Indonesia Raya

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Indonesia Raya
English: Great Indonesia
Recording from 1945

National anthem of  Indonesia
Also known asIndonesia Raja (old spelling) (English: Great Indonesia)
LyricsWage Rudolf Supratman, 1924
National Anthem Committee (led by Sukarno), 1944
MusicWage Rudolf Supratman, 1924
Adopted17 August 1945 (original)
17 August 1950 (official)
7 December 1975 (by East Timor under Indonesia)
Relinquished1999 (by East Timor)
Audio sample
2017 official orchestral and choral vocal recording (one verse and chorus)

"Indonesia Raya" (Indonesian: [ɪnˈdonɛsja ˈraja]; "Great Indonesia") is the national anthem of Indonesia. It has been the national anthem since the proclamation of Indonesian independence on 17 August 1945. The song was introduced by its composer, Wage Rudolf Supratman, on 28 October 1928 during the Second Indonesian Youth Congress in Batavia.[1] The song marked the birth of the all-archipelago nationalist movement in Indonesia that supported the idea of one single "Indonesia" as successor to the Dutch East Indies, rather than split into several colonies. The first newspaper to openly publish the musical notation and lyrics of "Indonesia Raya" — an act of defiance towards the Dutch authorities — was the Chinese Indonesian weekly Sin Po.[2]

The first stanza of "Indonesia Raya" was chosen as the national anthem when Indonesia proclaimed its independence on 17 August 1945. Jozef Cleber, a Dutch composer, created an arrangement of the tune for philharmonic orchestra in 1950. This arrangement is widely used.[3]

"Indonesia Raya" is played in flag raising ceremonies in schools across Indonesia every Monday. The flag is raised in a solemn and timed motion so that it reaches the top of the flagpole as the anthem ends. The main flag raising ceremony is held annually on 17 August to commemorate Independence day. The ceremony is led by the President of Indonesia and is usually held in Merdeka Palace.

During the rendition or singing of the national anthem, all present should stand, face toward the music, and pay respect. Members of the Armed Forces, and other persons in uniform (e.g. secondary school students) must render the military salute.[4]

History[edit]

Indonesian Youth Congress[edit]

When he lived in Jakarta, Soepratman read an essay from Timbul magazine. The essay author challenged Indonesian music experts to compose Indonesian national anthem. Soepratman – who was also a musician – felt challenged, and started composing. In 1924, the song was completed during his time in Bandung and entitled "Indonesia".

In 1928, youths from across Indonesia held the first Indonesian Youth Congress, an official meeting to push for the independence of the nation. Upon hearing about the efforts, young reporter Wage Rudolf Soepratman contacted the organizers of Congress with the intention of reporting the story, but they requested that he not publish the story from fear of Dutch colonial authorities. The organizers wanted to avoid suspicion so that the Dutch would not ban the event. Supratman promised them this, and the organizers allowed him free access to the event. Supratman was inspired by the meetings and intended to play the song for the conference. After receiving encouragement from the conference leader Sugondo Djojopuspito, Soepratman played the song on the violin, hoping that it would someday become their national anthem. Soepratman first performed Indonesia on the violin on 28 October 1928 during the Second Indonesian Youth Congress.[5] He kept the script to himself because he felt that it was not the appropriate time to announce it.[6]

Distribution[edit]

Following the Second Youth Congress, the text of Indonesia was distributed by many political and student organisations. The press also played a key role in the publication of the song. On 7 November 1928, the Soeloeh Ra'jat Indonesia daily published the words to the song. This was followed by the Sin Po Chinese weekly on 10 November.[7] In 1929, Wage Rudolf Supratman changed the title of his song to "Indonesia Raya" and appended the phrase "national anthem of Indonesia" below it, but the text of the song did not change. Soepratman personally printed and distributed copies of the song with its new title through pamphlets. All one thousand copies of the manuscript were sold within a short amount of time to his friends and family.[8]

That same year, the prominent Indonesian businessman and record executive Tio Tek Hong contacted Supratman; the two agreed to issue the first records of the anthem, with Supratman retaining copyright over it.[9][10] The new records were extremely popular, but in 1930 the Dutch colonial authorities placed a ban on the song and confiscated all remaining unsold records.[11]

A businessman friend of his, Yo Kim Tjan, also expressed interest in recording "Indonesia Raya". With Soepratman's consent, Yo created a copy of the song on a gramophone record overseas to obtain the best sound quality with the intention of bringing the copy back to Indonesia. However, before Yo was able to do so, Dutch colonial authorities had imposed a ban on the song. Yo was unable to bring the original back but was able to bring home a copy. According to Yo, Soepratman had also given him the rights to sell record copies of "Indonesia Raya" through his store Toko Populair.[12]

Orchestration[edit]

Initially, there had been no orchestral version of the anthem. Thus in 1950, The Indonesian Government made an appeal to Jozef Cleber to compose a symphonic rendition of "Indonesia Raya".[13]

Cleber at the time had been among the 46 people of the Cosmopolitan Orchestra, under direction of Yvon Baarspul, sent by the Netherlands government to help the Indonesian government for its own music development in Jakarta. "Jos" Cleber was an experienced arranger not only of western songs but also for Indonesian pop songs such as Di Bawah Sinar Bulan Purnama and Rangkaian Melati.

Indonesia Raya was recorded under Cleber's direction on a newly acquired Phillips recorder in early 1951 with musicians from all three radio orchestras of RRI Jakarta and the tape was played for President Sukarno's approval. Sukarno found the performance too frilly and asked for something like the red and white Indonesian flag, and in the grave tempo of the Dutch anthem Wilhelmus. Cleber considered this last impossible, though he discerned some of the character of the Marseillaise in the tune and made a second arrangement marked maestoso con bravura as a compromise. This met Sukarno's approval, but he requested that the climax be prepared by a grazioso ("Liefelijk") section. This final version of the anthem remained in use for 47 years.

The arrangement starts with a Tutti of strings and trumpets (in Verse A) that represents a brave and an elegant sound, and in the middle of the song (in Verse B) is played smoothly by strings, and finally (in Verse C) comes another Tutti of strings and trumpets, together with the timpani and cymbals, giving it a brave sound fitting for a national anthem that was respected by the people.

The 1951 record was digitally restored in 1997[citation needed] in Australia based on Cleber's sheet music that was kept in Jakarta, and it was recorded again by the Victorian Philharmonic Orchestra under the direction of Addie MS. [14]

Ownership[edit]

In 1951, ownership of the copyright to "Indonesia Raya" came into question. President Sukarno ordered a search for the rightful heir to Soepratman.[15] By law, Supratman was the copyright holder of "Indonesia Raya" as its composer. After Soepratman's death in 1938, ownership of the rights to his works fell upon the designated heirs, his four surviving sisters. However, because "Indonesia Raya" was officially adopted as the national anthem of Indonesia on 17 August 1945, the work became the property of the state. In addition, the name of "Wage Rudolf Supratman" must be listed as its creator.[16]

As a national anthem, copies of "Indonesia Raya" cannot be circulated as merchandise to be sold. Consequently, the government had the obligation to obtain all the rights to distribute the song, including the original recording, from Yo Kim Tjan. In 1958, the government obtained the sole right to "Indonesia Raya" from Soepratman's family.[17] The following year, Yo handed the original record of the song to the Indonesian government. With the recommendation of the Department of Education, the government also rewarded Soepratman's sisters with 250,000 Indonesian rupiah each on 31 May 1960.[18]

Legal basis[edit]

As stipulated by Chapter XV, Article 36B of the Constitution of the Republic of Indonesia, Indonesia Raya is the national anthem of Indonesia.[19] Furthermore, pursuant to 1958 State Gazette no. 44,[20] only the first stanza of Indonesia Raya is to serve the function of a national anthem.

Lyrics[edit]

There is no official translation of "Indonesia Raya" into other languages. On 28 October 1953, on the 25th anniversary of the anthem, the Harian Umum daily published their own English, German, and Dutch translations of the song. A bulletin released by the Ministry of Information used these translations.[21] Currently, however, the translations are no longer published.

Modern orthography[22] Van Ophuijsen orthography[23][24] IPA transcription[a] Literal English translation Poetic English translation[citation needed]

I
Indonesia, tanah airku
Tanah tumpah darahku
Di sanalah aku berdiri
Jadi pandu ibuku

Indonesia, kebangsaanku
Bangsa dan tanah airku
Marilah kita berseru
Indonesia bersatu!

Hiduplah tanahku, hiduplah negeriku
Bangsaku, rakyatku, semuanya
Bangunlah jiwanya, bangunlah badannya
Untuk Indonesia Raya

Refrain:
Indonesia Raya, merdeka! Merdeka!
Tanahku, negeriku yang kucinta
Indonesia Raya, merdeka! Merdeka!
Hiduplah Indonesia Raya!

II
Indonesia, tanah yang mulia
Tanah kita yang kaya
Di sanalah aku berdiri
Untuk selama-lamanya

Indonesia, tanah pusaka
Pusaka kita semuanya
Marilah kita mendoa
"Indonesia bahagia!"

Suburlah tanahnya, suburlah jiwanya
Bangsanya, rakyatnya, semuanya
Sadarlah hatinya, sadarlah budinya
Untuk Indonesia Raya

Refrain

III
Indonesia, tanah yang suci
Tanah kita yang sakti
Di sanalah aku berdiri
Menjaga ibu sejati

Indonesia, tanah berseri
Tanah yang aku sayangi
Marilah kita berjanji
"Indonesia abadi!"

Selamatlah rakyatnya, selamatlah putranya
Pulaunya, lautnya, semuanya
Majulah negerinya, majulah pandunya
Untuk Indonesia Raya

𝄆 Refrain 𝄇

I
Indonesia, tanah aïrkoe
Tanah toempah darahkoe
Di sanalah akoe berdiri
Djadi pandoe iboekoe

Indonesia, kebangsaänkoe
Bangsa dan tanah aïrkoe
Marilah kita berseroe
Indonesia bersatoe!

Hidoeplah tanahkoe, hidoeplah negrikoe
Bangsakoe, ra'jatkoe, semoeanja
Bangoenlah djiwanja, bangoenlah badannja
Oentoek Indonesia Raja

Refrain:
Indonesia Raja, merdeka! Merdeka!
Tanahkoe, negrikoe jang koetjinta
Indonesia Raja, merdeka! Merdeka!
Hidoeplah Indonesia Raja!

II
Indonesia, tanah jang moelia
Tanah kita jang kaja
Di sanalah akoe berdiri
Oentoek s'lama-lamanja

Indonesia, tanah poesaka
P'saka kita semoeanja
Marilah kita mendo'a
"Indonesia bahagia!"

Soeboerlah tanahnja, soeboerlah djiwanja
Bangsanja, ra'jatnja, semoeanja
Sadarlah hatinja, sadarlah boedinja
Oentoek Indonesia Raja

Refrain

III
Indonesia, tanah jang soetji
Tanah kita jang sakti
Di sanalah akoe berdiri
'Ndjaga iboe sēdjati

Indonesia, tanah berseri
Tanah jang akoe sajangi
Marilah kita berdjandji
"Indonesia abadi!"

Selamatlah ra'jatnja, selamatlah poetranja
Poelaunja, laoetnja, semoeanja
Madjoelah neg'rinja, madjoelah pandoenja
Oentoek Indonesia Raja

𝄆 Refrain 𝄇

1
[ɪn.do.nɛ.sja ta.na(h) a.ir.ku]
[ta.na(h) tum.pa(h) da.ra(h).ku]
[di sa.na.la(h) a.ku bər.di.ri]
[d͡ʒa.di pan.du i.bu.ku]

[ɪn.do.nɛ.sja kə.baŋ.sa.(ʔ)an.ku]
[baŋ.sa dan ta.na(h) a.ir.ku]
[ma.ri.la(h) ki.ta bər.sə.ru]
[ɪn.do.nɛ.sja bər.sa.tu]

[hi.dup̚.la(h) ta.na(h).ku hi.dup̚.la(h) nə.ɡ(ə)ri.ku]
[baŋ.sa.ku ra(k̚).jat̚.ku sə.mu.a.ɲa]
[baŋ.un.la(h) d͡ʒi.wa.ɲa baŋ.un.la(h) ba.da.ɲa]
[un.tʊk̚ ɪn.do.nɛ.sja ra.ja]

 
[ɪn.do.nɛ.sja ra.ja mər.dɛ.ka mər.dɛ.ka]
[ta.na(h).ku nə.ɡ(ə)ri.ku jaŋ ku.t͡ʃin.ta]
[ɪn.do.nɛ.sja ra.ja mər.dɛ.ka mər.dɛ.ka]
[hi.dup̚.la(h) ɪn.do.nɛ.sja ra.ja]

2
[ɪn.do.nɛ.sja ta.na(h) jaŋ mu.lja]
[ta.na(h) ki.ta jaŋ ka.ja]
[di sa.na.la(h) a.ku bər.di.ri]
[un.tuk̚ sla.ma la.ma.ɲa]

[ɪn.do.nɛ.sja ta.na(h) pu.sa.ka]
[p(u.)sa.ka ki.ta sə.mu.a.ɲa]
[ma.ri.la(h) ki.ta mən.do.a]
[ɪn.do.nɛ.sja ba.ha.gja]

[su.bur.la(h) ta.na(h).ɲa su.bur.la(h) d͡ʒi.wa.ɲa]
[baŋ.sa.ɲa ra(k̚).jat̚.ɲa sə.mu.a.ɲa]
[sa.dar.la(h) ha.ti.ɲa sa.dar.la(h) bu.di.ɲa]
[un.tuk̚ ɪn.do.nɛ.sja ra.ja]

 

3
[ɪn.do.nɛ.sja ta.na(h) jaŋ su.t͡ʃi]
[ta.na(h) ki.ta jaŋ sak̚.ti]
[di sa.na.la(h) a.ku bər.di.ri]
[mən.d͡ʒa.ga i.bu sə.d͡ʒa.ti]

[ɪn.do.nɛ.sja ta.na(h) bər.sə.ri]
[ta.na(h) jaŋ a.ku sa.jaŋ.i]
[ma.ri.la(h) ki.ta bər.d͡ʒan.d͡ʒi]
[ɪn.do.nɛ.sja a.ba.di]

[sla.mat̚.la(h) ra(k̚).jat̚.ɲa sla.mat̚.lah put̚.ra.ɲa]
[pu.lau̯.ɲa la.ut̚.ɲa sə.mu.a.ɲa]
[ma.d͡ʒu.la(h) nə.g(ə)ri.ɲa ma.d͡ʒu.la(h) pan.du.ɲa]
[un.tuk̚ ɪn.do.nɛ.sja ra.ja]

 

I
Indonesia, my homeland
Land where my blood shed
Over there, I stand
To be my mother's guide

Indonesia, my nationality
My nation and homeland
Let us exclaim
Indonesia unites!

Long live my land, long live my country
My nation, my people, all of them
Build its soul, build its body
For Indonesia the Great!

Chorus:
Indonesia the Great, be free! Be free!
My land, my country which I love!
Indonesia the Great, be free! Be free!
Long live Indonesia the Great!

II
Indonesia, a noble land
Our wealthy land
Over there, I stand
Forever and ever

Indonesia, a heritage land
A heritage of ours
Let us pray
Happiness for Indonesia!

Fertile may its soil, flourish may its soul
Its nation, its people, all of them
Aware may its heart, aware may its mind
For Indonesia the Great!

Chorus

III
Indonesia, a sacred land
Our victorious land
Over there, I stand
To guard the true mother

Indonesia, a radiant land
A land which I adore
Let us pledge,
Indonesia's eternal!

Safe may its people, safe may its sons
Its islands, its seas, all of them
Advance its country, advance its scouts,
For Indonesia the Great!

𝄆 Chorus 𝄇

I
Indonesia, cherished land!
'Tis for thee we shed our blood,
On guard for thee we stand,
In thee we put our trust

Indonesians, our people!
Each other we do uphold,
In declaration wholesale:
To each other be true!

Let her valiant people and her pure lands,
Let her mighty peaks and prodigious sands,
In body, in spirit, let them all arise,
For Indonesia the Great!

Chorus:
Indonesia the Great, be free! Be free!
These isles of ours beloved dearly!
Indonesia the Great, be free! Be free!
For Indonesia the Great!

II
Indonesia, land sublime,
Fore'er bountiful and free,
Where our roots we shall plant,
For millennia to stand

Indonesia, land of inher'tance,
Entrusted to us all,
For one thing we do ask,
Strengthened be our esperance!

Fertile are her fields, holy her soul
From Sabang to Merauke, hear the call!
With hearts awakened, with goodwill served,
For Indonesia the Great!

Chorus

III
Indonesia, land so pure,
A land mighty with resolve,
To thee we pledge allegiance,
Our sole unending love

Indonesia, resplendent land,
Patriot love in us command,
Foremost in our hearts and minds,
Indonesia, fore'er to stand!

May her people, her land, may her peaks and her sands,
From sea to seas, in peace be,
May they all then advance, may they all then commence,
For Indonesia the Great!

𝄆 Chorus 𝄇

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Indonesia – Indonesia Raya". NationalAnthems.me. Retrieved 27 November 2011.
  2. ^ "National Geographic Indonesia Pewarta Melayu-Tionghoa di era pergerakan nasional". Archived from the original on 7 February 2011.
  3. ^ "Error". www.jakarta.go.id.
  4. ^ Undang-Undang Republik Indonesia Nomor 24 Tahun 2009  (in Indonesian). 2009 – via Wikisource.
  5. ^ Sularto 1982, p. 20
  6. ^ Sularto 1982, pp. 11–13
  7. ^ Panitia Penyusun Naskah Brosur Lagu Kebangsaan Indonesia Raya 1972, p. 37
  8. ^ Sularto 1982, p. 28
  9. ^ Sularto 1982, p. 28
  10. ^ Sakrie, Denny (1 March 2015). 100 Tahun Musik Indonesia (in Indonesian). Jakarta: GagasMedia. ISBN 978-979-780-785-6. Retrieved 8 March 2022.
  11. ^ Sularto 1982, p. 28
  12. ^ Panitia Penyusun Naskah Brosur Lagu Kebangsaan Indonesia Raya 1972, p. 38
  13. ^ "Indonesia Raya; the National Anthem of Indonesia | Indonesia Investments". www.indonesia-investments.com. Retrieved 24 June 2022.
  14. ^ Bondan Winarno: "Indonesia Raya" Versi Jos Cleber Kompas, 17 August 2000
  15. ^ Winarno 2003, p. 63
  16. ^ Panitia Penyusun Naskah Brosur Lagu Kebangsaan Indonesia Raya 1972, p. 61
  17. ^ Panitia Penyusun Naskah Brosur Lagu Kebangsaan Indonesia Raya 1972, p. 62
  18. ^ Panitia Penyusun Naskah Brosur Lagu Kebangsaan Indonesia Raya 1972, p. 64
  19. ^ The 1945 Constitution of The Republic of Indonesia  – via Wikisource.
  20. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 3 October 2012. Retrieved 3 July 2009.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) (a news article stating the regulation regulating the symbol and instrument of the country)
  21. ^ Panitia Penyusun Naskah Brosur Lagu Kebangsaan Indonesia Raya 1972, p. 59
  22. ^ Indonesia: An Official Handbook. Department of Information, Republic of Indonesia. 1984. p. 8.
  23. ^ "Our National Anthem". Indonesian Affairs. Ministry of Information. 3 (8): 33–40. 1953.
  24. ^ Sularto, Bambang (1986). Dari Kongres Pemuda Indonesia Pertama ke Sumpah Pemuda (in Indonesian). Balai Pustaka. p. 57.
  • Panitia Penyusun Naskah Brosur Lagu Kebangsaan Indonesia Raya (1972), Brosur Lagu Kebangsaan Indonesia Raya (in Indonesian), Jakarta: Proyek Pengembangan Media Kebudayaan, OCLC 2391302.
  • Sularto, Bambang (1982), Sejarah Lagu Kebangsaan Indonesia Raya (in Indonesian) (1st ed.), Jakarta: Balai Pustaka, OCLC 10894709.
  • Winarno, Bondan (2003), Lagu Kebangsaan Indonesia Raya (in Indonesian), Jakarta: TSA Komunika, ISBN 979-97105-1-0.

External links[edit]