Indra Bahadur Rai

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Indra Bahadur Rai
Born 3 February 1927
Balasun Tea Estate, Darjeeling District, India
Occupation Novelist, Short Story Writer, Essayist, Literary Critic
Language Nepali, English
Nationality Indian
Notable awards Sahitya Akademi Award,
Jagadambashri Puraskar,
Agam Singh Giri Smriti Puraskar

Indra Bahadur Rai (Nepali: ईन्द्र बहादुर राई) is a Nepali writer and literary critic from Darjeeling, India.


Indra Bahadur Rai did his schooling in Kurseong and Darjeeling. He completed his graduation from Calcutta University and his post-graduation in English from North Bengal University. He taught at Turnbull High School in Darjeeling for several years. He also worked as a professor of English at St. Joseph's College, Darjeeling. He was also the Vice Chairman of Darjeeling Municipality.


I.B. Rai entered the field of Nepali literature around 1950 when he started publishing literary criticisms in different journals such as Aadhar, Bharati, Diyo, Diyalo, and Roop Rekha. His first novel Aaja Ramita Cha was published in 1958. After that, he entered the field of short stories. His first story was published in 1959. His first book Vipana Katipaya, a collection of thirty short stories published in 1960, had a great influence on Nepali literature, especially on the genre of short stories. From 1963 onwards, he was a prominent figure in the dimensional literature movement, which is known as Aayameli Andolan in the history of Nepali literature. He, along with Ishwor Ballav and Bairagi Kainla, searched the unexplored realms of Nepali literature. They successfully added a third dimension – Tesro Aayam – to Nepali literature.

One of the most well-known modern authors of Nepali literature, Indra Bahadur Rai's major works are included in the syllabus of many universities for those studying Nepali in India. He has been an active writer for over 60 years and has received the Sahitya Akademi Award (for his work Nepali Upanyaska Adharharu), Jagadambashri Puraskar and Agam Singh Giri Smriti Puraskar.[1][2] Rai is a very diverse writer and uses a wide range of literary styles that incorporate both traditional as well as modern techniques in his works. The texts he has written deal with a range of topics, from small private whimsies to key historical events, making each document a unique forceful piece of literature. According to Prem Poddar, the writings of I.B. Rai, which reflect the heritage of the Gorkha/Nepali nation and national identity, can be interpreted in two different ways:

"As I see it, Rai’s reflections on the Nepali language, the Gorkha/Nepali community, and his own writing practice can be read in two ways. The first is in terms of telos: that writing will strengthen the nation or ethnie. The other way is the more troubled interrogative reading that raises the same questions of cultural identity, through textual elisions and ambivalences inter alia, about writing and the Gorkha/Nepali community. I raise the possibility, and vacillate between, both kinds of reading in this introductory essay, but the very act of vacillating veers me towards the latter."[3]

A selection of his short stories were translated into English in 2009 as Gorkhas Imagined: Indra Bahadur Rai in Translation.[4][5][6][7]


I.B. Rai has edited many books and literary periodicals. His most important works are as follows:

  • Vipana Katipaya - विपना कतिपय (1960)
  • Aaja Ramita Chha - आज रमिता छ (1964)
  • Tipeka Tippaniharu - टिपेका टिप्पणीहरु (1966)
  • Bhanubhaktaka Kriti Adhyayanharu - भानुभक्तका कृति अध्ययनहरु (1971)
  • Kathastha - कथास्थ (1974)
  • Nepali Upanyaska Adharharu - नेपाली उपन्यसका आधारहरु (1974)
  • Sandharbhama Ishwar Ballabhka Kavita - सन्दर्भमा इश्वर बल्लभका कविता (1976)
  • Darjeelingma Nepali Natakko Ardhashatabdi - दार्जीलिङमा नेपाली नाटकको अर्धशतब्दी (1989)
  • Kathaputaliko Man - कथापुतलिको मन (1992 )
  • Pahad ka Kholaharoo - पहाडका खोलाहरू (1992 )
  • Arthaharuko Pachhilitira - अर्थहरुको पछीलितिर (1994)
  • Prishta-Prishtha - पृष्ठ-पृष्ठ (1995)
  • Samayankan Dainikiya - समयन्कन दैनिकिया (1997)
  • Lekhanru Ra Jhya - लेखनहरू र झ्याल (2000)
  • Pahilo Din - पहिलो दिन
  • Sahitya Apaharan Markswadi Pratibadhdata - साहित्य अपहरण माक्सवादी प्रतिबद्धता


  1. ^ "Indra Bahadur Rai". Gorkhapedia. Retrieved 4 April 2011. 
  2. ^ Rai, Indra Bahadur. "Nepali Literary Criticism in Sikkim". Gorkhapedia. Retrieved 4 April 2011. 
  3. ^ Poddar, Prem and Prasad, Anmole, ed. (2009). Gorkhas Imagined: Indra Bahadur Rai in Translation. Darjeeling, India: Mukti Prakashan. ISBN 978-81-909354-0-1. 
  4. ^ Radcliffe, Joanna; Gurung, Tek. "Gorkhas Imagined: Darjeeling and the Issue of Gorkhaland". Darjeeling Times. Retrieved 5 April 2011. 
  5. ^ Gurung, Chandra Sing. "Gorkhas Imagined: Indra Bahadur Rai in Translation - Book Review" (PDF). Explusultra - The Postgraduate Ejournal of the Wun International Network in Colonial and Postcolonial Studies. Retrieved 7 April 2011. 
  6. ^ Singh, Pranab Man. "Nepali dimension". Himal. Retrieved 1 May 2011. 
  7. ^ Bhattarai, Richa. "Translated in full glory". Républica. Retrieved 1 May 2011. 

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