Indonesian Archipelago

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Indonesian Archipelago
Native name:
ꦤꦸꦱꦤ꧀ꦠꦫ, Nusantara  (Javanese)
Nusantara Raya.jpg
Etymology
  • Indonesia from Greek: Ινδο (Indo, lit. 'Indies') + νησιά (nisiá, lit. 'islands')
  • Nusantara from Javanese: ꦤꦸꦱ (Nusa, lit. 'islands') + ꦲꦤ꧀ꦠꦫ (antara, lit. 'outer')
Geography
LocationSoutheast Asia
Adjacent bodies of water
Total islands± 18,300 islands[a]
Major islands
Area8,300,000 km2 (3,200,000 sq mi)
Highest elevation4,884 m (16024 ft)[b]
Highest pointPuncak Jaya
Administration
PresidentJoko Widodo 2019 official portrait.jpg Joko Widodo
Demographics
DemonymIndonesians
Population± 280,000,000[2] (2020)
LanguagesLanguages of Indonesia
Ethnic groupsEthnic groups of Indonesia

The Indonesian Archipelago[3][4] (Javanese: ꦤꦸꦱꦤ꧀ꦠꦫ, romanized: Nusantara;[5][6]: 3 [7]: 230  Indonesian: Kepulauan Indonesia) is the archipelago located between the Indian and Pacific oceans[8] consist of ± 18,300 islands[c] that form the country of Indonesia as well as its neighbouring countries (such as Timor Leste, Sarawak, and Sabah).[10]

Indonesia is the largest archipelagic nation in the world

There are 8,844 named islands according to estimates made by the government of Indonesia, with 922 of those are permanent. It comprises five main islands: Sumatra, Java, Borneo (known as Kalimantan in Indonesia), Sulawesi, and New Guinea; two major island groups (Nusa Tenggara and the Maluku Islands) and sixty smaller island groups. Four of the islands are shared with other countries: Borneo is shared with Malaysia and Brunei; Sebatik, located off the northeastern coast of Kalimantan, shared with Malaysia; Timor is shared with East Timor; and New Guinea is shared with Papua New Guinea.

Indonesia has total land area of 1,904,569 square kilometres (735,358 sq mi), Including 93,000 square kilometres (35,908 sq mi) of inland seas (straits, bays, and other bodies of water). This makes it the largest island and archipelagic country in the world.[11]

Terminology[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Historically, the term ‘Indonesia’ is an exonym given by Europeans colonizers, it dates back to the 16th century era and constructed from the compound of ‘Indo’ + ‘Nesia’.[12] The root of ‘Indo’ itself are derived from Latin term ‘Indigena’ which means "indigenous" and Greek: ‘Ἰνδό’, romanizedIndo which bear the same meaning;[13] the term ‘Indian’ (in America) also linked to the same root. Meanwhile the ‘Nesia’ taken from the Greek: ‘νησιά’, romanizednesia which literally means "islands" or "archipelago".[13]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Purwanto, Heru, ed. (10 January 2017). "Indonesia to register 14,752 officially named islands with UN". Antara News. Retrieved 19 October 2021.
  2. ^ "Mid Year Population (Thousand People)". Badan Pusat Statistik - Indonesia. Retrieved 3 July 2022.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  3. ^ Gooszen, H. (2021). A Demographic History of the Indonesian Archipelago. Royal Netherlands Institute of Southeast Asian and Caribbean Studies. Netherlands: KITLV Press. ISBN 978-90-6718-128-0.
  4. ^ Ecology of Insular Southeast Asia: The Indonesian Archipelago. Netherlands: Elsevier. 2006. ISBN 978-0-444-52739-4.
  5. ^ Rais, Mohamed Amien; Ng, Taryn; Irwan, Omar; Najib, Muhammad (2004). Putra Nusantara: Son of the Indonesian Archipelago. Singapore: Stamford Press. ISBN 9810499078.
  6. ^ Bowring, Philip (2018). Empire of the Winds: the Global Role of Asia's Great Archipelago. Bloomsbury. p. 3.
  7. ^ Avé, J. (1989). "'Indonesia', 'Insulinde' and 'Nusantara': Dotting the I's and Crossing the T". Bijdragen tot de Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde. Leiden, the Netherlands. 145 (2/3): 230. doi:10.1163/22134379-90003252. JSTOR 27864030. S2CID 162366798.
  8. ^ Tanudirjo, Daud Aris (2001). Islands in Between: Prehistory of the Northeastern Indonesian Archipelago. Australia: Australian National University. p. 884.
  9. ^ Purwanto, Heru, ed. (10 January 2017). "Indonesia to register 14,752 officially named islands with UN". Antara News. Retrieved 19 October 2021.
  10. ^ Richter, Anne; Carpenter, Bruce W. (2011). Gold Jewellery of the Indonesian Archipelago. Singapore. ISBN 978-981-4260-38-1.
  11. ^ "Island Countries of the World". WorldAtlas.com. Archived from the original on 2017-12-07. Retrieved 2019-08-10.
  12. ^ Crawfurd, John (1825). De Indische Archipel, In Het Buzonder Het Eiland Java Beschouwd [The Indonesian Archipelago: Specific Book About The Island of Java] (in Dutch). Vol. 3.
  13. ^ a b Tomascik, T.; Mah, JA; Nontji, A.; Moosa, M.K. (1996). The Ecology of the Indonesian Seas – Part One. Hong Kong: Periplus Editions. ISBN 962-593-078-7.

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ according to the National Institute of Aeronautics and Space of the Republic of Indonesia[1]
  2. ^ The elevation given here was determined by the 1971–73 Australian Universities' Expedition and is supported by the Seven Summits authorities and modern high resolution radar data. An older but still often quoted elevation of 5,030 metres (16,503 ft) is obsolete.
  3. ^ according to the National Institute of Aeronautics and Space of the Republic of Indonesia[9]

Bibliography[edit]

  • Gooszen, H. (2021). A Demographic History of the Indonesian Archipelago. Royal Netherlands Institute of Southeast Asian and Caribbean Studies. Netherlands: KITLV Press. ISBN 978-90-6718-128-0.
  • Tanudirjo, Daud Aris (2001). Islands in Between: Prehistory of the Northeastern Indonesian Archipelago. Australia: Australian National University. p. 884.
  • Tyler, Donald E. (1993). Earliest Known Monkey Fossil from the Indonesian Archipelago. Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI).
  • Gray, Nathan Howard (2012). International Business Negotiators of the Indonesian Archipelago: Identification of Negotation Styles, Strategies and Behaviours. Australia: University of South Australia. p. 318.
  • Longenecker, Martha; Sidner, Rob; Gardiner, Lynton (2005). Elemental Art of the Indonesian Archipelago: Selections from the Collection of Mingei International Museum. Mingei International Museum. ISBN 9780914155195.
  • Ishak, Hikmat. Discover Indonesia: A Travel Guide to the Indonesian Archipelago. Bali: Bali Intermedia. p. 671. ISBN 9789798099014.
  • Taylor, Maurice (1976). Island Hopping Through the Indonesian Archipelago. Michigan: Wilton House Gentry Limited. ISBN 9780905064109.