|Industry||Aerospace and Defense|
|Founded||23 August 1976 (as Nurtanio Aircraft Industry (Indonesian: Industri Pesawat Terbang Nurtanio)|
|Owner||Indonesian Ministry of State Owned Enterprises|
Number of employees
Indonesian Aerospace (IAe) or official Indonesian name PT Dirgantara Indonesia (Persero) is an Indonesian aerospace company involved in aircraft design and the development and manufacture of civilian and military regional commuter aircraft. The company was formerly known as Industri Pesawat Terbang Nusantara (IPTN; Nusantara Aircraft Industry). It was expanded from a research and industrial facility under the auspices of the Indonesian Air Force, namely Lembaga Industri Penerbangan Nurtanio (LIPNUR) or Nurtanio Aviation Industry Institute.
Established in 1976 as a state owned company, it has developed its capability as an aircraft manufacturer and diversified into other areas, such as telecommunication, automotive, maritime, information technology, oil & gas, control & automation, military, simulation technology, industrial turbine, and engineering services.
Though aircraft production in Indonesia existed before independence in 1945, the National Aviation Industry was pioneered in 1946 at Yogyakarta by the formation of Planning and Construction Bureau (Indonesian: Biro Rencana dan Konstruksi) within the Indonesian Air Force. Wiweko Soepono, Nurtanio Pringgoadisurjo, and J. Sumarsono, opened a simple workshop at Magetan, near Madiun. With basic materials, gliders were designed and built – Zogling, NWG-1 (Nurtanio Wiweko Glider) among others.
The war for independence, however, halted all progress until 1953. In that year, The Experimental Section (Seksi Percobaan) was organised. Consisting of only 15 personnel, led by Nurtanio Pringgoadisurjo, The team built and tested three prototypes of a single-seat all metal aircraft at Andir Airport (Later renamed Husein Sastranegara International Airport) in Bandung.
On 24 April 1957, The Experimental Section graduated into The Inspection, Trial, and Production Sub-Depot (Indonesian: Sub Depot Penyelidikan, Percobaan dan Pembuatan) based on Decision Letter of Indonesian Air Force Chief of Staff number 68.
In 1958, a light training aircraft prototype named Belalang 89, or Grasshopper 89, was flown. The design was later produced as Belalang 90. Five Belalang 90 were built and used for military training. Within the same year, a sport plane, "Kunang 25", was also built and flown.
On 1 August 1960, by the order of the Chief of Staff of the Indonesian Air Force (order #488), The Aviation Industry Preparation Agency was to be formed to establish the Indonesian aviation industry as part of national strategies on national industrial production. By 16 December 1961, the new body, known as LAPIP (Lembaga Persiapan Industri Penerbangan), was actively negotiating for technological transfers and contracts.
LAPIP was able to secure a joint licensing and production contract with Poland. Within the same year, Indonesia was producing the PZL-104 Wilga, locally named the Gelatik. 44 were manufactured for agriculture, transport, and aero club purposes.
In 1965, the Aircraft Industry Project Implementation Command (Komando Pelaksana Proyek Industri Pesawat Terbang (KOPELAPIP)) and the Independent Aircraft Industry National Company (PN. Industri Pesawat Terbang Berdikari) were formed to expand and formulate specific uses of the young aviation industry.
Within the same timeline, Aviation Studies were promoted in the country's top universities. One of the first schools was founded within the machine department of the engineering faculty of the Bandung Institute of Technology by Oetarjo Diran and Liem Keng Kie.
Nurtanio Aircraft Industry
On 26 April 1976, mandated by Government Act No. 15, in Jakarta, PT Industri Pesawat Terbang Nurtanio was officially established with Dr. BJ. Habibie as the President and CEO. The infrastructure was completed and inaugurated on 23 August 1976 by President Suharto. The new body was a merger between Nurtanio Aviation Industry Institution (Lembaga Industri Penerbangan Nurtanio/LIPNUR) and Pertamina's Advanced Technology Division.
The name Nurtanio is a tribute to Nurtanio Pringgoadisuryo, one of the first aviation pioneers in Indonesia, who designed the Sikumbang, an indigenous all metal aircraft (maiden flight: 1 August 1954). As a result of his death caused by a flight training accident on 1 March 1966, the Aviation Industry Preparation Agency was then renamed Nurtanio Aviation Industry Institution LLC (Indonesian: Lembaga Industri Penerbangan Nurtanio (Abbreviated as LIPNUR)).
Nusantara Aircraft Industry
The exclusion of "Nurtanio" from IPTN was due to some highly questionable accusations. One of the allegations was a personal use of company's letterhead by Nurtanio's family to appropriate some IPTN stocks. None was proven true.
Dirgantara Indonesia / Indonesian Aerospace
Following the 1997 Asian financial crisis, a major restructuring program was implemented. At its peak, in 2004, the Indonesian Aerospace reduced its payroll from 9670 to 3720. Furthermore, the 18 business divisions were reorganised into the following:
- Aircraft Services
- Engineering Services
The restructuring focused on new business goals, downsizing and adaptation of man-power according to available workloads, and a pinpoint market targeting along with a concentrated business mission.[clarification needed]
The IPTN was re-introduced as PT Dirgantara Indonesia (abbreviated DI) or Indonesian Aerospace (abbreviated IAe). IAe was officially inaugurated by the President of Indonesia, Abdurrahman Wahid, in Bandung on 24 August 2000.
On 4 July 2011 Indonesia's government said it will inject Rp.2 trillion ($234 million) to Indonesian Aerospace to keep the debt-ridden firm afloat with a view to making a joint venture with EADS. Before injection the unpaid debt to government was Rp.1.1 trillion ($129 million).
- Engineering work packages; design, development, testing
- Manufacturing subcontracts
- Aircraft Maintenance Repair and Overhaul (MRO)
- Engine Maintenance and Overhaul (MRO)
Indonesian Aerospace covers an area of 86.98 ha. The backbone of the production is sustained by 232 high tech operations. Apart from these, there are other minor high-tech facilities spread over various assembly lines, laboratories, and service & maintenance units. They are located mainly in Bandung.
Indonesian Aerospace and its precursors
(PT Dirgantara Indonesia (DI) – (IAe) Indonesian Aerospace)
(Angkatan Udara Republik Indonesia, Depot Penjelidikan, Pertjobaan dan Pembuatan – Indonesian Air Force Research, Development, and Production Depot)
- NU-200 Sikumbang
- NU-225 Sikumbang (X-09)
- NU-260 Sikumbang (X-02)
- Belalang 85 (X-03) – converted Piper J-3 Cub
- Belalang 90 – converted Piper J-3 Cub
- Kunang 25 (X-04)
- Super Kunang 35 (X-05 and X-07)
- Kindjeng 150 (X-06)
- B-8m Kolentang – based on Bensen B-8
(Lembaga Industri Penerbangan Nurtanio – Nurtanio Aviation Industry Institution)
- LIPNUR Gelatik (License-built PZL-104 Wilga)
- LIPNUR LT-200 Angkatang (License-built Pazmany PL-2)
- LIPNUR Belalang
- LIPNUR Kindjeng
- LIPNUR Kolentang
- LIPNUR Kumbang
- LIPNUR Kunang
- LIPNUR Kunang-kunang
- LIPNUR Manyang
- LIPNUR Sikumbang
- LIPNUR Super Kunang I
- LIPNUR Super Kunang II
IAe Aircraft production
- CASA/IPTN CN-235 civil, military, and maritime version (Joint development with CASA under Aircraft Technology (Airtech)).
- Indonesian Aerospace CN-295 (Variant of C-295 made by Indonesian Aerospace).
- Indonesian Aerospace N-219 is a 19-seat commercial turboprop aircraft. First flew in August 2017, it was certified by Indonesian Directorate General of Civil Aviation in December 2020. IAe (PT DI) has received 257 orders of N-219 from abroad and domestic.
- Indonesian Aerospace N-245 is a planned 50-seat commercial turboprop aircraft. In mid 2018, IAe (PT DI) completed wind tunnel testing and finalize the design.
- Indonesian Aerospace N-250 is a 50-seat commercial turboprop aircraft. 2 prototypes have been built, but the program was discontinued due to 1997 Asian financial crisis that forced to stop the development. This program planned to be restarted in 2018 by the development of N-245 or R-80 aircraft program.
- Indonesian Aerospace N-2130 is a planned commercial jet aircraft, discontinued due 1997 Asian financial crisis before making any prototype.
- Indonesian Aerospace Elang Hitam is a medium-altitude long-endurance unmanned aerial vehicle currently being developed.
- Joint Development & production aircraft
- KAI KF-X, Joint Development South Korea & Indonesia Government, with development cost sharing consisted of 20 percent Indonesian Government and 80 percent South Korea. KAI and IAe (PTDI) are appointed as System Integrator. KAI KF-X is a multirole fighter, more advanced than F-16 E/F but still below F-35. Currently in prototype development phase.
- License-built aircraft
- NAS 330J, a licensed built Aérospatiale Puma helicopter, first made in 1981.
- NAS 332, a licensed built Eurocopter Super Puma helicopter, first made in 1983.
- Eurocopter EC725, 6 helicopters for Indonesian Air Force.
- NB 412, a licensed built Bell 412 helicopter made since 1984.
- NBO 105, a licensed built Bölkow Bo 105 helicopter, discontinued in July 2011 after 123 units production since 1976.
- NBK 117, a licensed built MBB/Kawasaki BK 117, first produced in 1981.
- Eurocopter Fennec as replacement of NBO 105 production line.
- Eurocopter Ecureuil as replacement of NBO 105 production line.
- NC-212, a licensed built CASA C-212 Aviocar aircraft.
IAe Subcontracts for aircraft components
- Component of Airbus A330.
- Component of Airbus A340.
- Wing Component of Airbus A380.
- Component of Boeing 737.
- Component of Boeing 757.
- Component of Boeing 767.
- Component of F-16 Fighting Falcon.
- Component of Fokker 100.
- FFAR 2.75 inch rocket under Belgium's license.
- SUT torpedo.
- NDL-40 Ground-to-Ground Rocket Multi Launcher.
- R-Han 122 rocket munition.
Indonesian Aerospace has planned to build N-245 to carry 50 passengers for about 400 kilometres distance in remote areas or where passenger demand is low. The N-245 is only modification development of CN-235 body shape with CN-235 and EADS CASA C-295 wing designs, but the tail will be a new design. The development cost of N-245 until its prototype is about $150 million with its break even point of N-245 is only 50–70 aircraft, while if built from beginning it will cost $1.5–2.0 billion. The competitors are ATR 42 and Bombardier Dash 8 Q300.
- "PT Indonesian Aerospace [ PT Industri Pesawat Terbang Nusantara (IPTN)]".
- "Zend Framework Default Application".
- "State Planemaker Dirgantara Indonesia Thrown Rp 2 trillion Lifeline". The Jakarta Globe. Archived from the original on 27 September 2012. Retrieved 29 July 2015.
- "CN235 Family". indonesian-aerospace.com. Retrieved 7 March 2021.
- "PT. Dirgantara Indonesia (Persero)". www.indonesian-aerospace.com. Retrieved 22 September 2020.
- "Indonesia certifies N219 regional turboprop". flightglobal.com. 28 December 2020. Retrieved 7 March 2021.
- Jennifer Meszaros - ainonline.com " Indonesia's N219 On Track for 2019 Certification " ainonline, March 29, 2019.
- Laila Afifa - tempo.co " PT Dirgantara Indonesia to Produce First N219 Aircraft in 2020 " tempo.co, 24 August 2019.
- Ilyas Istianur Praditya - liputan6.com " Apa Kabar Proyek Pesawat N245 PT DI? " liputan6.com, 07 Nov 2018.
- Humas PTDI - indonesian-aerospace.com " PTDI Tandatangani NKB dengan Tim PINA Bappenas Terkait Fasilitasi Pembiayaan Investasi Non-Anggaran Pemerintah " indonesian-aerospace.com, Jakarta, 07 November 2018 – Humas PTDI.
- Reni Susanti - kompas.com " Kembangkan N219 dan N245, PT DI Dapat Kucuran 400 Juta Dollar AS " kompas.com, 07 November 2018.
- "Perjanjian Proyek Pesawat N250 Sudah Ditandatangani". mediaindonesia.com (in Indonesian). 11 August 2012. Archived from the original on 5 January 2013. Retrieved 7 March 2021.
- "Indonesian Manufacturer RAI to Build R80 Prototype With Help From Leonardo, LAER". jakartaglobe.id. 23 February 2018. Retrieved 7 March 2021.
- "RI sending KFX jet-fighter production team to South Korea". Retrieved 29 July 2015.
- Jon Grevatt, Bangkok - Jane's Defence Industry " KAI reaches early production milestone on KFX " Jane's 360, 18 February 2019.
- S. Korea Weighs Designs for KF-X - Defensenews.com, 10 February 2014
- The Emerging Technological Trajectory of the Pacific Rim by Denis Fred Simon, page 193.
- "PTDI to supply six ec725 choppers to air force". 10 April 2012.
- "Eurocopter receives first main fuselage assembly from Indonesian Aerospace for EC725 & EC225". 27 November 2013.
- "Defence Helicopter - Shephard Media".
- "IPTN suspended from Bell 412 production".
- "NC212 Family". indonesian-aerospace.com. Retrieved 7 March 2021.
- "Mengenang Kejayaan IPTN Saat Mampu Membuat Komponen F-16 - Radar Militer". www.radarmiliter.com. Retrieved 5 December 2020.
- Soegeng Haryadi (13 April 2015). "PT DI Bakal Bikin Pesawat Komersial untuk Rute Jarak Pendek".
- Official website
- IPTN Profile from Industry Department
- Nurtanio reminiscences
- History of Indonesian Aviation
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