moon"
*dʰeĝʰom- "earth" humus "earth" kʰtʰṓn (kʰtʰonós) "earth", kʰamaí "on the earth" kṣā́ḥ (acc. kṣā́m, gen. jmáḥ) "earth" Av zā̊ (acc. ząm, gen. zǝmō) "earth" OCS zemĭ, zemlja "earth" OPrus zemê "earth", Lith žemė " earth" OIr "place"; Welsh dyn "man" dhe "earth" A tkaṃ (tkanis), B keṃ "earth" tēkan (tagnās) "earth"
*wódr̥ (udéns) pl. *wédōr (udnés) "water" water (< OE wæter) watō (watins) "water" Umbrian utur "water", Latin unda "wave" húdōr (húdatos) "water" udakám (loc. udán(i), pl. udá), udra "water" Av aoδa- "spring", vaiδi- "stream" OCS voda "water", Russ. vedro "bucket", OPrus undan "water", Lith vanduo "water" OIr u(i)sce "water" < *udeskyo- get "river" ujë "water" A wär, B war "water" wātar (wetenas) "water"
*doru, *dreu- "wood, tree" tree (< OE trēo) triu "tree, wood" dóru, drûs "tree, wood" dā́ru, drṓs, drú- "tree, wood" Av dāru- "tree, wood" OCS drěvo "tree" OPrus drawê "hole in a tree, hollow tree", Lith drevė "hole in a tree", dirva "soil" OIr daur "oak", W derwen "oak" tram "firm" dru "tree" AB or "wood" taru "tree"
*H₂weH₁n̥to- "wind", *H₂weH₁- "to blow" wind (< OE wind); OE wāwan "to blow" winds "wind"; waian "to blow" ventus "wind" áenta (acc.) "wind", áēsi "(he) blows" vā́taḥ (vānt-)[41] "wind", vāti "(he) blows" Av vātō "wind", vāiti "(he) blows" OCS vějǫ (vějetŭ) "to blow" OPrus witra "wind", Lith vėjas "wind", vėtra "heavy wind" W gwynt "wind" A want, B yente "wind" ḫūwanz[42] "wind"
*sneigʷʰ- "to snow" snow (< OE snāw < *snoigʷhos, snīwan "to snow" < *sneigʷhonom) snáiws "snow" nix (nivis) "snow", ninguō (ninguere) "to snow" nípʰa (acc.) "snow", neípʰei "it snows" sneha- "snow" Av snaēža- "to snow"; Shughni žǝnij "snow" < *snaiga- OCS sněgŭ "snow" OPrus snaigs "snow", Lith snigti "to snow" OIr snecht(a)e, W nyf "snow"; OIr snigid "it rains"
*péH₂wr̥, pH₂unés "bonfire"[43] fire (< OE fȳr < *fuïr[43]) fōn (funins)[43] "fire"; OHG fuïr[43] (two syllables) < *puwéri Umbrian pir "fire" < *pūr, acc. purom-e "into the fire" < *pur- pũr (purós) "fire" pāru (pēru) "sun, fire" NPers fer "oven, furnace" Czech pýř "glowing ash" OPrus pannu "fire" hur "fire" A por, B puwar, puwār, pwār "fire" paḫḫur "fire"
*gʷʰerm- "warm" ?warm (< OE wearm); OE ġierwan "to prepare, cook" < PGerm *garwjan ?warmjan "to warm" formus "warm" tʰermós "warm" gʰarmáḥ "heat" Av garǝma- "hot, heat"; OPers Garma-pada-, name of the fourth month, corresponding to June/July, orig. (?) "entrance of the heat" Russ. žar "heat", goret' "to burn" < *gʷʰer OPrus garmê "heat, glowing", Lith žarijos "cinders", žėrėti "to glow" OIr gorn "fire" < *gʷʰor-nos ǰerm "warm" Gheg zjarm "fire, heat" A śärme "heat (of summer)"
*leuk- "light, brightness" light (< OE lēoht) liuhaþ (liuhadis) "light" lūceō (lūcēre) "to shine", lūx "light" leukós "bright, shining, white" rócate "(he) shines", roká- "light", loka- "world, place" Av raočant- "shining", raočah "light"; OPers raučah "light" OCS luča "ray, flash" < *loukyā OPrus lauk "bright", lauksna "star", laukas "field", Lith laukas "outside, field" OIr luchair "shine"; W llachar "bright", llug "shimmer" loys "light" AB lyuk/luk- "to shine" luk(k)- "to shine"


PIE English Gothic Latin Ancient Greek Sanskrit Iranian Slavic Baltic Celtic Armenian Albanian Tocharian Hittite
*per- "through, across, beyond" far (< OE feorr) faírra "far"; faír- "around; (intensifier)" per "through" perí, pér "forward" pári "forward" Av pairi, OPers pariy "forward" OCS prě- "forward" OPrus pro-, pra- "trough, across", Latvian pāri "across", Lith per "across", pra- "to start and finish doing something", pro- "through" OIr ir-, W er "forward" heṙu "far" për, pej, pe "forward" parā, Lycian pri "forth"
*upér(i) "over, above" over (< OE ofer) ufar "over, above, beyond" super "over" (influenced by sub "under") hupér "over" upári "over, above, beyond" Av 'upairi, OPers "over, above, beyond" OCS po "upon, at" OPrus uppin "cloud", OIr for, W gor, gwar "over, on" ver "up" i ver "up" epër "over, above"
*H₂ents "forehead", *H₂entí, *H₂entá "in front of" and (< OE and) and "along, throughout, towards, in, on, among"; OHG enti "previously" < PGerm *andiaz ante "in front of" antí "instead of" anti "opposite to it" Kurdish ênî "front, forehead" Lith añt "on" antai "there" OIr étan "forehead" < *antono- ənd "instead of" A ānt, B ānte "surface, forehead" ḫānz, ḫanti "in front"
*en "in" in (< OE in) in "in, into, towards" in "in" en "in" án-īka- "face" < ?*eni-Hkʷ Av ainika "face" < ?*eni-Hkʷ OCS on-, vŭn-, "in" OPrus en "in", Lith į "in" OIr in- "in"; W yn "in" i "in" inj "until" AB y-, yn-, B in- "in" an-dan "inside"
*apó "away" of, off (< OE of) af "from, of, by" (ab-u "from ...?") ab "away" apó "from" ápa "away" Av apa, OPers apa "away" OCS ot, "from, apart of" Lith apačià "bottom" < *apotyā prapë "back" < *per-apë āpa "behind, back" (or ? < *epi)

Basic adjectives[edit]

PIE English Gothic Latin Ancient Greek Sanskrit Iranian Slavic Baltic Celtic Armenian Albanian Tocharian Hittite
*medʰyo- "mid, middle" mid, middle (< OE mid, middel) midjis "middle" medius "middle" més(s)os "middle" mádʰya- "middle" Av maiδya- "middle" OCS meždu "between", Russ. meža "boundary" OPrus meddin "forest" (between villages), Lith medis "tree" OIr mid- "middle" < *medʰu-; MW mei- "middle" < *medʰyo- mēǰ "middle" mes, mjet "in between, middle"
*meĝ- "big" much (< OE myc̣el "big, many") mikils "big" magnus "big" mégas "big" máhaḥ, mahā́nt- "big" Av mazant- "big" OPrus mazs "smaller", Lith mažas "small" OIr mochtae, MIr mag-, maige "big" mec "big" madh "big" A mak, B makā "much" mekkis "big"
*gʷerH₂- "heavy" kaúrus "heavy" grāvis "heavy" barús "heavy" gurúḥ "heavy" Av gouru- "heavy-", NPers girān "heavy" < *grāna- (influenced by *frāna "full") OCS gromada "big size, huge", gruz "a load, something heavy", OPrus garrin "tree", Lith geras "good" MIr bair "heavy (?)", W bryw "strong" zor "brute force; great effort" A kra-marts "heavy (?)", B krā-mär "burden" < *gʷroH₂-mVr-
*H₁le(n)gʷʰ-, *H₁ln̥gʷʰ-ro-, *H₁ln̥gʷʰ-u-[44] "light (in weight)" light (< OE lēoht) leihts "light" < *H₁lengʷʰ-tos; OHG lungar "fast" < *H₁ln̥gʷʰ-ros levis "light" < *H₁legʷʰ-us elakʷʰús "small" < *H₁ln̥gʷʰ-us, elapʰrós "light, quick" < *H₁ln̥gʷʰ-ros lagʰú-, ragʰú- "quick, light, small" Av ragu-, fem. rǝvī "fast", superl. rǝnjišta- "fastest" OCS lŭgŭkŭ "light" OPrus langus "light", langsta "window", lankewingis "flexible", linktwei "to bend", Lith lengvas "light", lankstus "flexible", langas "window", lenkti "to bend" OIr laigiu, laugu, MW llei "smaller" lehtë "light-weight" B lankutse "light"
*H₁reudʰ-, *H₁roudʰ-os, *H₁rudʰ-rós[44] "red" red (< OE rēad < *H₁roudʰ-os) rauþs (raudis) "red" < *H₁roudʰ-os ruber "red" < *H₁rudʰ-rós; Umb rufru "red" Myc e-ru-ta-ra, e-ru-to-ro;[45] erutʰrós "red" < *H₁rudʰ-rós rudʰirá- "red" < *H₁rudʰ-rós mixed with *H₁rudʰ-i-; rṓhita- "red"; lōhá- "reddish" < *H₁roudʰ-os Av raoiδita- "red" OCS rudŭ "red" Lith raũdonas "red", rudas "brown" OIr rúad, W rhudd "red", rhwd "rust"; Gaul Roud- (in personal names)[46] A rtär, B ratre "red" < *H₁rudʰ-rós
*alyos, *anyos "other"; *anteros "second" else (< OE elles); other (< OE ōþer) aljis, anþar "other" alius "other" állos "other" anyá-, ántara- "other" Av anya-, ainya-, OPers aniya- "other"; Ossetian ändär "other"; East Iranian hal-ci "whoever" Old Sorbian wutory "other" < PSlav *ǫtorŭ OPrus antars "second", Lith antras "second" OIr aile, W ail "other" ayl "other" A ālya-kə, B alye-kə "another" Lydian aλa- "other"
*néwo- "new" new (< OE nīwe) niujis "new" novus "new" né(w)os "new" náva- "new" Av nava- "new" OCS novŭ "new" OPrus nawas "new", Lith naujas "new" OIr nūë, W newydd "new" nor "new" < *nowero- A ñu, B ñune "new" newa- "new"
*H₂yuHn̥- "young" young (< OE ġeong < *H₂yuHn̥k̂ós) juggs "young" juvenis "young" yúvan- (yū́naḥ) "young" Av yvan-, yavan- (yūnō) "youth, young man" OCS junŭ "young" Lith Jaunas "young" OIr ōac "young", W ieuanc "young" < *H₂yuHn̥k̂ós
*sen- "old" sineigs "old (person)" senex "old" hénos "former, from a former period" sánaḥ "old" Av hana- "old" OCS sedyi "grey-headed" OPrus sentwei "to get old", Lith senas "old" OIr sen "old", Old Welsh hen "old" hin "old"
*nogʷ- "naked" naked (< OE nacod "naked") naqaþs "naked" nudus "naked" gumnós "naked" nagnáḥ "naked" NPers loxt "naked" OCS nagŭ "naked" OPrus nags "naked", Lith nuogas "naked" OIr nocht "naked"; W noeth "naked, bare" nekumant- "naked, bare"

Construction, fabrication[edit]

PIE English Gothic Latin Ancient Greek Sanskrit Iranian Slavic Baltic Celtic Armenian Albanian Tocharian Hittite
*dʰwer- "door, doorway, gate" door (< OE dor, duru) daúr, daúrō "door" forēs (pl.) "door" tʰurā "door" dvā́r, dvā́raḥ (pl.) "door" Av dvarǝm (acc.) "gate, court"; OPers duvarayā "at the gate" NPers dar "door" OCS dvĭri "door" OPrus dwarris "gate, goal",dwars "estate", Lith durys "door", dvaras "estate", vartai "gate", Latg durovys "door", vuorti "gate" OIr dorus "door" < Proto-Celtic *dworestu-, W dôr "door" < *dʰureH₂ duṙn "door" derë "door" B twere "doors" an-durza "within"
*domo-, *domu- "house", "home" timber (< OE timber "house, building material") timrjan "to build, erect" domus (domūs) "house" dómos "house" dámaḥ "house" Av dąm, dąmi "in the house"; dǝmā̆na-, nmāna- "house" < *dm-ā̆na- OCS domŭ "house" OPrus dimstis "porch", Lith dimstis "entryway" MIr dom-liacc "house of stones" tun "house" dhomë "room" ?A tem-, B tam- "be born"
*kʷekʷlo- "wheel" wheel (< OE hwēol, hweogol < PGerm *hweg(w)ulaz < *kʷekʷlós) ON hjōl, hvēl "wheel" < PGerm *hweh(w)ulaz < *kʷékʷlos kúklos "circle", (pl.) "wheels" cakrá- "wheel" Av čaxra- "wheel" OCS kolo "wheel" OPrus kellin "wheel", Lith kaklas "neck" W cylch "circle" A kukäl, B kokale "wagon" kugullas "donut"
*s(y)uH- "to sew" sew (< OE sēowan) siujan "to sew" suō (suere) "to sew" humḗn "sinew" sī́vyati "(he) sews", syūtá- "sewn" OCS šijǫ (šiti) "to sew" OPrus šutun "to sew", Lith siūti "to sew", Latg šyut "to sew" sum(m)anza(n), šuel (?), šuil (?) "thread"
*teks- "to fashion, construct" OE þeox "spear" OHG dehsa, dehsala "hatchet" texō (texere) "to weave" téktōn "carpenter", tíktō "I give birth" takṣati, tā́ṣṭi "(he) fashions" Av tašaiti "(he) cuts out, manufactures"; OPers us-tašanā "stairway" < "*construction"; MPers tāšīδan "to do carpentry" OCS tešǫ (tesati) "to hew", OPrus tesatun "to hew", Lith tašyti "to hew" OIr tāl "axe" < *tōkslo- takkeszi "puts together"
*webʰ- "to weave" weave (< OE wefan), web (<P.Gmc. *wabjan) OHG weban "to weave" hupʰaínō "I weave" ubʰnā́ti "ties together" Av ubdaēna- "made of cloth"; NPers bāfad "(he) weaves" viti "weave" Lith vyti "to twist" W gwau "knit, weave" venj "I weave" < *webʰnyō B wāp- "to weave"
*werĝ- "to work" work (< OE weorc, wyrc̣an) waúrkjan "to work" urgeō (urgēre) "to push, drive" (w)érgon "work", érdō, hrézdō "I work" < *wérĝ-yoH₂, *wréĝ-yoH₂ varcaḥ "activity" (? not in Pokorny) Av varəza- "work, activity", vərəzyeiti "(he) works"; NPers varz, barz "field work, husbandry" vrǔšiti "to act, to do" OPrus wargs "bad, evil, malicious, vicious", wargtwei "to torment oneself, to suffer", Lith vargas "the state of going through bad/unlucky events" MW gwreith "deed" < *wreĝ-tu- gorc "work " rregj "to clean" A wärk-, B wārk- "to shear"
*wes- "to clothe, wear clothes" wear (< OE werian) wasjan "to clothe" vestis "clothing" héstai "gets dressed" váste "(he) gets dressed" Av vaste, vaŋhaiti "(he) gets dressed" veshch "thing, cloth", veshchi "cloth items" Serbian veš "underwear" OPrus westi "corset", wesseli "wedding", Lith vestuvės "wedding", vesti "to lead" W gwisg "clothing" z-genum "I put on (clothes)" < *wes-nu- vesh "dress"
veshje "clothing"
B wastsi, wästsi "clothing" wassezzi "(he) clothes"

Self-motion, rest[edit]

PIE English Gothic Latin Ancient Greek Sanskrit Iranian Slavic Baltic Celtic Armenian Albanian Tocharian Hittite
*H₁es- "to be", *H₁es-ti "is"
Cf. Indo-European copula
is (< OE is) ist "is" sum (esse)

"I am (to be)"; est "it is"

estí "is,"; Dorian Greek entí "(they) are" <- *H₁s-enti ásti "is," Av asti "is"; Persian hast "is" OCS jestŭ "is" OPrus ast "is", ēst "almost", Lith esti "is" OIr is "is"; Old Welsh hint "(they) are" <- *H₁s-enti em "I am" është "is" B ste "is" ēszi "is"
*bʰuH₂- "to become"
Cf. Indo-European copula
be (< OE bēon); OE būan "to dwell" bauan "to dwell" fuī "I was" pʰúomai "I become", épʰū "became" bʰávati "become, is", ábʰūt "became, was" Av bavaiti, OPers bavatiy "(he) becomes" OCS byti "to become, be" OPrus butwei "to be", Lith būti "to be" OIr buith "being", W bod "to be" busanim "sprout up" buj, bûj "I dwell, stay overnight" < *bunjō
*sed-, *si-zd- "to sit" sit (< OE sittan < *sed-yo-nom) sitan "to sit" sedeō (sedēre) "to sit", sīdō "I sit down" < *si-zd-oH₂ hézdomai "I sit" < *sed-yo-, hizdō "I set" < *si-zd-oH₂ sátsi "(he) sits", aor. ásadat "sat"; sī́dati "(he) sits" < *si-zd-eti Av ni-šaŋhasti "(he) sits down", opt. hazdyā-t "(he) should sit", hiδaiti "(he) sits" < *si-zd-eti; OPers caus. niya-šād-ayam "I set" OCS sěždǫ (sěděti) "to sit" OPrus sistwei "to sit down", Lith sedėti "to be sitting", sėstis "to sit down" OIr sa(i)did "sits"; Br hezañ "to stop" nstim "I sit" (< *ni-zdyō), hecanim (< *sed-s-an-yō) "I sit on, I ride" shëtis "to walk"
*legʰ- "to lie down" lie (< OE lic̣gan) ligan "to lie down" lectus "bed" lékʰomai "I lie down" leṭyati "(he) lies down" NPers ley "lie down" OCS ležǫ (ležati) "to lie down" OPrus laztwei "to lie down" OIr laigid "lies down" lagje "city quarter" A läk- "to lie", B lyśalyñe "(act of) lying down" lagari "(he) lies down"
*k̂ei- "to lie (down); bed, cozy, dear, familiar" home (< OE hām "village, home" < *k̂oi-mos) háims (háimáis) "village, town" < *k̂oi-mis cīvis "city dweller, citizen" < *k̂ei-wis keĩtai "lies" śētē (older śáyē) "(he) lies", śērē "they lie" Av saēte "(he) lies", sōire "they lie" OCS sěmija "family" OPrus seimi "family", kaims "village", Lith šeima "family", kaimas "village" OIr cóim, cóem, OW cum "dear" sirem "I love" < *k̂eiro- kitta, kittari "lies"; Luwian ziyari "lies"
*steH₂- "to stand (i.e. be standing)" stand (< OE standan) standan "to stand"; OHG stān, stēn "to stand" stō (stāre) "to stand", sistō (sistere) "to cause to stand" Doric hístāmi "I stand" Stha / tíṣṭhati "(he) stands" Av hištaiti "(he) stands"; OPers impf. a-ištata "(he) stood" OCS stajǫ (stati) "to stand up" OPrus stalitwei "to stand", Lith stovėti "to stand" OIr tair-(ṡ)issiur "I stand"; W sefyll "to stand" stanam "I build; gain" mbështet, pshtet "I support" B stäm- "to stand", ste "is", "stare" "(they) are" istanta- "to stay, delay"
*H₁ei- "to go" yede (< OE ēode "went") iddja "went" eō (īre) "to go" eĩmi "I (will) go" éti "(he) goes", yánti "(they) go" Av aēiti "(he) goes", yeinti "(they) go"; OPers aitiy "goes" OCS jiditi "to move away, to arrive", jidene "coming" OPrus eitwei "to go", Lith eiti "to walk" W wyf "I am"; OIr ethaid "goes" < *it-āt- iǰanem (aorist ēǰ) "I climb down" < *i-gh- iki "to leave; flee" *H₁(e)i-K- A "he went", B yatsi "to go" < *yā- īt "go!"
*gʷem- "to come" come (< OE cuman) qiman "to come" veniō (venīre) "to come" baínō "I go" gámati "(he) goes", aor. ágan, gan "(he) went" Av ǰamaiti "goes"; OAv inj. uz-ǰǝ̄n "(he) goes", pl. gǝmǝn "they go" OPrus gimtwei "to be born", Lith gimti "to be born" ekn (< *h₁e-gʷem-t) "(he) came" A käm-, kum-, B käm-, kam-, śem "to come"
*sekʷ- "to follow" OE sec̣g "follower, companion, man" ON seggr "hero" sequor (sequī) "to follow" hépomai "I follow" sácate "(he) follows" Av hačaitē, hačaiti "(he) follows" shagati "to walk" OPrus sektwei "to shallow [To breathe lightly]", Lith sekti "to follow" OIr sechithir "follows"

Object motion[edit]

PIE English Gothic Latin Ancient Greek Sanskrit Iranian Slavic Baltic Celtic Armenian Albanian Tocharian Hittite
*bʰer- "to carry" bear (< OE beran) baíran "to carry" ferō (ferre) "to carry" pʰerō "I carry" bʰarati "(he) carries" Av baraiti "(he) carries"; OPers barantiy "they carry" NPers bordan "to carry" Kurdish birin "to carry, to take" OCS berǫ (bĭrati) "to carry" Lith berti "to pour non liquid" OIr biru "I carry"; W beru "to flow" berem "I carry" bie "I carry"
*weĝʰ- "to convey" weigh (< OE wegan "carry"); way (< OE weġ); wain "wagon" (< OE wæġn)[47] ga-wigan "to move, shake" vehō (vehere) "to convey" Pamphylian wekʰétō "he should bring"; Cypriot éwekse "brought there" váhati "(he) drives" Av vazaiti "(he) leads, carries" OCS vezǫ (vesti) "to drive" OPrus weztun "to ride", Lith vežti "to drive" OIr fēn, W gwain (type of wagon) < *weĝʰ-no-; W arwain "to lead" vjedh "I steal" Hier Luw wa-zi/a- "drive"
*H₂eĝ- "to lead, drive" ON aka "to drive" agō (agere) "to drive, do" ágō "I lead" ájati "(he) drives" Av azaiti "(he) drives" Kurdish ajotin "to drive" ehati "to drive" OIr ad-aig "compels"; OW agit, hegit "goes" acem "I lead" A ak-, B āk- "go, lead"
*dʰeH₁-, dʰH̥₁- "to place, put" do (< OE dōn) deds "deed" faciō (facere) "to do" < *dʰH̥₁-k-yoH₂; con-ditus "built" (orig. "put together"), ab-ditus "removed" (orig. "put away") < Proto-Italic *-θatos < *dʰH̥₁-tos títʰēmi "I put" < *dʰí-dʰeH₁-mi dádʰāti "(he) puts" < *dʰé-dʰeH₁-ti Av daδāiti "(he) puts"; OPers impf. adadā "(he) established" OCS děti "to lay" OPrus ditun "to put", Lith dėti "to put" Gaulish dede "he put (pt.)"; W dodi "to place, to put";OIr -tarti "he gives" < Proto-Celtic *to-ro-ad-dīt < *-dʰeH₁-t dnel "to put"; ed "he put (past)" dhatë "place, location" < *dʰH̥₁-teH₂ A tā-, täs-, tas-, B tes- "to lay" < *dʰeH₁-s- dāi "puts"
*deH₃-, dʰH̥₃- "to give" dō (dare) "to give" dídōmi "I give" dádāti "(he) gives" Av dadāiti "(he) gives"; OPers impv. dadātuv "let him give" NPers dãdan "to give" OCS damĭ "I will give" OPrus datun "to give", Lith duoti "to give" OIr dān, W dawn "gift" tam "I give" dhashë "I gave" < *dH̥₃-sm̥ dāi "takes"
*kap- "to grab" have (< OE habban), heave (< OE hebban) haban "to have", hafjan "to lift" capiō (capere) "to take" káptō "I snatch, swallow" kapaṭī "two handfuls" NPers časpīdan, čapsīdan, cafsīdan "to grasp, seize" Ukrainian hapaty "to grab" OPrus kaps "grave", Lith kapas "grave", kapt "expression to indicate grabbing. OIr cacht "female slave", W caeth "slave, captive" < *kap-tos "taken" kap "I grasp, grab", kam "I have"
*gʰabʰ- "to seize, take" give (< OE ġiefan) giban "to give" habeō (habēre) "to have" gábʰastiḥ "forearm, hand" OPers grab "to seize"; Kurdish girtin "to take, to seize Russ. xvatátʹ "to snatch, suffice" OPrus gabtun "to catch", Lith gauti " to get" OIr gaibid "takes"; W gafael "to take hold, to grip"
*gʷʰen- "to strike, kill" bane (< OE bana "murderer") banja "blow, wound, ulcer" dē-fendō (dēfendere) "to ward off, defend", of-fendō (offendere) "to bump, offend" tʰeínō "I kill" < *gʷʰen-yoH₂, épepʰnon "I killed" < redup. + *gʷʰn-om hánti "(he) strikes, kills" < *gʷʰen-ti, gʰnánti "they strike, kill" Av ǰainti "(he) strikes, kills", ni-γne (mid.) "I strike down"; OPers impf. ajanam "I struck down" OCS ženǫ (gŭnati) "drive (animals to pasture)", žĭnjǫ (žęti) "reap" OPrus gintun "to defend", Lith ginti " to defend", ganyti "to drive animals to pasture" OIr gonim "I wound, kill"; W gwanu "to stab" ǰnem "I strike" < *gʷʰen-oH₂, ǰnǰem "I destroy" < *gʷʰen-yoH₂ gjanj "I hunt" < *gʷʰen-yoH₂ B käsk- "to scatter to destruction" < *gʷʰn̥-sk- kuēnzi "kills" < *gʷʰen-ti
*leikʷ-, *li-ne-kʷ- "to leave behind" OE lēon "to lend" leiƕan "to lend" linquō (linquere) "to leave behind" leípō, limpánō "I leave behind" riṇákti "(he) leaves behind", 3rd. pl. riñcanti "they leave behind" Av -irinaxti "(he) frees"; NPers rēxtan "to pour out" OBulg otŭ-lěkŭ "something left over", lišiti "to rob" < *leikʷ-s- OPrus palaistun "to leave behind", Lith likti "to stay" OIr lēicid "(he) leaves behind, releases" lkʿanem "I leave behind" Alb Lej leave


PIE English Gothic Latin Ancient Greek Sanskrit Iranian Slavic Baltic Celtic Armenian Albanian Tocharian Hittite
*dʰĝʰyés "yesterday" yesterday (< OE ġeostra) gistra- "tomorrow (?)" heri "yesterday" kʰtʰés "yesterday" hyáḥ "yesterday" < *gʰyés Av zyō, Old Persian diya(ka) "yesterday" OIr in-dē, W ddoe "yesterday" dje "yesterday"
*nokʷts (nekʷts) "night" night (< OE neaht, niht < *nokʷtis) nahts (nahts) "night" < *nokʷts nox (noctis) "night" núks (núktos) "night" nák (instr. pl. náktīḥ) "night" Proto-Iranian *náxts, Kurdish nixte "rainy, cloudy (lack of sunlight)" OCS noštĭ "night" OPrus nakts "night", Lith naktis "night" OIr i-nnocht, OW henoid "on this night" natë "night" A n[a]ktim "nightly", B nekciye "in the evening" nekuz (gen. sg.) "of evening"
*H₂eusōs "dawn", *H₂eus-tero- "east", *H₂euso- "gold" eastern (< OE ēasterne) ON austr "east" aurōra "dawn", aurum "gold" Doric āṓs "dawn" uṣā́ḥ (uṣásaḥ), acc. uṣā́sam "dawn" Av ušā̊ (ušaŋhō), acc. ušā̊ŋhǝm "dawn" OCS (j)utro "morning", MKD zora "dawn" OPrus austra "dawn", auss "gold", Lith aušra "dawn", auksas "gold" OIr fāir "sunrise", W gwawr "dawn" < *wōsri- ?os-ki "gold" ?A wäs "gold"
*ĝʰyem-, ĝʰeim- "winter" ON gói "winter month" hiems "winter" kʰeĩma "winter" híma "winter" Av zyā̊ (acc. zyąm, gen. zimō) "winter" OCS zima "winter" OPrus zeima "winter", Lith žiema "winter" OIr gam "winter", gem-adaig "winter night"; OW gaem "winter" jmeṙ "winter", jiwn "snow" Gheg dimën, Tosk dimër(ë) "winter" gimmanza "winter"
*wés-r̥, wes-n-és "spring" ON vár "spring" vēr "spring" (w)éar "spring" vasan-tá- "spring" Av vaŋri "in spring"; OPers ϑūra-vāhara- OCS vesna "spring" OPrus wassara "spring", Lith vasara "summer", pavasaris "spring", vėsu "cool" OIr errach "spring"< *ferrach < *wesr-āko-; OW guiannuin "in spring" < *wes-n̥t-eino- garun "spring"< *wesr-
*wet- "year", *per-ut- "last year" wether "castrated male sheep" (< OE weþer), OHG widar "male sheep", MHG vert "last year" <- *per-ut-, ON fjorð "last year" <- *per-ut- vetus (veteris) "old" (perīre) "to die" (w)étos "year", pérusi "last year" vatsá-, vatsará- "year", par-út "last year" Sogdian wtšnyy (read wat(u)šanē) "old" OCS vetŭchŭ "old" OLith vẽtušas "old" MIr feis, Cornish guis "sow" < *wet-si- heru "last year" < *peruti vit (pl. vjet) "year" witt- "year"
*yeH₁r- "year" year (< OE ġēar) jēr "year" hōrnus "this year's" < *hōyōr- hōra "time, year" < *yoH₁r- yarhi - at which time / when Av yārə "year" Russ. CH jara "spring" OLith Jórė "spring festival" W iâr "hen", MIr eir-īn "fowl"


  1. ^ Campbell, George L. with King, Gareth. Compendium of the World's Languages. Routledge. 2013. p. 86. ISBN 978-0-415-62191-5
  2. ^ kʿoyr < *swesōr; kʿeʿ < *swesros; kʿor-kʿ < *swesŏres
  3. ^ Bernardo Stempel, Patrizia de. "Celtic ‘son’, ‘daughter’, other descendants, and *sunus in Early Celtic". In: Indogermanische Forschungen 118, 2013 (2013): 259-298, doi:
  4. ^ Stifter, David (2006). "Contributions to Celtiberian Etymology II". In: Palaeohispanica: revista sobre lenguas y culturas de la Hispania Antigua, 6. pp. 238. ISSN 1578-5386
  5. ^ bridegome in Middle English, subsequently influenced by groom (archaically "servant, man")
  6. ^ hēm- < *ām- (with h- after hum- "you (pl.)") < *asm- < *n̥sm-
  7. ^ *us-we is the original form, modified to *us-me in many languages under the influence of 1st. pl. *n̥s-mé. Very often when *us-we remained, the initial u- was lost; this happened at least in Germanic, Avestan and Celtic>
  8. ^ a b OE ēow (acc., dat.) and ēow-ic̣ (acc., with the same -c̣ ending visible in 1st. sg. acc. mēc̣ "me", also modern German mich "me"), likewise Old High German iuwih "you (acc./dat. pl.)" (modern euch), appear to have the same origin as izw- in Gothic izwis "you (acc./dat. pl)", with unexplained loss of -z-. izwis appears to come from stem izw- plus originally genitive -is, where izw- comes ultimately from PIE *us-we with the loss of u- also visible in Avestan and Celtic, followed by the addition of a prothetic i-. (Ringe, 2006)
  9. ^ Cf. Latin ne-que, Gothic ni-h, Hittite ni-kku, Lydian ni-k "and not, nor".
  10. ^ All suggested etymologies of një "one" are highly speculative, at best. This etymology is one of two given by E. Hamp in Indo-European Numerals (Jadranka Gvozdanović, ed., 1992), pp. 903-904; the other is simply from PIE *eni- (or H₂en-), a PIE deictic particle visible in Sanskrit anyá- "the other", OCS onŭ "that one", Lithuanian anàs "that one". Michiel de Vaan, in a review of Demiraj's Sistemi i numerimit, suggests PIE *H₂en-io-no- > pre-Proto-Albanian *ëńán > Proto-Albanian *ńâ > një. M. Huld (Basic Albanian Etymologies, p. 101) attempts to derive një from PIE *sm-iH₂, feminine of *sem "one" and reflected in Ancient Greek mía; this etymology is also tentatively suggested in Don Ringe et al. "IE and Computational Cladistics", p. 75 (Transactions of the Philological Society 100, 2002).
  11. ^ Accent location unknown.
  12. ^ Built upon osmŭ "eighth" < *H₁ok̂t-mo-.
  13. ^ With nasalization after *septḿ̥ "seven".
  14. ^ Raham Asha, Phonology of Pārsīg
  15. ^
  16. ^ Influenced by zǝrǝd "heart".
  17. ^ Morpurgo Davies, Anna, and J. David Hawkins. "A Luwian Heart". In: F. Imparati (ed.). Studi di storia e di filologia anatolica dedicate a Giovanni Pugliese Carratelli. Firenze: Elite. 1988. pp. 169-182.
  18. ^ Puhvel, Jaan. "Shaft-shedding Artemis and Mind-voiding Ate: Hittite Determinants of Greek Etyma." Historische Sprachforschung / Historical Linguistics 105, no. 1 (1992): 4. Accessed July 13, 2020.
  19. ^ Only in *aíƕatundi "bramble", literally "horse-tooth".
  20. ^ a b c Complex ablauting stem:
    Singular Plural
    Language Nom Acc Gen Dat Nom Acc Gen
    PIE gʷōus gʷōm gʷous gʷówei gʷōwes gʷōs gʷowōm
    Sanskrit gáuḥ gā́m gṓḥ gávē gā́vaḥ gā́ḥ gávām
    Avestan gāuš gąm gāuš gave gā̆vō gā̊ gavąm
  21. ^ De Decker, Filip. "Stang’s Law and the Indo-European word for “cow”". In: Indogermanische Forschungen 116, 2011 (2011): 42-59, doi:
  22. ^ Expected form is *vōs, not *bōs; evidently this is a borrowing from Oscan or Umbrian.
  23. ^ bóu, báu are archaic genitives; later báo, bó.
  24. ^ Blažek, Václav. "Indo-European “bear”". In: Historische Sprachforschung / Historical Linguistics 130 (2017): 148-92.
  25. ^ Peeters, Chr. "The Word for ‘dog’ and the Sequence *wH + Gonsonant in Indo-European". In: Indogermanische Forschungen 78, 1973 (1973): 75-77, doi:
  26. ^ Curchin, Leonard A. "Place-names of the Ebro Valley: their linguistic origins". In: Palaeohispánica: Revista sobre lenguas y culturas de la Hispania antigua. Nº. 8. 2008. p. 16 (footnote nr. 5). ISSN 1578-5386
  27. ^ Pinault, Georges-Jean Pinault; Winter, Werner. Dictionary and Thesaurus of Tocharian A. Volume I: A-J. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag. 2009. p. 173. ISBN 978-3-447-05814-8
  28. ^ Peyrot, Michaël. "Chapter 12: A Comparison of the Tocharian A and B Metrical Traditions*". In: Language and Meter. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill, 2018. doi:
  29. ^ Ventris, Michael; Chadwick, John. Documents in Mycenaean Greek. Cambridge at the University Press. 1956. p. 96. ISBN 978-0-521-08558-8
  30. ^ Dictionnaire Illustré Latin-Français, Hachette (1934) p.960
  31. ^ Kristin Meier, and Michaël Peyrot. "The Word for ‘Honey’ in Chinese, Tocharian and Sino-Vietnamese". In: Zeitschrift Der Deutschen Morgenländischen Gesellschaft 167, no. 1 (2017): 7-22. doi:10.13173/zeitdeutmorggese.167.1.0007.
  32. ^ a b c A synchronic rule in PIE deleted laryngeals in the sequence VRHy or R̥Hy.
  33. ^ Mallory, James P.; Adams, Douglas Q. (1997). Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture. London: Routledge. p. 527. ISBN 978-1-884964-98-5
  34. ^ Kocharov, Petr. "Proto-Indo-European lexical aspect and stem patterns", Faits de Langues 47, 1 (2016): 83, doi:
  35. ^ Kocharov, Petr. "Proto-Indo-European lexical aspect and stem patterns", Faits de Langues 47, 1 (2016): 83, doi:
  36. ^ Cf. Sanskrit janitár-, Greek genetḗr, genétōr, Latin genitor "procreator".
  37. ^ acc. stā̆rǝm, gen. stārō, pl. nom. staras-ča, stārō, acc. strǝ̄uš, gen. strǝ̄m, dat. stǝrǝbyō
  38. ^ a b c Complex ablauting stem:
    Language Nom Acc Voc Gen Dat Loc Instr Pl
    PIE d(i)yēus dyēum dyĕu diw-és, -ós diwéi dyéwi and dyēu ?
    Greek Zdeús Zdẽn Zdeũ Di(w)ós Di(w)í
    Sanskrit d(i)yāúḥ dyā́m ? diváḥ, dyōḥ divḗ dyáví, diví dyú-bhiḥ
  39. ^ Tīw < *deiwos was the Germanic god of war, but originally was a sky-god and head of the gods, like Zeus.
  40. ^ *deiwos > Lat. deus; gen. *deiwī > Lat. dīvī. From each stem a full declension was formed.
  41. ^ Still scanned as three syllables in some passages of the Rigveda, Ringe (2006) p. 77.
  42. ^ Ringe (2006) p. 77, sourced to Melchert (1994) p. 54.
  43. ^ a b c d It is unclear how the original PIE forms produced the attested daughter-language forms. After the loss of laryngeals, original *péH₂wr̥, pH₂unés would regularly produce *pāwr̥, punés. It is possible that this form was considered too strange-looking, with the result that the u vowel was borrowed from the second stem into the first, yielding *púwr̥, punés. This compressed to *pūr, punés, and this stem set, or its regularized version *pūr, purés, might form the basis of the Umbrian, Greek and Armenian forms. For Germanic, however, something else must be at work. Ringe (2006) suggests that the following sequence of events produced Gothic fōn: Collective péH₂wōr -> pH₂uṓr (cf. Tocharian B puwar) > puōr > Proto-Germanic fuwōr > fwōr > fōr -> fōn (using -n- from the oblique stem), where -> indicates a change due to analogy, while > indicates a regular sound change. His explanation of funins and fuïr is very tentative and complicated. Pokorny's suggestion for Germanic is rather different. He derives fōn from *fwōn, with no further derivation, but probably different from Ringe's. fuïr comes from *puweri, a locative that could be formed from a nominative *púwr̥ or possibly from a stem *pur-. It suffices to say that the processes involved are not well understood.
  44. ^ a b *H₁le(n)gʷʰ- and *H₁reudʰ- are both roots that form Caland-type adjectives. These roots are notable in that they form zero-stem adjectives with certain characteristic suffixes, especially -ro- and -u-, along with -i- in compounds. Other examples are *H₂erĝ- "white" (cf. Greek argós < *argrós "white", Sanskrit ṛjrá- "brilliant", Tocharian B ārkwi "white", Greek argi-kéraunos "with bright lightning") and *dʰeub- "deep" (cf. Lithuanian dubùs "hollow" < *dʰub-u-, Tocharian B tapre "high" < *dhub-ro-).
  45. ^ García Ramón, J. L. "Mycenaean onomastics". In: A Companion to Linear B: Mycenaean Greek Texts and their World. Volume 2. Edited by Yves Duhoux and Anna Morpurgo Davies. Bibliothèque des Cahiers de l'Institut de Linguistique de Louvain. Peeters: Louvain-la-Neuve – Walpole, MA. 2011. p. 215, 223.
  46. ^ Cólera, Carlos Jordán (2007). "Celtiberian". e-Keltoi: Journal of Interdisciplinary Celtic Studies. Vol. 6: The Celts in the Iberian Peninsula. Article 17. p. 759. ISSN 1540-4889 Available at:
  47. ^ wagon is a loan-word from Dutch.


  • Delamarre, Xavier. Le Vocabulaire IndoEuropéen. Paris: Librairie d'Amérique et d'Orient. 1984. ISBN 2-7200-1028-6
  • Matasovic, Ranko. Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill. 2009. ISBN 978-90-04-17336-1

Further reading[edit]

On numerals:

On nature:

  • Huld, Martin E. "Proto- and Post-Indo-European Designations for ‘sun’." Zeitschrift Für Vergleichende Sprachforschung 99, no. 2 (1986): 194-202.

On kinship and family:

  • Friedrich, Paul. "Proto-Indo-European Kinship." Ethnology 5, no. 1 (1966): 1-36. Accessed November 15, 2020. doi:10.2307/3772899.
  • Galton, Herbert. "The Indo-European Kinship Terminology." Zeitschrift Für Ethnologie 82, no. 1 (1957): 121-38. Accessed November 15, 2020.
  • Hettrich, Heinrich. "Indo-European Kinship Terminology in Linguistics and Anthropology." Anthropological Linguistics 27, no. 4 (1985): 453-80. Accessed November 15, 2020.
  • Humphreys, S. C. "Proto-Indo-European Kinship and Society: Kin Terms". In: Journal of Indo-European Studies. Washington Vol. 45, Ed. 3/4, (2017): 373-425. ISSN 0092-2323
  • Kullanda, Sergey. "Indo‐European “Kinship Terms” Revisited." Current Anthropology 43, no. 1 (2002): 89-111. Accessed November 15, 2020. doi:10.1086/324127.
  • Rau, Jeremy. "Indo-European Kinship Terminology: *ph₂tr-ou̯-/ph₂tr̥-u̯- and Its Derivatives." Historische Sprachforschung / Historical Linguistics 124 (2011): 1-25.

On agriculture and produce:

  • Mikić, Aleksandar. "A note on some Proto-Indo-European roots related to grain legumes", Indogermanische Forschungen 116, 2011 (2011): 60-71, doi:
  • Mikić, Aleksandar. "Palaeolinguistics and Ancient Eurasian Pulse Crops." Current Science 108, no. 1 (2015): 45-50.
  • Romain Garnier, Laurent Sagart, Benoît Sagot. "Milk and the Indo-Europeans". In: Martine Robeets; Alexander Savalyev. Language Dispersal Beyond Farming. John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2017. pp. 291-311. ISBN 978-90-272-1255-9. ff10.1075/z.215.13garff. ffhal-01667476f

On colors:

  • Shields, Kenneth. “Indo-European Basic Colour Terms.” Canadian Journal of Linguistics/Revue Canadienne De Linguistique 24, no. 2 (1979): 142–46. doi:10.1017/S0008413100023409.

On verbs related to action and motion:

  • Verkerk, Annemarie (2015). "Where do all the motion verbs come from? The speed of development of manner verbs and path verbs in Indo-European". In: Diachronica, 32(1): 69-104. doi:10.1075/dia.32.1.03ver.

On bodily functions:

External links[edit]