Indore State

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This article is about the princely state during the British Raj. For the dynasty, see Holkar.
Indore State
इंदौर रियासत
Princely State of British India

1818–1948
Flag Coat of arms
Flag Coat of arms
Location of Indore
Map of the territories of Indore State, some forming enclaves in neighbouring Gwalior and Bhopal states
History
 •  Maratha Confederacy, British protectorate 1818
 •  Indian independence 15 June 1948 1948
Area
 •  1931 24,605 km2 (9,500 sq mi)
Population
 •  1931 1,325,089 
Density 53.9 /km2  (139.5 /sq mi)
Today part of Madhya Pradesh, India
Public Domain This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainChisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "article name needed". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. 
The Rajawada (Old Palace) of Indore.
The Sukhnivas Palace.
The Maharaja of Indore on his state elephant.
Tukojirao Holkar III, Maharaja of Indore.
Maharani Shrimant Chandravati Bai Sahib Holkar, First Wife of Maharaja Tukojirao Holkar III of Indore.
Maharani Indira Bai Sahib Holkar, Second Wife of Maharaja of Indore Tukojirao Holkar III.

Indore State, also known as Holkar State,[1] was a Maratha princely state in India during the British Raj. Its rulers belonged to the Holkar dynasty and the state was under the Central India Agency. Indore was a 19 Gun Salute (21 locally) princely state (a rare high rank).

Indore princely state was located in the present-day Indian state of Madhya Pradesh. The capital of the state was the city of Indore. The state had an area of 24,605 km² and a population of 1,325,089 inhabitants in 1931; other important towns besides Indore were Rampura, Khargon, Maheshwar, Mehidpur, Barwaha and Bhanpura; there were also a total of 3,368 villages.[2]

History[edit]

By 1720, the headquarters of the local pargana were transferred from Kampel to Indore, due to the increasing commercial activity in the city. On 18 May 1724, the Nizam accepted the rights of the Maratha Peshwa Baji Rao I to collect chauth (taxes) from the area. In 1733, the Peshwa assumed the full control of Malwa, and appointed his commander Malhar Rao Holkar as the Subhedar (Governor) of the province..

On 29 July 1732, Bajirao Peshwa-I granted Holkar State by merging 28 and half parganas to Malhar Rao Holkar, the founder ruler of Holkar dynasty. His daughter-in-law Ahilyabai Holkar moved the state's capital to Maheshwar in 1767, but Indore remained an important commercial and military centre. After the defeat of the Holkar rulers in the Third Anglo-Maratha War, an agreement was signed on 6 January 1818 with the British and Indore State became a British protectorate. The Holkar dynasty was able to continue to rule Indore as a princely state mainly owing to the efforts of their Dewan (Chief minister) Tatya Jog.

The capital was moved from Maheshwar to Indore on 3 November 1818 and the Indore Residency, a political residency with a British resident was established in the city. Later Indore would be established as the headquarters of the British Central India Agency. In 1906 electric supply was started in the city, a fire brigade was established in 1909 and in 1918, the first master-plan of the city was drawn by noted architect and town planner Patrick Geddes.

During the period of Maharaja Tukoji Rao Holkar II (1852–86) efforts were made for the planned development and industrial development of Indore. During the reigns of Maharaja Shivaji Rao Holkar, Maharaja Tukoji Rao Holkar III and Maharaja Yeshwant Rao Holkar business in Indore flourished thanks to the railways that had been introduced in the state in 1875.

In 1926, Maharaja Tukoji Rao III Holkar XIII abdicated after being implicated in a murder case involving a court dancer and her lover[3]

Post Independence[edit]

After the independence of India in 1947, Indore State, along with a number of neighbouring princely states acceded to India. Yashwant Rao Holkar II, the last ruler of the state, signed the instrument of accession to the Indian Union on 1 January 1950. The territories of the state became part of the new Indian state of Madhya Bharat.

Rulers[edit]

The kings of Indore held the title of 'Maharaja' Holkar. The rulers of the state were entitled to a 19 gun salute by the British authorities.[4]

Rulers (title Maharaja Holkar)[edit]

Name Birth Death Reign
Malhar Rao I Holkar I 1694 1766 1731 – 20 May 1766
Male Rao Holkar II 1745 1767 20 May 1766 – 5 Apr 1767
Ahalya Bai Holkar (III)(f), regent 1725 1795 Apr 1767 – 13 Aug 1795
Tukoji Rao I Holkar IV 1723 1797 13 Aug 1795 – 29 Jan 1797
(also listed as co-ruler from Apr 1767)
Kashi Rao Holkar V  ? 1808 29 Jan 1797 – Jan 1799
Khande Rao I Holkar VI 1798 1806 Jan 1799 – 1806
Yashwant Rao I Holkar 1776 1811 1806 – 27 Oct 1811
(regent from Jan 1799)
Malhar Rao III Holkar VII 1801 1833 Nov 1811 – 27 Oct 1833
Maharani Tulsi Bai (f), regent  ? 1817 Nov 1811 – 20 Dec 1817
Martand Rao Holkar VIII 1830 1849 27 Oct 1833 – 2 Feb 1834
Hari Rao Holkar IX 1795 1843 2 Feb 1834 – 24 Oct 1843
Khande Rao II Holkar X 1828 1844 24 Oct 1843 – 17 Feb 1844
Maharani Maji (f), first regency  ? 1849 24 Oct 1843 – 17 Feb 1844
Tukoji Rao II Holkar XI
(knighted 25 Jun 1861)
1835 1886 27 Jun 1844 – 17 Jun 1886
Maharani Maji (f), second regency (s.a.)  ? 1849 27 Jun 1844 – Sep 1849
Shivaji Rao Holkar XII
(knighted 30 Jun 1887)
1859 1908 17 Jun 1886 – 31 Jan 1903
Tukoji Rao III Holkar XIII
(knighted 1 Jan 1918)
1890 1978 31 Jan 1903 – 26 Feb 1926
Yashwant Rao II Holkar XIV
(knighted 1 Jan 1935)
1908 1961 26 Feb 1926 – 15 Aug 1947
Usha Devi Holkar, 1961 Present

Dewans (Chief ministers)[edit]

  • c.1808 - 1811 Bala Ram Seth
  • 1811 - Dec 1817 Ganpal Rao
  • 1818 - Apr 1826 Tantia Jogh (Tatya Joga) (d. 1826)
  • Apr 1826 - 1827? Raoji Trimbak
  • 1827 Daji Bakhshi
  • 1827? - 1829 Appa Rao Krishna
  • 1829 - 1834? Madhav Rao Phadnis
  • Apr 1834 - Nov 1836 Sardar Revaji Rao Phanse
  • 1836 - 1839? Abbaji Ballal (or Bhawani Bin)
  • 1839? - 1840? Bhao Rao Phanse (1st time)
  • 1840? - Oct 1841 Narayan Rao Palshikar
  • 1841 - 1842? the ruler
  • 1842? - 1848 Bhao Rao Phanse (2nd time)
  • 1848 - 1849? Ram Rao Palshikar
  • 1852 - 1873 the ruler
  • 1873 - 1875 Sir Madhava Rao (b. 1828 - d. 1891)
  • 1875 - 1881 Ragunath Rao (1st time) (b. 1831 - d. 1912)
  • 1881? - 1884? Shahamat Ali
  • 1884 - 1886 Nana Moroji Trilokekar
  • 1886 - 1888 Ragunath Rao (2nd time) (s.a.)
  • c.189. Balkrishna Atmaram Gupte
  • 189. - 1913? Munshi Nanak Chand ji Airen
  • 4 Apr 1913 - Oct 1914 Narayan Ganesh Chandravarkar
  • 1914 - 1916 ....
  • 1916 - 19.. Ram Prasad Dube (1st time)
  • Nov 1921 - 1923? Chettur Sankaran Nair (b. 1857 - d. 1934)
  • 1923? - 1926? Ram Prasad Dube (2nd time)

Prime ministers[edit]

  • Feb 1926 - 1939 Siremal Bapna (s.a.)
  • 1939 - 1942? Sardar Dina Nath
  • 1942 - 1947 Raja Gyannath Madan
  • 1947 R.G. Horton
  • 1 Sep 1947 - 3 Jan 1948 E.P. Menon
  • Jan 1948 N.C. Mehta
  • 26 Jan 1948 - Mar 1948 M.V. Bhide

British Residents[edit]

British Residents of the Indore Residency.[5]

  • 1840 - 1844 Sir Claude Martin Wade (b. 1794 - d. 1861)
  • 1845 - 1859 Robert North Collie Hamilton (b. 1802 - d. 1887)
  • 1859 - 1861 Sir Richmond Campbell Shakespear (b. 1812 - d. 1861)
  • 1861 - 1869 Richard John Meade (b. 1821 - d. 1899)
  • 1869 - 1881 Henry D. Daly
  • 1881 - 1888 Henry Lepel-Griffin (b. 1838 - d. 1908)
  • 1888 - 1890 P.F. Henvey
  • 1890 - 1894 R.J. Crosthwaite
  • 1894 - 1899 David W.K. Barr
  • 1899 - 1902 Robert Henry Jennings
  • 1902 - 1903 Francis Younghusband (b. 1863 - d. 1942)
  • 1903 - 1907 Oswald Vivian Bosanquet (1st time) (b. 1866 - d. 1933)
  • 1907 - 1909 James Levett Kaye (b. 1861 - d. 1917)
  • 1909 - 1910 Charles Beckford Luard
  • 1910 - 1916 Charles Lennox Russell
  • 1916 - 1919 Oswald Vivian Bosanquet (2nd time) (s.a.)
  • 1919? - 1921 Francis Granville Beville
  • 1921 - 1924 Denys Brooke Blakeway (b. 1870 - d. 1933)
  • 1924 - 1929 Sir Reginald Glancy
  • Mar 1927 - Oct 1927 Edward Herbert Kealy (acting for Glancy)
  • 1929 - 1930 H.R.N. Pritchard
  • 1930 - 1931 Frederick Bailey
  • 1931 - 1932 G.M. Ogilvie
  • 1933 - 21 Mar 1935 Rawdon James MacNabb (b. 1883 - d. 1935)
  • 1935 - 1940 Kenneth Samuel Fitze (b. 1887 - d. 1960)
  • 1940 - 1942 Gerald Thomas Fisher
  • 1942 - 1946 Walter F. Campbell
  • 1946 - 1947 Henry Mortimer Poulton (b. 1898 - d. 1973)

British Agents[edit]

Agents to the Governor-General for the Central India Agency. The headquarters of the agent were at Indore.

  • 1845 - 1854 Robert North Collie Hamilton (s.a.)
  • 1854 - 1899 the British Residents in Indore
  • 1899 - 1900 David W.K. Barr
  • Mar 1900 - 1905 Charles S. Bayley
  • 1905 - 1910 Hugh Daly
  • 1910 - 1912 Michael Francis O'Dwyer (b. 1864 - d. 1910)
  • 1912 - 1913 John B. Wood
  • 1913 - 1916 Oswald Vivian Bosanquet (s.a.)
  • 1916 - 1944 the British Residents in Indore
  • 1944 - 1946 Walter Campbell
  • 1946 - 1947 Henry Mortimer Poulton (b. 1898 - d. 1973)

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Princely States of India
  2. ^ Great Britain India Office. The Imperial Gazetteer of India. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1908.
  3. ^ Jhala, Angma Dey (2016). Courtly Indian Women in Late Imperial India ("The Body, Gender and Culture") by. London New York: Routledge. p. 125. ISBN 978-1138663640. Retrieved 1 February 2017. 
  4. ^ Indore Princely State (19 gun salute)
  5. ^ Princely States of India

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 22°43′31″N 75°51′56″E / 22.7252°N 75.8655°E / 22.7252; 75.8655