Indonesian migrant worker

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Indonesian migrant worker or Tenaga Kerja Indonesia (abbreviate: TKI) are Indonesian citizens that work in foreign countries outside of Indonesia.

The large population of Indonesia as the world's 4th largest, has contributed to the surplus of workforces in Indonesia. This large workforce, combined with scarcity and unavailability of jobs at home, has led numbers of Indonesians to seek job abroad, to earn money to improve their economy. However this Indonesian migrant workers are mostly low-skilled and works in domestic sector. They are prone to exploitation, extortion, physical and sexual abuses, suffered by those enduring human trafficking. Several cases of abuses upon Indonesian migrant worker has been reported and some has gained worldwide attention.

It is estimated around 4.5 million Indonesians work abroad. Most of them (around 70%) are women, most are employed in domestic sector as maid or domestic helper and manufacture sector. Most of them aged in productive age margin, between 18 and 35 years old. However it is estimated some of them might be under aged through document falsification. Around 30% are men, mostly work in plantation, construction, transportation and service sector.[1]

Since 1969, the government of Indonesia has administered the recruitment of migrant labour.[2] The public programme is widely criticized to prioritize the rights of private recruitment agents over the migrant workers they recruit.

Placement[edit]

Currently Malaysia employs the largest numbers of Indonesian migrant workers, followed by Taiwan, Saudi Arabia, Hong Kong, and Singapore. It is important to note that these are official numbers, the actual numbers might be far larger contributed by unrecorded illegal entry of Indonesian workers into foreign countries.

Employer countries[edit]

Source:BNP2TKI[3][4]

Country 2011 2012 2013 2014*
 Malaysia 134,120 134,023 150,236 107,085
 Taiwan 78,865 81,071 83,544 68,874
 Saudi Arabia 137,835 40,655 45,394 38,104
 Hong Kong 50,301 45,478 41,769 30,208
 Singapore 47,786 41,556 34,655 25,601
 United Arab Emirates 39,917 35,571 44,505 15,276
 Oman 7,306 8,836 10,719 15,035
 South Korea 11,392 13,593 15,374 9,623
 Brunei 10,804 13,146 11,269 9,298
 United States 13,749 15,353 15,021 7,839
 Qatar 16,616 20,380 16,237 6,872
 Bahrain 4,379 6,328 5,384 4,535
 Japan 2,508 3,293 3,042 2,093
 Kuwait 2,723 2,518 2,534 1,530
 Turkey 1,016 1,209 1,518 1,155
 Italy 3,408 3,691 3,746 1,075
 China 1,072 1,967 2,055 812
 Fiji 556 970 848 809
 Canada 805
 Spain 1,484 1,746 1,417 754
 Mauritius 478 982 1,017 734
 Netherlands 592 798 1,176 664
 Thailand 1,113 1,035 1,041 597
 Germany 299 697 1,168 518
 Australia 526 945 1,012 441
 South Africa 1,272 1,388 905 460
 Trinidad and Tobago 481
  • to 31 October

Job sector[edit]

Country 2011 2012 2013 2014*
Domestic Worker 267,231 164,981 168,318 113,952
Plantation Worker 39,622 36,478 47,598 40,146
Operator 40,847 40,347 46,799 32,819
Care Taker 48,492 51,474 45,751 40,581
Construction Worker 5,625 11,141 15,580 6,779
General Worker 8,364 8,488 13,834 7,338
Deck Hand 4,509 12,283 11,249 8,904
Worker (Man) 33,398 17,030 9,249 2,041
Able Body Seaman 4,777 7,796 8,719 4,017
Housekeepers 14,643 16,006 8,301 4,759
Operator Production 1 1,913 5,856 6,244
Labour 17,098 19,493 5,854 4,270
Fisherman 4,371 5,213 5,559 3,988
Driver 0 974 4,746 6,945
Production Operator 3,745 5,163 4,664 na
Gardener 2,018 2,580 3,831 2,658
Worker 1,195 2,131 3,793 6,300
Agricultural Labour 6,814 3,201 3,604 na
Waiter 4,733 4,144 3,153 1,635
Engineer 2,339 2,939 3,115 na
  • to 31 October

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ "Profil" (in Indonesian). Migrant Care. Retrieved 2014-11-26.
  2. ^ Palmer, Wayne (2016-08-25). Indonesia's Overseas Labour Migration Programme, 1969-2010. Brill. doi:10.1163/9789004325487. ISBN 9789004325487.
  3. ^ "25 Negara Terbesar Penempatan Tenaga Kerja Luar Negeri Indonesia Tahun 2011-2013" (pdf) (in Indonesian). BNP2TKI. p. 7. Retrieved 2014-11-26.
  4. ^ "25 Negara Terbesar Penempatan Tenaga Kerja Luar Negeri Indonesia Tahun 2014 (1 Januari s.d 31 Oktober 2014)" (pdf) (in Indonesian). BNP2TKI. p. 7. Retrieved 2014-11-26.

External links[edit]

  • BNP2TKI National Body for Placement and Protection of Indonesian Workers
  • Migrant Care NGO focused on migrant worker issues
  • MTO Resource for Remittance comparison for Overseas Indonesians
  • Merchantrade Money Transfer Money Transfer Service Provider