Industrial Emissions Directive

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Directive 2010/75/EU
European Union directive
TitleIndustrial Emissions Directive
Made byEuropean Parliament & Council
Made underArticle 175(1)
Journal referenceOJL 334, 12 December 2010, pp. 17–119
Date made24 November 2010
Came into force6 January 2011
Implementation date7 January 2013
Other legislation
Replaces78/176/EEC, 82/883/EEC, 92/112/EEC,1999/13/EC, 2000/76/EC, 2008/1/EC, and 2001/80/EC
Current legislation

The Industrial Emissions Directive (Directive 2010/75/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 24 November 2010 on industrial emissions (integrated pollution prevention and control)) is a European Union directive which commits European Union member states to control and reduce the impact of industrial emissions on the environment. The directive aims to lower emissions from industrial production through an integrated approach.[1] The directive uses a polluter pays to assign the cost of the updates to the plant.[1] The plan to lower emissions is based on Best available technology to help reach the goals of the directive. The plan allows for flexibility given the best available technology; exemptions to the directive can be granted to firms as well if the cost is greater than the benefit.[1]


The European Commission undertook a 2-year review with all stakeholders to examine how the legislation on industrial emissions could be improved to offer a high level of protection for the environment and human health while simplifying the existing legislation and cutting unnecessary administrative costs. Throughout Europe there is high acceptance that industrial emissions are the leading cause of pollution in Europe.[2] As well there is high support for a system where the polluter will pay under a Polluter pays principle.[2]

The IED is intended to provide significant improvement on the interaction between the previous seven directives (including the Waste Incineration Directive) which it replaces. It also strengthens, in several instances, some provisions in previous directives, for example the Large Combustion Plant Directive.


Certain firms are allowed to apply for exemptions when the cost of the best available technology is higher than the benefit.[3] They will be evaluated using Cost–benefit analysis to decide if an exemption will be granted to the firm. Bulgaria is currently seeking an exemption for their whole fleet of coal fired power plants.[4][needs update]


The exemptions have allowed for a large amount of Europe's power plants to exceed the set standards.[5] There is concern that if the exemptions were removed some plants will be forced to shut down due to the increased cost associated with the best available technology. With the passing of stricter laws now makes it harder for some plants to receive an exemption from the directive.[5]


  1. ^ a b c "The Industrial Emissions Directive". European Commission. European Commission. Retrieved 28 July 2017.
  2. ^ a b "Eurobarometers – Environment". European Commission. Retrieved 6 August 2017.
  3. ^ Bachmann, Till M.; van der Kamp, Jonathan (15 April 2014). "Environmental cost-benefit analysis and the EU (European Union) Industrial Emissions Directive: Exploring the societal efficiency of a DeNOx retrofit at a coal-fired power plant". Energy. 68: 125–139. doi:10.1016/
  4. ^ "Bulgaria to request exemption from EU law on coal plants". Retrieved 28 July 2017.
  5. ^ a b Fioretti, Julia. "EU states approve plans for stricter limits on pollutants from power plants". Reuters. Retrieved 28 July 2017.

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