Tentara Nasional Indonesia-Angkatan Darat
|Active||1945 – present|
|Part of||Indonesian National Armed Forces|
|Motto(s)||Kartika Eka Paksi
(Sanskrit, lit:"Unmatchable Bird with Noble Goals")
Darul Islam Rebellion
East Timor Invasion
Counter-insurgency in Aceh
Counter-insurgency in Maluku
|Indonesian Army Chief of Staff||General Mulyono|
|Indonesian Army Vice Chief of Staff||Lieutenant General M. Erwin Syafitri|
|Army Aviation Roundel & Fin Flash|
The Indonesian Army (Indonesian: Tentara Nasional Indonesia-Angkatan Darat, TNI–AD), the land component of the Indonesian National Armed Forces, has an estimated strength of 300,000 regular personnel. The history of the Indonesian Army has its roots in 1945 when the Tentara Keamanan Rakyat (TKR) "Civil Security Forces" first emerged as a paramilitary and police corps.
Since the nation's independence movement, the Indonesian Army has been involved in multifaceted operations ranging from the incorporation of Western New Guinea, the Indonesia-Malaysia Confrontation, to the annexation of East Timor, as well as internal counter-insurgency operations in Aceh, Maluku and Papua.
In the week following the Japanese surrender of 1945, the Giyugun (PETA) and Heiho groups were disbanded by the Japanese. Most PETA and Heiho members did not yet know about the declaration of independence. Command structures and membership vital for a national army were consequently dismantled. Thus, rather than being formed from a trained, armed, and organised army, the Republican armed forces began to grow in September from usually younger, less trained groups built around charismatic leaders. Creating a rational military structure that was obedient to central authority from such disorganisation, was one of the major problems of the revolution, a problem that remains through to contemporary times. In the self-created Indonesian army, Japanese-trained Indonesian officers prevailed over those trained by the Dutch. A thirty-year-old former school teacher, Sudirman, was elected 'commander-in-chief' at the first meeting of Division Commanders in Yogyakarta on 12 November 1945.
On 17 November 1952, General Nasution is suspended as army chief of staff following army indiscipline over command and support that threatens the government. From the 1950s, the military articulated the doctrines of dwifungsi and hankamrata, a military roles in the country's socio-political development as well as security; and a requirement that the resources of the people be at the call of the armed forces. On 5 July 1959, Sukarno, with armed forces support, issued a decree dissolving the Constituent Assembly and reintroducing the Constitution of 1945 with strong presidential powers. He assumed the additional role of Prime Minister, which completes the structure of 'Guided Democracy'.
The army was heavily involved in the Indonesian killings of 1965–1966. The killings were an anti-communist purge following a failed coup of the 30 September Movement. The most widely accepted estimates are that more than 500,000 people were killed. The purge was a pivotal event in the transition to the "New Order"; the Indonesian Communist Party (PKI) was eliminated as a political force. The failed coup released pent-up communal hatreds which were fanned by the Indonesian Army, which quickly blamed the PKI. Communists were purged from political, social, and military life, and the PKI itself was banned. The massacres began in October 1965, in the weeks following the coup attempt, and reached their peak over the remainder of the year before subsiding in the early months of 1966. They started in the capital, Jakarta, and spread to Central and East Java and, later, Bali. Thousands of local vigilantes and army units killed actual and alleged PKI members. Although killings occurred across Indonesia, the worst were in the PKI strongholds of Central Java, East Java, Bali, and northern Sumatra. It is possible that over one million people were imprisoned at one time or another.
Sukarno's balancing act of "Nasakom" (nationalism, religion and communism) had been unravelled. His most significant pillar of support, the PKI, had been effectively eliminated by the other two pillars—the army and political Islam; and the army was on the way to unchallenged power. In March 1968, Suharto was formally elected president.
The killings are skipped over in most Indonesian history books and have received little introspection by Indonesians and comparatively little international attention. Satisfactory explanations for the scale and frenzy of the violence have challenged scholars from all ideological perspectives. The possibility of a return to similar upheavals is cited as a factor in the "New Order" administration's political conservatism and tight control of the political system. Vigilance against a perceived communist threat remained a hallmark of Suharto's thirty-year presidency. The CIA described the massacre as "one of the worst mass murders of the 20th century, along with the Soviet purges of the 1930s, the Nazi mass murders during the Second World War, and the Maoist bloodbath of the early 1950s."
The size of the Army has expanded over the years; in July 1976 the Army was estimated to consist of solely 180,000 personnel, one armoured cavalry brigade, part of Kostrad (one tank battalion, plus support units), 14 infantry brigades (90 infantry, 1 para, 9 artillery, 11 anti-aircraft, and 9 engineer battalions) of which three of the brigades were in Kostrad, two airborne brigades totalling six battalions, also part of Kostrad, one independent tank battalion, 7 independent armoured cavalry battalions, and four independent para-commando battalions.
The Armed Forces' operational sections were established by General Soedirman, following the model of the German Wehrkreise system. The system was later codified in Surat Perintah Siasat No.1, signed into doctrine by General Soedirman in November 1948.
The Army's structure underwent various reorganisations throughout its early years. From 1946 to 1952, the Army was organised into set divisions. These were further consolidated in 1951, and then dispersed in 1952. From 1952 to 1958-59, the Army was organised into seven Tentara & Teritoriums. In August 1958, the Indonesian Army reconsolidated its territorial command. There were then established sixteen Kodams, which retained earlier divisional titles; the Siliwangi Division, for example, became Kodam VI/Siliwangi.
A reorganisation in 1985 made significant changes in the army chain of command. The four multiservice Regional Defence Commands (Kowilhans) and the National Strategic Command (Kostranas) were eliminated from the defence structure, re-establishing the Military Area Command (Kodam), or regional command, as the key organisation for strategic, tactical, and territorial operations for all services. The chain of command flowed directly from the ABRI commander in chief to the ten Kodam commanders, and then to subordinate army territorial commands.
The Kodams incorporate provincial and district commands each with a number of infantry battalions, sometimes a cavalry battalion, artillery, or engineers. Some have Raider battalions attached. Currently there are 12 Military Area Commands.
Infantry battalions in progress of forming:
- Infantry battalion 147/BSY, will be based in East Belitung Regency.
- Infantry battalion 612, will be based in East Kutai Regency.
- Infantry battalion 622, will be based in Tanah Laut Regency.
- Infantry battalion 632/Panglima Batur, will be based in North Barito Regency.
- Infantry battalion 735, will be based in Morotai Island Regency.
Special Forces Command (Kopassus), est 5,530 divided is composed of five groups, Grup 1/Parakomando (Para Commando), Grup 2/Parakomando (Para Commando), Pusat Pendidikan Pasukan Khusus (Training), Grup 3/Sandhi Yudha (Combat Intelligence), SAT 81/Penanggulangan Teror (Counter-terrorism); plus the Presidential Guard (Paspampres) and headquarters. Each group is headed by a Colonel and all groups are para-commando qualified.
Army Strategic Reserve Command (Kostrad), is the Indonesian Army's Strategic Reserve Command. Kostrad is a Corps level command which has around 40,000 troops. It also supervises operational readiness among all commands and conducts defence and security operations at the strategic level in accordance with policies of the TNI commander.
- Army Aviation Command (id:Pusat Penerbangan Angkatan Darat) The army had its own small air arm that performs attack, liaison and transport duties. It operates 100 aircraft in three helicopter and aircraft squadrons composed mostly of light aircraft and small transports, such as the IPTN produced CN-235.
List of Army Chief of Staffs
- Col. GPH Djatikusumo (1948–1949)
- Col. AH Nasution (1949–1952)
- Col. / Maj. Gen. Bambang Sugeng (1952–1955)
- Maj. Gen. Bambang Utoyo (1955)
- Maj. Gen. AH Nasution (1955–1962)
- Let. Gen. Ahmad Yani (1962–1965)
- Maj. Gen. Pranoto Reksosamudra (temporary) (1965)
- Maj. Gen. Suharto (1965–1967)
- Gen. Maraden Panggabean (1967–1969)
- Gen. Umar Wirahadikusumah (1969–1973)
- Gen. Surono (1973–1974)
- Gen. Makmun Murod (1974–1978)
- Gen. Widodo (1978–1980)
- Gen. Poniman (1980–1983)
- Gen. Rudini (1983–1986)
- Gen. Try Sutrisno (1986–1988)
- Gen. Edi Sudrajat (1988–1993)
- Gen. Wismoyo Arismunandar (1993–1995)
- Gen. Hartono (1995–1997)
- Gen. Wiranto (1997–1998)
- Gen. Subagyo Hadi Siswoyo (1998–1999)
- Gen. Tyasno Sudarto (1999–2000)
- Gen. Endriartono Sutarto (2000–2002)
- Gen. Ryamizard Ryacudu (2002–2005)
- Gen. Djoko Santoso (2005–2008)
- Gen. Agustadi Sasongko Purnomo (2008–2009)
- Gen. George Toisutta (2009–2011)
- Gen. Pramono Edhie Wibowo (2011–2013)
- Gen. Moeldoko (May 2013–August 2013)
- Gen. Budiman (2013–July 2014)
- Gen. Gatot Nurmantyo (25 July 2014 – 15 July 2015)
- Gen. Mulyono (15 July 2015 - Present)
- IISS Military Balance 2012, 248. Figure may have not been updated by IISS since 2006 at least.
- Daves, Joseph H (2013) The Indonesian Army from Revolusi to Reformasi ISBN 978-1492930938, p 15
- Ricklefs (1991), pages 214 – 215
- Friend (2003), page 35
- Reid (1974), page 78
- David A. Blumenthal and Timothy L. H. McCormack (2007). The Legacy of Nuremberg: Civilising Influence or Institutionalised Vengeance? (International Humanitarian Law). Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. ISBN 9004156917 pp. 80–81.
- Schwarz, Adam (1994) A Nation in Waiting: Indonesia in the 1990s Allen & Unwin ISBN 1-86373-635-2, p 215
- Hill-Smith, Charlie (2009) Strange Birds in Paradise: A West Papuan Story
- IISS, The Military Balance 1976-77, p.55, ISBN 0-900492-98-8
- Ken Conboy, Kopassus: Inside Indonesia's Special Forces, Equinox Publishing, Jakarta/Singapore, 2003, p.79
- Library of Congress Country Study, Indonesia, November 1992, Organization of the Armed Forces
- The Military Balance 2006, International Institute for Strategic Studies
- For further authoritative details on Kopassus, see Ken Conboy (2003) KOPASSUS Inside Indonesia's Special Forces, Equinox Publishing, ISBN 979-95898-8-6.
- International Institute for Strategic Studies, The Military Balance 2008, 382.
- "Letjen Budiman Ditunjuk Gantikan Jenderal Moeldoko". 30 August 2013.
- "Presiden SBY Resmi Lantik Gatot Nurmantyo Menjadi KSAD". 25 July 2014.
- "KSAD Resmi Berpangkat Jenderal TNI". 9 August 2014.
- Friend, Theodore (2003). Indonesian Destinies. The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-01834-6.
- Reid, Anthony. The Indonesian National Revolution 1945-1950. (Publisher: Longman Pty Ltd., Melbourne, 1974) ISBN 0-582-71046-4.
- Ricklefs, M.C. A History of Modern Indonesia Since c. 1300. (Second Edition. MacMillan, 1991)
- Harold Crouch, The Army and Politics in Indonesia, Cornell University Press, Ithaca, New York, 1978
- Sukarti Rinakit, The Indonesian Military after the New Order, Nordic Institute of Asian Studies, Copenhagen and Singapore, 2005
- IndoWiki KODAMs
- Official website of TNI-AD (Army)
- Unofficial site of Indonesian Armed Forces
- Unofficial site of Indonesian Special Forces
- Jane's Intelligence Review - January 1997 and March 1997
- Indonesian Civil-Military Relations - Civil-Military Relations in Post-Suharto Indonesia and the Implications for Democracy Today: A Preliminary Analysis
- Israel, Fauzi. Tactical Assault & Combat Training. 2008
- "ASEAN Armies Rifle Meet"