Indonesian National Police
|Indonesian National Police
Kepolisian Negara Republik Indonesia
Logo of Indonesian National Police
|Motto||Rastra Sewakottama (Sanskrit)
(People's Main Servant)
|Legal personality||Governmental: Government agency|
|Agency executive||Police General Badrodin Haiti, Chief of Indonesian National Police|
The Indonesian National Police (Indonesian: Kepolisian Negara Republik Indonesia) is the police force of Indonesia. It was formerly a part of the Indonesian National Armed Forces (TNI). The police were formally separated from the military in April 1999, a process which was formally completed in July 2000.The organization is widely known for its corruption, violence and incompetence.
The strength of the Indonesian National Police stood at approximately 387,470 in 2011 and the number increasing year by year. The national police force was formally separated as a branch of the armed forces and placed under the Office of the President in 1999. It also includes 12,000 marine police and an estimated 40,000 People’s Security (KAMRA) trainees who serve as a police auxiliary and report for three weeks of basic training each year.
- 1 History
- 2 Duties and Tasks
- 3 Organization
- 4 Special Forces
- 5 Police Units
- 5.1 Sabhara
- 5.2 Traffic Police Corps
- 5.3 Maritime Police Force
- 5.4 Police Aviation
- 5.5 Tourism Police
- 5.6 Vital Object Protection
- 5.7 Sea Port Police
- 5.8 Bareskrim
- 5.9 Agency of Intelligence and Security
- 5.10 PUSLABFOR
- 5.11 NCB Interpol
- 5.12 SubDit-SATWA
- 5.13 Directorate of Narcotics and Drugs
- 5.14 Div PROPAM
- 6 Police Operational Centers
- 7 Firearms
- 8 Ranks
- 9 Uniform
- 10 Corruption
- 11 Violence and human rights abuses
- 12 List of Chiefs of Police (Kapolri)
- 13 See also
- 14 References
- 15 Further reading
- 16 External links
When large parts of Indonesia was under Dutch colonial occupation until the 1940s, police duties were performed by either military establishments or colonial police known as the veldpolitie or the field police. Japanese occupation during WW II brought changes when the Japanese formed various armed organisations to support their war. This had led to the distribution of weapons to military trained youths, which were largely confiscated from the Dutch armoury.
After the Japanese occupation, the national police became an armed organisation. The Indonesian police was established in 1946, and its units fought in the Indonesian National Revolution against the invading Dutch forces. The police also participated in suppressing the 1948 communist revolt in Madiun. In 1966, the police was brought under the control of Armed Forces Chief. Following the proclamation of independence, the police played a vital role when they actively supported the people’s movement to dismantle the Japanese army, and to strengthen the defence of the newly created Republic of Indonesia. The police were not combatants who were required to surrender their weapons to the Allied Forces. During the revolution of independence, the police gradually formed into what is now known as Kepolisian Negara Republik Indonesia (Polri) or the Indonesian National Police. In 2000, the police force officially regained its independence and now is separate from the military.
Duties and Tasks
The key tasks of the Indonesian National Police are to:
- maintain security and public order;
- enforce the law, and
- provide protection, and service to the community.
In carrying out these basic tasks, Police are to:
- perform control, guard, escort and patrol of the community and government activities as needed;
- supplying all activities to ensure the safety and smoothness of traffic on the road;
- to develop community awareness;
- as well as in the development of national law;
- implement order and ensure public safety;
- implement co-ordination, supervision, and technical guidance to the investigators, civil servants/authorities, and the forms of private security;
- implement the investigation against all criminal acts in accordance with the criminal procedure law and other legislation;
- implement identification such as police medical operations, psychology, and police forensic laboratory for the interests of the police task;
- Protect soul safety, property, society, and the environment from disturbances and/or disaster, including providing aid and relief to uphold human rights;
- Serving interests of citizens for a while before it is handled by the agency and/or authorities;
- Give services to the public in accordance with the interests of the police task environment;
- to implement other duties in accordance with the legislation, which in practice regulated by Government Regulation;
- Receive reports and/or complaints;
- crowd and public control;
- help resolve community disputes that may interfere with the public order;
- supervising the flow that can lead to the dismemberment or threaten the unity of the nation;
- publicising police regulations within the scope of police administrative authority;
- implementing special examination as part of the police identification;
- respond first and rapid action to a scene;
- Take the identity, fingerprints and photograph of a person for identification purposes;
- looking for information and evidence;
- organising National Crime Information Center;
- issuing license and / or certificate that is required to service the community;
- Give security assistance in the trial and execution of court decisions, the activities of other agencies, as well as community activities; and
- to Receive, secure, and keep founded lost items for a while until further identification
Polri is a centralised national bureaucracy. As a national agency it has a large central headquarters in Jakarta (Markas Besar Polri or Mabes Polri). The regional police organisation parallels exactly the hierarchy of the Indonesian civic administration, with provincial police commands (Polisi Daerah or Polda) to cover provinces, district commands (Polisi Resor or Polres) for districts, sub-district commands (Polsek) and community police officers or Polmas to service individual villages.
There is a similar law enforcement force in Indonesia that shares similar duties for the country with the Indonesian National Police, the law enforcement is known as Civil Service Police Unit or known in the Indonesian Language as Satpol PP. This force is under the command of the Ministry of Home Affairs which is different from the Police.
There are confusing terminological differences between some police commands. This derives from certain normative features of Indonesian governance. Indonesian political culture elevates the capital district (ibukota propinsi) of a province from other districts in the same province, though all have the same functional powers. Similarly, the capital province of the country (Jakarta), enjoys special normative status over other provinces – though in practice all have the same governmental responsibilities. The Indonesian police structure continues this by creating a special command for the province of Jakarta (Polda Metro Jaya), and special commands for capital city districts and cities (Polisi Kota Besar or Poltabes). Nevertheless, all of Indonesia’s police district commands (whether they are a Polres or Poltabes) and all the provincial commands (whether it is the flagship Polda Metro Jaya or one of the other Poldas) have the same powers and duties.
As an additional complication, super large provinces like East, West and Central Java have intermediary co-ordinating commands (Polisi Wilayah or Polwil) designed to enhance co-ordination between provincial commands and districts (to illustrate, Polda Jawa Barat in West Java has no less than 29 district commands – a major challenge for command and control). However Polri has a stated commitment to dismantle these Polwil in the near future.
Internal police culture is doctrinaire and hierarchical, and the organisation reflects this. The design and duties of Poldas and Polres are determined by central edict. Current standing orders determine that all provincial police are divided into three streams A1 (Polda Metro Jaya), B1 (demographically large provinces like East, Central and West Java) and B2 (smaller provinces like Yogyakarta, or West Kalimantan). The structure of these Poldas is more or less the same, with each possessing: a directorate of detectives, narcotics, traffic police, intelligence, specialist operational units (such as Brimob – the paramilitary police strikeforce, water police, and other units), as well as support detachments like the provosts, Binamitra (social relations police), etc. What truly differentiates Poldas is their resource base. Within Polri a tripartite matrix is applied to allocate personnel, money and equipment. This matrix is based upon a provinces’ square area, population size and reported crime rate. The same matrix is also applied to divide resources between Polres. Turning to examine the Polres, the Polres is in essence the backbone of the Indonesian police – it bridges the purely operational units (Polsek), with the higher planning/strategic elements of the structure (the Polda). In the Indonesian police a Polres is termed the Komando Satuan Dasar (or Basic Unit of Command); this means that a Polres has substantial autonomy to implement its own activities and mount its own operations. Regarding the structure of a Polres, a Polres is in effect a scaled down version of a Polda. Below is a cross-section of an average B1 level Polres (discreetly termed Polres A), in the province of Yogyakarta. This data derives from a recent PhD dissertation. Polres A has fourteen separate detachments. Seven of these detachments can be described as support elements. These support elements consist of: an Operations Planning Section, a Community Policing Section, an Administration Section (providing human resource management, training co-ordination, etc.), a Telecommunications detachment (providing communications support), a Unit P3D (provosts - or the police who police the police), a Police Service Centre (for co-ordinating requests from the public), a Medical Support Group and the Polres Secretariat. Based on 2007 data, these support areas were staffed by 139 personnel. The largest support unit was the Polres Service Centre, with fifty one police. These seven support elements back up the work of Polres A’s seven other operational units (or Opsnal in Polri terminology) as well as the nineteen sub-district police precincts in this particular district.
The Opsnal and sub-district commands execute Polri’s operational tasks. Polres A has one Traffic Police Unit, one Vital/Strategic Object Protection Unit, one Police Patrol Unit, one Narcotics Investigation Unit, one Detective Unit, a special tourist protection taskforce and a Police Intelligence Unit. These detachments have a combined strength of 487 personnel. The largest numbers are in the patrol unit (178) and the traffic unit (143). Added to the Opsnal personnel at the Polres headquarters are 1288 other police in nineteen sub-district Polseks. In 2007 this gave Polres a police-to-population ratio of around 1 police officer to 526 civilians. Thus the Polres has a relatively large number of personnel, split across a breadth of operational roles, with a teeth-to-tail ratio between operational versus support personnel that is surprisingly high.
The allocation of the budget in Polres A is also illuminating for determining where police priorities are. In 2007, Polres A had a planned budget of Rp.62.358 billion ($US 5,668,909). Of this Rp.56 billion or 90% was spent on wages and office expenses. Thus, as with most organisations, personnel costs absorb the lion’s share of resources. In terms of the operational budget some Rp.4 billion or 6% was spent on daily activities and special operations. The remaining 4% was divided between community policing, intelligence gathering and criminal investigation. Perhaps unsurprisingly then, resource shortages within the budget ensure little official money is directed to supporting operations.
Mobile Brigade Corps
The Mobile Brigade Police force of Indonesia (BRIMOB POLRI) or (BRIMOB) is the elite/special forces of the Indonesian National Police. Brimob is also automatically approved to be a paramilitary force of Indonesia and takes the duties for handling high-level threat of public secure also special police operations. This unit also becomes the back-up force for the riot control purposes. The personnel of this unit are identifiable with their dark blue berets.
The GEGANA is an internal part of the Mobile Brigade (Indonesia) Corps armed special Police force who have special abilities such as anti-terrorism, bomb disposal, intelligence, anti-anarchist, and handling of Chemical, Biological, and Radio Active threats.
The Detachment 88 or Densus 88 is an Indonesian Police Special Forces squad specialty in the field of counter-terrorism.
There are several units within the National Police of Indonesia which is known as Kesatuan which are:
SABHARA (Samapta Bhayangkara) is the main public unit of the National Police of Indonesia that directly supervises the public order and public security. It is the most common police unit in the country that firstly directly deals with the public, conducts patroling and serves the community. This unit becomes the first dispatch for standard law enforcement, policing activities and public matters affairs.
The Sabhara unit is also the first force for riot control before seeking back-up from the Brimob unit if the riot gets more violent. The personnel of this police unit are identifiable with their dark brown berets.
Traffic Police Corps
The Traffic Police of Indonesia (Indonesian: Polantas/Korlantas POLRI) is a police law enforcement which have specialty in duty for directing, controlling, and to take action in traffic situations in the streets, roads, and highway of the republic. This unit also serves for the issuing of the Driving licence in Indonesia.
Maritime Police Force
The Indonesian Maritime Police Force (Indonesian: Polisi Perairan/POLAIR) is a police force in Indonesia which guards and secures the sea and coast of Indonesia. This unit also takes action in illegal fishing activities and conducts law enforcement of fishermen and their boat's registrations in the naval territory of the republic.
The Police Aviation of Indonesia (Indonesian: Polisi Udara) is a police unit in charge of conducting policing and law enforcement functions throughout and from the air territory of the Republic of Indonesia. It is in order to provide support (backup) for police operations to be observed from the air and to enable assistance for police duties such as ground support, search and rescue, and air patrol observations. The helicopter identifiable of this police unit is usually colored white and blue in Indonesia.
The Tourism Police (Indonesian: Polisi Turis) is a police unit for tourist services. They are sometimes identifiable with their unique Indonesian Police uniform with cowboy hats and short pants and usually conducts patrolling along the beaches of Indonesia especially in Bali.
Vital Object Protection
PAM OBVIT (Indonesian: unit Pengamanan Objek Vital) is an Indonesian police unit for vital protection and usually secures international embassies in Indonesia. Their vehicles are colored orange and usually parked outside of the embassies in Indonesia. The personnel of this unit wear additional Neckties and usually wear peaked cap for their uniform.
Sea Port Police
KPPP or KP3 (Indonesian: Kesatuan Pelaksanaan Pengamanan Pelabuhan) is an element of the Indonesian National Police which has the main task to assist the Port Administrator in organizing security at the Port area along the common discipline in the context of utilization and exploitation of the port.
Bareskrim or RESKRIM (Indonesian: Badan Reserse Kriminal), lit; Criminal Investigation Agency, is an internal police unit of the Indonesian national police, its main duty is to investigate criminal activity and crime identification
Agency of Intelligence and Security
BAINTELKAM POLRI (Indonesian: Badan Intelijen dan Keamanan Polisi Republik Indonesia) is one of the main tasks of police executing agency in the field of intelligence.
The International Criminal Police Organization also called ICPO-Interpol is a joint organization for the handling of cross-country crime. In 1954, Indonesia became a member of ICPO-Interpol and established the National Central Bureau (NCB) as a police agency to maintain cooperation between countries within the scope of ICPO-Interpol. In addition to the handling of transnational crimes, this unit maintains cooperation with foreign Police elements in the matter of criminal activity involving national and international links.
Directorate of Narcotics and Drugs
This police unit is known as (Indonesian: Direktorat Reserse Narkoba) is a police unit responsible for the handling and prosecution of illegal drugs and narcotics.
(Indonesian: Divisi Profesi dan Pengamanan Polisi) or is known as DIV PROPAM is the internal affairs of the Indonesian National Police. This police unit supervises and maintains discipline in the internal scope of the national police. Personnel of this unit are identifiable with their blue berets and wear dark blue brassard printed 'PROV'.
Police Operational Centers
In the country, the police services in the community are made into several posts or office which represent a region:
- POLPOS or Pos Polisi is the police post in Indonesia. It is usually stationed near traffic intersections for traffic police posts and are also available in public places and public transportation stations.
- POLSUBSEK or Polisi Sub-Sektor is the police station for a specific smaller region or village. The level is above of a Polsek and level as to bellow the Polpos.
- POLSEK or Polisi Sektor is the police office for a specific sub-district or kecamatan. For example: POLSEK Kuta.
- POLRES or Polisi Resor is the police base for a city. For some big cities, sometimes it is known as POLRESTABES or POLRESTA which is the abbreviation of Polisi Resor Kota/Kota Besar. For example: POLRESTA Denpasar.
- POLDA or Polisi Daerah is the police headquarters for a province. For example: POLDA Bali.
The standard issue sidearm to all Indonesian National Police officers is the Taurus Model 82 revolver in. 38 Special. While police personnel attached to special units such as Detachment 88, Gegana and BRIMOB are issued with the Glock 17 semi-automatic pistol.
Heavy arms are always available to Indonesian police personnel, such as the Heckler & Koch MP5 sub-machine gun, Remington 870 shotgun, Steyr AUG assault rifle, M4 carbine and other weapons. The standard rifle for the Indonesian National Police are the Pindad SS1 and the M16 rifle.
In the early years, the Polri used European police style ranks like inspector and commissioner. When the police were amalgamated with the military structure during the 1960s, the ranks changed to a military style such as Captain, Major and Colonel. In the year 2000, when the Polri conducted the transition to a fully independent force out of the armed forces in 2000, they use British style police ranks like Inspector and Superintendent. The Polri have returned to Dutch style ranks just like in the early years.
- High-ranking officers
- Police General / Jenderal Polisi (Jend. Pol.) - equivalent General in the army
- Police Commissioner General / Komisaris Jenderal Polisi (Komjen Pol.) - equivalent Lieutenant General
- Police Inspector General / Inspektur Jenderal Polisi (Irjen Pol.) - equivalent Major General
- Police Brigadier General / Brigadir Jenderal Polisi (Brigjen Pol.) - equivalent Brigadier General
- Mid rank officers
- First rank officers
- Warrant officers (Senior Constable ranks)
- Non-commissioned officers (Mid-Constable ranks)
- Chief Police Brigadier / Brigadir Polisi Kepala (Bripka) - equivalent Sergeant Major
- Police Brigadier / Brigadir Polisi (Brigadir) - equivalent Chief Sergeant
- First Police Brigadier / Brigadir Polisi Satu (Briptu) - equivalent First Sergeant
- Second Police Brigadier / Brigadir Polisi Dua (Bripda) - equivalent Second Sergeant
- Enlisted (Junior Constable ranks): Only for Brimob and Naval Police (Polair) units
- Police Brigadier Adjutant / Ajun Brigadir Polisi (Abrip) - equivalent Master Corporal
- First Police Brigadier Adjutant / Ajun Brigadir Polisi Satu (Abriptu) - equivalent Corporal
- Second Police Brigadier Adjutant / Ajun Brigadir Polisi Dua (Abripda) - equivalent Lance Corporal
- Chief Agent / Bhayangkara Kepala (Bharaka) - equivalent Master Private
- First Agent / Bhayangkara Satu (Bharatu) - equivalent Private First Class
- Second Agent / Bhayangkara Dua (Bharada) - equivalent Private
The National Police Force of Indonesia had changes for uniform colours about 3 times, the periods are:
- Since first formed until late 70s, the uniform colour was khaki like the Indian Police uniform nowadays.
- Since the early 80s until mid 90s, the uniform colour was light brown and brown.
- Since mid 90s until now the colour are brownish grey and dark brown.
In the eyes of the people, the National Police force is "corrupt, brutal, and inept". Even becoming a police officer can be expensive, with applicants having to pay up to Rp90 million, according to Indonesia Police Watch head, Neta Saputra Pane.
In April 2009, angry that the Corruption Eradication Commission (KPK) had tapped his phone while investigating a corruption case, Indonesian Police chief detective Susno Duadji compared the KPK to a gecko (Indonesian: cicak) fighting a crocodile (Indonesian: buaya) meaning the police. Susno's comment, as it turned out, quickly backfired because the image of a cicak standing up to a buaya (similar to David and Goliath imagery) immediately had wide appeal in Indonesia. A noisy popular movement in support of the cicak quickly emerged. Students staged pro-cicak demonstrations, many newspapers ran cartoons with cicaks lining up against an ugly buaya, and numerous TV talk shows took up the cicak versus buaya topic with enthusiasm. As a result, references to cicaks fighting a buaya have become a well-known part of the political imagery of Indonesia.
In June 2010, the Indonesian news magazine Tempo published a report on "fat bank accounts" held by senior police officers containing billions of rupiah. When the magazine went on sale in the evening groups of men said by witnesses to be police officers, went to newsstands with piles of cash to try to buy all the copies before they could be sold.
When KPK investigators tried to search Polri headquarters in 2010 as part of an investigation into Djoko Susilo, then the head of Korlantas (police corps of traffic), they were detained, and only released following the intervention of the president, Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono. Following a trial, Djoko was jailed for 18 years. Two years later, the KPK began investigating another senior police officer, Budi Gunawan, who was subsequently nominated for the post of National Police Chief. The KPK then named Budi a suspect and his nomination was withdrawn. However, he was later sworn in as deputy police chief. The police subsequently took revenge by charging three KPK commissioners with criminal offenses.
Violence and human rights abuses
Amnesty International has accused Polri of "widespread" torture and other abuses of arrested individuals. According to the organization, "Police in Indonesia shoot, beat and even kill people without fear of prosecution, leaving their victims with little hope of justice".
In 2014 the Human Rights Watch reported that a physical virginity test is routinely performed on female applicants to the police force. Human Rights Watch decried the practice as unscientific and degrading.
List of Chiefs of Police (Kapolri)
- General R Said Soekanto Tjokrodiatmodjo (29 Sep 1945 – 14 December 1959)
- General Soekarno Djojonegoro (15 December 1959 – 29 December 1963)
- General Soetjipto Danoekoesoemo (30 December 1963 – 8 May 1965)
- General Soetjipto Joedodihardjo (9 May 1965 – 8 May 1968)
- General Hoegeng Imam Santoso (9 May 1968 – 2 October 1971)
- General Moch. Hasan (3 October 1971 – 1974)
- General Widodo Budidharmo (1974 – 25 September 1978)
- General Awaluddin Djamin (26 September 1978 – 1982)
- General Anton Soedjarwo (1982 – 1986)
- General Mochammad Sanoesi (1986 – 19 February 1991)
- General Kunarto (20 February 1991 – April 1993)
- General Banurusman Astrosemitro (April 1993 – March 1996)
- General Dibyo Widodo (March 1996 – 28 June 1998)
- General Roesmanhadi (29 June 1998 – 3 January 2000)
- General Roesdihardjo (4 January 2000 – 22 September 2000)
- General Suroyo Bimantoro (23 September 2000 – 28 November 2001)
- General Da'i Bachtiar (29 November 2001 – 7 July 2005)
- General Sutanto (8 July 2005 – 30 September 2008)
- General Bambang Hendarso Danuri (30 September 2008 – October 2010)
- General Timur Pradopo (October 2010 – 25 October 2013)
- General Sutarman (25 October 2013 – 16 January 2015)
- General Badrodin Haiti (17 April 2015 – present)
- Indonesian Military (TNI)
- Indonesian Mobile Brigade Special Police Corps (Brimob)
- Detachment 88 (Densus 88) AT
- Civil Service Police Unit
- "Indonesian police split from military", Reuters (CNN), 1 April 2009, retrieved 18 September 2009
- Davies, Sharyn Graham; Meliala, Adrianus; Buttle, John, Indonesia’s secret police weapon (Jan-Mar 2013 ed.), Inside Indonesia, retrieved 8 December 2015
- Republik Indonesia: Undang-Undang No.2/2002 tentang Kepolisian Nasional, Pasal 8. [Indonesian National Police Law].
- David Jansen, ‘Networked Security in Indonesia: The Case of the Police in Yogyakarta.’ Doctoral Dissertation, Australian National University (April 2010), p.70-71.
- Keputusan Kepala Kepolisian Negara Republik Indonesia No.Pol. : KEP 7/I/2005 tentang Perubahan Atas Keputusan Kapolri No.Pol KEP /54/X/2002 Tanggal 17 Oktober 2002 tentang Organisasi dan Tata Kerja Satuan-Satuan Organisasi pada Tingkat Kepolisian Negara Republik Indonesia Daerah (Polda) Lampiran A Polda Umum, B Polda Metro Jaya dan C Polres.
- "West Java Polda - Sekilas Mapolda Jabar". Lodaya.web.id. 2011. Retrieved 20 April 2011. For commitment to deconstruct Polwil see: 2010, Polwiltabes Jadi Polrestabes’, Tribun Makassar, 23 December 2009
- Jansen, ‘Networked Security in Indonesia’, 74.
- See footnote four for central headquarters policy on structure and organizational function.
- See footnote four.
- Most Polda websites have a basic overview of their functional units A good one to start is Polda Jawa Barat.
- See footnote four. See also: Mulyana, Laporan Hasil Penelitian: Telaah Tiplogi Polres Berdasarkan Karakteristik dan Perkembangan Wilayah (Universitas Padjadjaran, Sept.2007), p.13.
- Jansen, ‘Networked Security in Indonesia’, 71.
- Jansen, ‘Networked Security in Indonesia’ 71-73.
- The Polsek is a purely operational unit (or in Polri terms Kesatuan Pelayanan Terdepan – the Primary Forward Service Unit). The Polsek covers the territory of a single, civilian sub-district (or kecamatan). Depending on the classification of its area, a Polsek usually has between 30-70 personnel, consisting of an intelligence unit, a detective unit, a patrol police unit, two Polmas/Babinkamtibmas (social order guidance police) for every village in the sub-district, and, if the sub-district is large enough, a traffic police unit.
- District population figures derived from ‘Tabel 3.1.6 Jumlah Rumah Tangga dan Penduduk menurut Jenis Kelamin dan Kabupaten/Kota di Provinsi D.I.Yogyakarta (2004-2006).’ In: Badan Pusat Statistik: Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta Dalam Angka 2006/2007 (Katalog BPS: 1403.34), p.72.
- Jansen, ‘Networked Security in Indonesia’, 71-72.
- Allard, Tom (10 May 2010), Indonesia pays a high price for its corrupt heart, Sydney Morning Herald, retrieved 8 December 2015
- Antagonism between the KPK and the police, with memories of the cicak versus buaya clash, remained deeply embedded in the relationship between the KPK and the police after the clash. See, for example, references to the clash in 2012 in Ina Parlina, 'Doubts over KPK inquiry into police bank accounts', The Jakarta Post, 18 May 2012.
- Fat Bank Accounts of POLRI Chief Candidates, Tempo, 26 July 2013, retrieved 8 December 2015
- Deutsch, Anthony (29 June 2010), The disappearing magazine and Indonesian media freedom, Financial Times, retrieved 8 December 2015
- Butt, Simon; Lindsey, Tim (11 April 2015), Joko Widodo's support wanes as Indonesia's anti-corruption agency KPK rendered toothless, The Age, retrieved 8 December 2015
- Budi Gunawan sworn in as deputy police chief, The Jakarta Post, 22 April 2015, retrieved 8 December 2015
- Taking bribes from tourists Indonesian Style, ETurboNews date= 28 April 2013, retrieved 8 December 2015
- Cop Killers, The Economist, 4 November 2010, retrieved 8 December 2015
- Indonesia must end impunity for police violence, Amnesty International, 25 April 2012, retrieved 8 December 2015
- Human Rights Watch (18 November 2014). "Indonesia: 'Virginity Tests' for Female Police". Retrieved 19 November 2014.
- "Komisi III DPR Terima Sutarman Jadi Kapolri". 17 October 2013.
- "Komjen Pol Sutarman Resmi Dilantik Jadi Kapolri". 25 October 2013.
- This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the Library of Congress Country Studies.
- Amnesty International. (2009) "Indonesia: Unfinished Business: Police Accountability in Indonesia" (24 June 2009)
- International Crisis Group. (2001) Indonesia : National Police reform. Jakarta / Brussels : International Crisis Group. ICG Asia report; no.13
- David Jansen. (2008) "Relations among security and law enforcement institutions in Indonesia", Contemporary Southeast Asia, Vol.30, No.3, 429-54
- "Networked Security in Indonesia: The Case of the Police in Yogyakarta." Doctoral Dissertation, Australian National University (April 2010).
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