Indonesian units of measurement

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A number of units of measurement were used in Indonesia to measure length, mass, capacity, etc. Metric system adopted in 1923 and has been compulsory in Indonesia since 1938.[1]

System before metric system[edit]

Old Dutch and local measures were used under Dutch East Indies. Local measures were very variable, and later they have been legally defined with their metric equivalents.[2]

Length[edit]

A number of units were used to measure length. One depa was equal to 1.70 m by its legal definition.[2][1] Some other units and their legal equivalents are given below:

1 hasta = 1/4 depa

1 kilan = 1/8 depa.[2][1]

Mass[edit]

A number of units were used to measure mass.

Ordinary[edit]

One pikol (or one pecul) was equal to 61.761 302 5 kg by its legal definition.[2] Some other units and their legal equivalents are given below:

1 thail = 1/1600 pikol

1 catti = 1/100 pikol

1 kabi = 1/100 pikol

1 kulack = 0.0725 pikol

1 amat = 2 pikol

1 small bahar = 3 pikol

1 large bahar = 4.5 pikol

1 timbang = 5 pikol

1 kojang (Batavia) = 27 pikol = 1 667.555 kg

1 kojang (Semarang) = 28 pikol = 1 729.316 kg

1 kojang (Soerabaya) = 30 pikol = 1 852.839 kg.[2]

For precious metals[edit]

One thail was equal to 54.090 kg by its legal definition.[2] Some other units and their legal equivalents are given below:

1 wang = 1/48 thail

1 tali = 1/16 thail

1 soekoe = 1/8 thail

1 reaal = 1/2 thail.[2]

For opium[edit]

One thail was equal to 38.601 kg by its legal definition.[2] Some other units and their legal equivalents are given below:

1 tji = 0.1 thail

1 tjembang Mata = 0.001 thail

1 hoen = 0.001 thail.[2]

Area[edit]

Several units were used to measure area. One bahoe (or 1 bouw) was equal to 7096.5 m2 and lieue2 (Geographic) was equal to 55.063 2 km by its legal definition.[2]

Capacity[edit]

Two systems, dry and liquid, were used to measure capacity.

Dry[edit]

Several units were used to measure dry capacity. One kojang was equal to 2 011.267 9 l by its legal definition.[2] One pikol was equal to 1/30 kojang.[2]

Liquid[edit]

A number of units were used to measure liquid capacity. Some other units and their legal equivalents are given below:

1 takar (for oil) = 25.770 l

1 kit (for oil) = 15.159 l

1 koelak (for oil) = 3.709 l

1 kan (for various products) = 1.575 l

1 mutsje (for various products) = 0.151 6 l

1 pintje (for oil) = 0.075 8 l.[2]

Sumatra[edit]

Several local units were used in Sumatra.

Length[edit]

Units for length included:

1 etto = 2 jankal

1 hailoh = 2 etto

1 tung = 4 hailoh = 12 ft.[3]

Capacity[edit]

Units for capacity included:

1 koolah = 2.117 3 bushel

1 pakha = 0.145 35 gallon.[3]

Mass[edit]

Units for mass included:

1 catty = 2.118 lb

1 maund = 77 lb

1 pecul = 133 1/3 lb

1 candil = 423 1/2 lb

1 ootan (for camphor) = 4 lb.[3]

Java[edit]

Several local units were used in Java. Old Dutch units too were in use, and other units were varied for example one town to another.:[4]

Length[edit]

One covid was equalt to 3/4 yard and other units were Dutch.[4]

Mass[edit]

Units for mass included:

1 gantang (for coffee) = 10 catties

1 pecul = 100 catties = 135.631 2 lb

1 bahar (at Bantam) = 396 lb

1 bahar (at Bantam; used for pepper) = 406.78 lb

1 bahar (at Batavia) = 610.17 lb

1 timbang (for grain) = 677.962 5 lb

1 tael (at Bantam) = 0.151 1 lb

1 tael (at Batavia) = 0.0847 lb.[3]

Capacity[edit]

Units for capacity included:

1 kanne = 0.394 gallon

1 legger (for arrack) = 160.0 gallon

1 bambou (at Bantam) = 0.092 23 bushel

1 koyang = 147.568 bushel

1 koyang (at Batavia; measure for rise) = 62 432 bushel.[3]

Celebes (Modern Sulawesi)[edit]

Units were resemble or identical with the units of neighbouring islands under Netherlands.[5]

Mass[edit]

One pecul was equal to 135.64 lb.[5]

Molucca Islands[edit]

Dutch units and other units resembling the units in Java, Sumatra, etc. were used.[6]

Amboyna[edit]

Mass[edit]

Units included:

1 bahar = 597.61 lb

1 mace = 28 1/2 grain

1 tael = 55.337 1 bushel.[6]

Ternate[edit]

Mass[edit]

One catty was equal to 1.301 7 lb.[6]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Cardarelli, F. (2003). Encyclopaedia of Scientific Units, Weights and Measures. Their SI Equivalences and Origins. London: Springer. p. 151. ISBN 978-1-4471-1122-1.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Washburn, E.W. (1926). International Critical Tables of Numerical Data, Physics, Chemistry and Technology. New York: McGraw-Hil Book Company, Inc. pp. 5, 6. Retrieved 8 February 2015.
  3. ^ a b c d e Clarke, F.W. (1891). Weights Measures and Money of All Nations. New York: D. Appleton & Company. p. 71.
  4. ^ a b Clarke, F.W. (1891). Weights Measures and Money of All Nations. New York: D. Appleton & Company. p. 49.
  5. ^ a b Clarke, F.W. (1891). Weights Measures and Money of All Nations. New York: D. Appleton & Company. p. 22.
  6. ^ a b c Clarke, F.W. (1891). Weights Measures and Money of All Nations. New York: D. Appleton & Company. pp. 52–53.