Tentara Nasional Indonesia-Angkatan Laut
|Founded||10 September 1945|
|Allegiance||Constitution of Indonesia|
(Sanskrit, lit: "Victorious on the Sea")
|Anniversaries||10 September 1945 (founded)|
|Engagements||Battle of Arafura Sea
Incorporation of West Papua into Indonesia
Indonesian Invasion of East Timor
Insurgency in Aceh
|Chief of Staff of the Navy||Admiral Ade Supandi|
|Naval Aviation Roundel & Fin Flash|
The Indonesian Navy (Indonesian: Tentara Nasional Indonesia-Angkatan Laut, TNI–AL) was founded on 10 September 1945. Its role is to patrol Indonesia's lengthy coastline, to enforce and patrol the territorial waters and Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) of Indonesia, to protect Indonesia's maritime strategic interests, to protect the islands surrounding Indonesia, and to defend against seaborne threats.
The Indonesian Navy is the largest navy in South East Asia based on the number of active personnel and ships. As of 2009, the Indonesian Navy had about 75,000 active personnel and more than 150 vessels in active service. The Indonesian Navy is one of a few navies in the region backed by a substantial domestic defence industry, marine corps, and armed with supersonic missiles and attack submarines.
All commissioned ships of the TNI-AL have the prefix KRI, standing for Kapal Republik Indonesia (Republic of Indonesia Ship).
According to Law No.34/2004 on the Indonesian National Armed Forces, Article 9, the Navy has the following tasks:
- perform military duties in national defence;
- enforce the law and secure the order in the sea area of national jurisdiction in accordance with national laws and ratified international laws;
- perform diplomatic duties in support of foreign policy set by the government;
- engage other duties relevant for the maintenance and development of naval power;
- support civilian empowerment in sea defence areas.
The Indonesian Navy's history began on 10 September 1945, at the outset of the Indonesian National Revolution. The administration of the early Indonesian government established the People's Marine Security Agency (BKR Laut), the predecessor to the modern Indonesian Navy. BKR Laut was initially composed of Indonesian sailors who had served in the ranks of the Royal Netherlands Navy during the Dutch colonial period, and who had fought the Japanese during the years of military occupation, plus active militias who served with the Japanese and ex-Indonesian officers and ratings of the Imperial Japanese Navy.
The formation of the Indonesian military organisation known as the People's Security Army (TKR) in 1945, at the height of the National Revolution, helped spur the further existence of the TKR Naval Branch, which later became the Republic of Indonesia Navy (ALRI).
Between 1949–1959, the Navy enhanced its strength and capabilities with the formation of the Fleet Command, the Marine Corps, then known as the Marine Commando Forces Corps Command (KKO-AL), Naval Aviation and Maritime Area Command as a command of the defence of the territorial sea aspect.
The navy comprises the following:
- Headquarters Staff (HQ, Jakarta) under the overall command of the Navy Chief of Staff,
- Two Fleet Commands :
- Several Naval Main Bases and Naval Bases throughout Indonesia. Apart from the major bases at Surabaya and Jakarta, forward operating bases exist at Kupang, West Timor and Tahuna, Sulawesi.
- Marine Corps, with two Marine Forces and an independent Marine Brigade
- Naval Aviation Center,
- Military Sealift Command – coordinates the navy's logistical support systems
- Indonesian Naval Academy
- Naval Education and Training Command
- Women's Naval Service
- Naval Police Command
Plans exist to have a single HQ at Surabaya, with commands at Riau (West), Papua (East), and Makassar (Central). JDW reported on 12 November 2003 that Admiral Bernard Kent Sondakh, the Chief of Naval Staff, was advocating a plan to merge the two fleets to form a single Main Operations and Administration Defence Command, to be headed by a three-star officer and headquartered at Surabaya.
Main Naval Bases are sequentially numbered from I to XI by location from west to east. On 1 August 2006 Naval Base Bayur Bay, Padang, West Sumatra became naval Main Base (Lantamal) II.
Naval forces are spread across several main bases under the command of two major Fleets:
- Western Fleet Command:
- Main Naval Base I Belawan.
- Naval Base Sabang
- Naval Base Dumai
- Naval Base Lhokseumawe
- Naval Base Tanjung Balai Asahan
- Naval Base Simeulue
- Naval Air Station Sabang
- Main Naval Base II Padang.
- Naval Base Sibolga
- Naval Base Bengkulu
- Main Naval Base III Jakarta.
- Naval Base Palembang
- Naval Base Cirebon
- Naval Base Panjang
- Naval Base Banten
- Naval Base Bandung
- Naval Base Bangka Belitung
- Naval Air Station Pondok Cabe
- Main Naval Base IV Tanjung Pinang.
- Naval Base Batam
- Naval Base Tarempa
- Naval Base Ranai
- Naval Base Tanjung Balai Karimun
- Naval Base Dabo Singkep
- Naval Air Station Matak (Natuna Islands)
- Naval Air Station Tanjungpinang/Kijang
- Main Naval Base XII Pontianak.
- Eastern Fleet Command:
- Main Naval Base V Surabaya.
- Naval Base Tegal
- Naval Base Cilacap
- Naval Base Semarang
- Naval Base Malang
- Naval Base Banyuwangi
- Naval Base Denpasar
- Naval Base Batuporon
- Naval Air Station Juanda
- Main Naval Base VI Makassar.
- Naval Base Kendari
- Naval Base Palu
- Naval Base Balikpapan
- Naval Base Kotabaru
- Naval Base Banjarmasin
- Main Naval Base VII Kupang.
- Naval Base Mataram
- Naval Base Maumere
- Naval Base Kupang
- Naval Base Tual
- Naval Air Station Kupang
- Main Naval Base VIII Manado.
- Naval Base Tahuna
- Naval Base Toli-Toli
- Naval Base Gorontalo
- Naval Air Station Manado
- Main Naval Base IX Ambon.
- Naval Base Ternate
- Naval Base Saumlaki
- Naval Base Morotai
- Main Naval Base X Jayapura.
- Naval Base Biak
- Naval Air Station Biak
- Main Naval Base XI Merauke
- Naval Base Timika
- Naval Base Aru
- Naval Air Station Aru
- Main Naval Base XIII Tarakan.
- Naval Base Nunukan
- Main Naval Base XIV Sorong.
In the 1960s, the Indonesian Navy Naval Aviation had a long-range strike capability with Il-28 Beagle medium bombers. In 1975–79, the Dinas Penerbangan Angkatan Laut (Naval Aviation Service) received 12 GAF Nomad Searchmaster B's and six Searchmaster L twin-turboprops to form a maritime patrol Squadron (800 Skwadron). In mid 1996 six NC.212-MPAs also joined the squadron. All aircraft are based at the Naval headquarters base of Surabaya, but detachments are at times sent to Tanjung pinang and Manado. There are plans to buy 11 ASW helicopters in the future. The candidates include the Kaman SH-2G Super Seasprite and the Eurocopter Panther but as of early 2014 no contract had been finalised.
|GAF Nomad||Australia||Light Transport||N.24 Nomad||24||Now used for advanced training|
|CASA C-212 Aviocar||Spain||Maritime Patrol & Tactical Transport||NC-212 MPA||6||Several planes installed with domestic made Surveillance camera|
|Beech Bonanza||United States||Light Transport||G-36 Bonanza||8|
|CASA CN-235|| Spain
|Maritime Patrol & Tactical Transport||CN-235 MPA||5|
|Bell 412|| Canada
|Utility||Bell 412EP||Licensed production by Indonesian Aerospace|
|MBB BO 105||European Union||Utility||NBO-105||6|
|Eurocopter EC-120 Colibri||European Union||Utility||EC-120B Colibri||2|
|Eurocopter AS365 Dauphin||European Union||Utility||Dauphin||1||Originally owned by BASARNAS (National Search And Rescue Agency) but has been painted to the TNI AL camo and transferred to the navy|
|Eurocopter AS565 Panther||European Union||Utility||Dauphin AS565 MBe||(11) ||On order. Will be used for naval anti-submarine warfare (ASW) missions and to support operations from land bases and vessels.|
|First Admiral TNI||Sugianto, S.E, M.A.P.||-||23 February 2013|
|First Admiral TNI||I Nyoman Nesa||23 February 2013||24 May 2014|
|First Admiral TNI||Sigit Setyanta||24 May 2014||Present|
The Korps Marinir is the Indonesian Navy's ground troops. It was created on 15 November 1945 and has the duty of being the main amphibious warfare force and quick reaction force of defence against enemy invasion.
- Komando Pasukan Katak – the primary special operations force of the Indonesian Navy. Members are recruited from navy sailors.
- Batalion Intai Amfibi – the Marine Corps' Amphibious Reconnaissance Battalion, which also has capability as para-commando. They are recruited from marines corps.
- Detasemen Jala Mangkara – special operations and counter-terrorism forces of the Indonesian Navy. This is a combined detachment formed from selected personnel of the Navy's Underwater Special Unit (Kopaska) and the Marine Corps' Amphibious Reconnaissance Battalion (KIPAM aka Yontaifib).
The Indonesian Navy plans to have 151 vessels (minimum), 220 vessels (standard), or 274 vessels (ideal), for which it has a blueprint up to 2024.
In April 2011, PT PAL, in co-operation with Netherlands' Naval Shipbuilding, started designing a new light frigate for ASW purposes. It will be the largest warship built by PT PAL. The first steel cutting ceremony was held on January 2014 and order for two PKR ships is confirmed. Equipped with VL Mica missiles and Oerlikon Millennium CIWS, these ships are also usable for air defence purposes.
In December 2011, a contract to build three submarines was signed by Indonesia and Daewoo Shipbuilding & Marine Engineering (DSME). Two submarines will be built in South Korea in co-operation with Indonesian state-owned shipbuilder PT PAL, while the third will be built at PT Pal's facilities. The contract was worth $1.07 billion and construction was planned to start in January 2012, with delivery expected in 2015 and 2016. The submarines will weigh 1,400 tons and be 61.3 metres (201 ft 1 in) long, with a crew of up to 40 and with 8 weapons tubes for torpedoes and other weapons. The procurement is an effort to keep pace with other countries in the region. The submarines will be based at Palu naval base in Central Sulawesi which is currently under construction.
In January 2012, the Navy confirmed an order for the 24 guided-missile fast boats to be deployed in the shallow waters in the western part of Indonesia and in North Sulawesi which are geographically dotted by small islands and divided by straits. Indonesia now has 8 KCR-40s (Kapal Cepat Rudal 40-meter, literally meaning 40-meters Fast Missile Boat), all in full commission by 20 December 2013. These vessels will be 45 percent locally sourced and are to be designed and built locally. They will cost Rp 73 billion ($7.98 million) each and have a top speed of 30 knots. They will carry Chinese C-705 anti-ship missiles with a range up to 120 kilometres (75 mi), a 6-barreled 30-millimeter close-in weapons system and two 20-millimeters guns. Indonesia has also decided to restart procurement of the Trimaran, Klewang class FMPV(Fast missile patrol vessel), with an initial order of four boats.
The Indonesian Navy is also preparing to acquire three new British built corvettes, classified as Bung Tomo-class corvette, after its leading ship, KRI Bung Tomo (357). They were built for Brunei but rejected for not meeting their requirements, allowing Indonesia to buy them cheaply.
In December 2013, the Indonesian Ministry of Defence stated that the Indonesian Navy planned to buy several used Kilo-class submarines still in commission with the Russian Navy. A team consisting of Indonesian Navy experts was to be sent to Russia to inspect the condition of these future submarines. In March 2014 the procurement was cancelled.
Integrated Maritime Surveillance Systems
With various coastal radars, Indonesia has one of the world's longest Integrated Maritime Surveillance Systems (IMSS). The network covers more than 1,205 kilometres (749 mi) of coastline in the Straits of Malacca and about 1,285 kilometres (798 mi) of coastline in the Sulawesi Sea.
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