Industrial Light & Magic

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Industrial Light & Magic
Division
Industry Visual effects, Computer-generated imagery, Feature animation, Television animation
Founded May 1975; 41 years ago (1975-05)
Founder George Lucas
Headquarters Letterman Digital Arts Center,
Presidio of San Francisco, California, United States
Key people
Sam Mercer
(Head of Studio)
John Knoll
(Chief Creative Officer)
Dennis Muren
Parent Lucasfilm
(The Walt Disney Company)
Divisions ILMxLab[1]
Subsidiaries ILM London
ILM Singapore
ILM Vancouver
ILM San Francisco[2][1]
Website www.ILM.com

Industrial Light & Magic (ILM) is an American motion picture visual effects company that was founded in May 1975 by George Lucas. It is a division of the film production company, Lucasfilm, which Lucas founded, and was created when Lucas began production of the film Star Wars. For many years, particularly during the widespread inception of computer graphics in film during the 1980s, ILM was considered the leading industry standard production house for computer graphics in film; many studios other than Lucasfilm sent scenes to the studio for CGI. It is also the original founder company of the animation studio Pixar.

ILM originated in Van Nuys, California, then later moved to San Rafael in 1978, and since 2005 it has been based at the Letterman Digital Arts Center in the Presidio of San Francisco. In 2012, The Walt Disney Company acquired ILM as part of its purchase of Lucasfilm.[3]

History[edit]

Industrial Light & Magic original logo, designed by Drew Struzan

Lucas wanted his 1977 film Star Wars to include visual effects that had never been seen on film before. After discovering that the in-house effects department at 20th Century Fox was no longer operational, Lucas approached Douglas Trumbull, famous for the effects on 2001: A Space Odyssey. Trumbull declined as he was already committed to working on Steven Spielberg's film Close Encounters of the Third Kind, but suggested his assistant John Dykstra to Lucas. Dykstra brought together a small team of college students, artists, and engineers, and set them up in a warehouse in Van Nuys, California. Lucas named the group Industrial Light and Magic, which became the Special Visual Effects department on Star Wars. Alongside Dykstra, other leading members of the original ILM team were Ken Ralston, Richard Edlund, Dennis Muren, Joe Johnston, Phil Tippett, Steve Gawley, Lorne Peterson, and Paul Huston.

In late 1978, when in pre-production for The Empire Strikes Back, Lucas reformed most of the team into Industrial Light & Magic in Marin County, California. From here on, the company expanded and has since gone on to produce special effects for nearly three hundred films, including the entire Star Wars saga, the Indiana Jones series, the Harry Potter series, the Jurassic Park series, the Back to the Future trilogy, many of the Star Trek films, Ghostbusters II, Who Framed Roger Rabbit, the Pirates of the Caribbean series, the Terminator sequels, the Transformers films, the Men in Black series, nine Marvel Cinematic Universe films, Wild Wild West, most of the Mission: Impossible films, E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial, *batteries not included, The Abyss, and Flubber, and also provided work for Avatar, alongside Weta Digital.

In addition to their work for George Lucas, ILM also collaborates with Steven Spielberg on most films that he directs, and for many that he produces as well. Dennis Muren has acted as Visual Effects Supervisor on many of these films.

Apart from flashy special effects, the company also works on more subtle effects—such as widening streets, digitally adding more extras to a shot, and inserting the film's actors into preexisting footage—in films including Schindler's List, Forrest Gump, Snow Falling on Cedars, Magnolia, and several Woody Allen films.

After the success of the first Star Wars movie, Lucas became interested in using computer-generated imagery on the sequel. So he contacted Triple-I, known for their early computer effects in movies like Westworld and Futureworld, which ended up making a computer generated test of five X-Wing fighters flying in formation. He found it to be too expensive and returned to handmade models. But the test had showed him it was possible, and he decided he would create his own computer graphics department instead. One of Lucas' employees was given the task to find the right people to hire. His search would lead him to NYIT, where he found Edwin Catmull and his colleagues. Catmull and others accepted Lucas' job offer, and a new computer division at ILM was created in 1979 with the hiring of Ed Catmull as the first NYIT employee who joined Lucasfilm.[4] John Lasseter, who was hired a few years later, worked on computer animation as part of ILM's contribution to Young Sherlock Holmes. The Graphics Group was later sold to Steve Jobs, named Pixar, and created the first CG animated feature, Toy Story.

In 2000, ILM created the OpenEXR format for high-dynamic-range imaging.[5]

ILM operated from an inconspicuous property in San Rafael, California until 2005. The company was known to locals as The Kerner Company. In 2005, when Lucas decided to move locations to the Presidio of San Francisco and focus on digital effects, a management-led team bought the five physical and practical effects divisions and formed a new company that included the George Lucas Theater, retained the "Kerner" name as Kerner Technologies, Inc. and provided physical effects for major motion pictures, often working with ILM, until its Chapter 7 bankruptcy in 2011.

In 2005, ILM extended its operations to Lucasfilm Singapore, which also includes the Singapore arm of Lucasfilm Animation. In 2011, it was announced the company was considering a project-based facility in Vancouver.[6]

In 2006, ILM invented IMoCap (Image Based Motion Capture Technology).

As of 2009, ILM has received 15 Best Visual Effects Oscars and 23 additional nominations. It has also received 24 Scientific and Technical Awards from the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences.

In 2012, Disney bought ILM's parent company, Lucasfilm, and acquired ILM in the process. Disney stated that it had no immediate plans to change ILM's operations,[7] but began to lay off employees by April of the next year.[8]

ILM is currently the largest visual effects vendor in the motion picture industry, with regards to workforce, with more than 500 artists. It has one of the largest render farms currently available with more than 7500 nodes. Following the restructuring of LucasArts in April 2013, ILM was left overstaffed and the faculty was reduced to serve only ILM's visual effects department.[9][10]

ILM opened a London studio headquartered in the city's Soho district on October 15, 2014.[11]

Milestones[edit]

ILM filmography[edit]

Year Film Director(s) Story by Screenwriter(s) Distributor(s) Budget Gross
1977 Star Wars George Lucas 20th Century Fox $11 million $775.4 million
1980s
1980 The Empire Strikes Back Irvin Kershner George Lucas Leigh Brackett and Lawrence Kasdan 20th Century Fox $33 million $538.4 million
1981 Raiders of the Lost Ark Steven Spielberg George Lucas and Philip Kaufman Lawrence Kasdan Paramount Pictures $18 million $389.9 million
Dragonslayer Matthew Robbins Hal Barwood and Matthew Robbins Paramount Pictures
Buena Vista Pictures
$18 million $14 million
1982 Star Trek II: The Wrath of Khan Nicholas Meyer Harve Bennett, Jack B. Sowards, Nicholas Meyer and Samuel A. Peeples Jack B. Sowards and Nicholas Meyer Paramount Pictures $11.2 million $97 million
E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial Steven Spielberg Melissa Mathison Universal Studios $10 million $792.9 million
The Dark Crystal Jim Henson and Frank Oz Jim Henson David Odell Universal Studios
Columbia Pictures
$15 million $40 million
Poltergeist Tobe Hooper Steven Spielberg Steven Spielberg, Michael Grais and Mark Victor Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer $10.7 million $121.7 million
1983 Return of the Jedi Richard Marquand George Lucas George Lucas and Lawrence Kasdan 20th Century Fox $42.7 million $572.1 million
Twice Upon a Time John Korty and Charles Swenson John Korty, Charles Swenson, Suella Kennedy and Bill Couturié Warner Bros. TBA
1984 Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom Steven Spielberg George Lucas Willard Huyck and Gloria Katz Paramount Pictures $28.2 million $333.1 million
Star Trek III: The Search for Spock Leonard Nimoy Harve Bennett $16 million $87 million
The NeverEnding Story Wolfgang Petersen Wolfgang Petersen and Herman Weigel Warner Bros. $27 million $100 million
Starman John Carpenter Bruce A. Evans, Raynold Gideon and Dean Riesner Columbia Pictures $24 million $28.7 million
1985 The Goonies Richard Donner Steven Spielberg Chris Columbus Warner Bros. $19 million $61.5 million
Cocoon Ron Howard Tom Benedek 20th Century Fox $17.5 million $85.3 million
Back to the Future Robert Zemeckis Robert Zemeckis and Bob Gale Universal Studios $19 million $389.1 million
Explorers Joe Dante Eric Luke Paramount Pictures $25 million $9.9 million
Mishima: A Life in Four Chapters Paul Schrader Leonard Schrader, Paul Schrader and Chieko Schrader Warner Bros. $5 million $502,758
Young Sherlock Holmes Barry Levinson Chris Columbus Paramount Pictures $18 million $19 million
Out of Africa Sydney Pollack Kurt Luedtke Universal Studios $28 million $128.5 million
Enemy Mine Wolfgang Peterson Edward Khmara 20th Century Fox $29 million $12 million
1986 The Money Pit Richard Benjamin David Giler Universal Studios $10 million $54 million
Labyrinth Jim Henson Dennis Lee and Jim Henson Terry Jones TriStar Pictures $27.68 million $11.6 million
Howard the Duck Willard Huyck Willard Huyck and Gloria Katz Universal Studios $37 million $38 million
Star Trek IV: The Voyage Home Leonard Nimoy Harve Bennett and Leonard Nimoy Steve Meerson, Peter Krikes, Nicholas Meyer and Harve Bennett Paramount Pictures $21 million $133 million
The Golden Child Michael Ritchie Dennis Feldman $25 million $79.8 million
1987 Harry and the Hendersons William Dear William Dear, William E. Martin and Ezra D. Rappaport Universal Studios $16 million $49 million
The Witches of Eastwick George Miller Michael Cristofer Warner Bros. $22 million $63.8 million
Innerspace Joe Dante Chip Proser Jeffrey Boam and Chip Proser TBA $25 million
Empire of the Sun Steven Spielberg Tom Stoppard $35 million $22.2 million
*batteries not included Matthew Robbins Mick Garris Brad Bird, Matthew Robbins, Brent Maddock and S.S. Wilson Universal Studios $25 million $65.1 million
Spaceballs Mel Brooks Mel Brooks, Thomas Meehan and Ronny Graham Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer $22.7 million $38.1 million
1988 Willow Ron Howard George Lucas Bob Dolman Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer $35 million $57.3 million
Who Framed Roger Rabbit Robert Zemeckis Jeffrey Price and Peter S. Seaman Buena Vista Pictures $58 million $329.8 million
Caddyshack II Allan Arkush Harold Ramis and Peter Torokvei Warner Bros. $20 million $11.8 million
Tucker: The Man and His Dream Francis Ford Coppola Arnold Schulman and David Seidler Paramount Pictures
Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer
$24 million $19.7 million
Cocoon: The Return Daniel Petrie Stephen McPherson 20th Century Fox $17.5 million $25 million
1989 The 'Burbs Joe Dante Dana Olsen Universal Studios $18 million $49 million
Skin Deep Blake Edwards 20th Century Fox $9 million $19 million
Field of Dreams Phil Alden Robinson Universal Studios
TriStar Pictures
$15 million $84.4 million
Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade Steven Spielberg George Lucas and Menno Meyjes Jeffrey Boam Paramount Pictures $48 million $474.2 million
Ghostbusters II Ivan Reitman Harold Ramis and Dan Aykroyd Columbia Pictures $37 million $215.4 million
The Abyss James Cameron 20th Century Fox $70 million $90 million
Back to the Future Part II Robert Zemeckis Robert Zemeckis and Bob Gale Bob Gale Universal Studios $40 million $332 million
Always Steven Spielberg Jerry Belson and Diane Thomas $31 million $74 million
1990s
1990 The Hunt for Red October John McTiernan Larry Ferguson and Donald E. Stewart Paramount Pictures $30 million $200.5 million
Joe Versus the Volcano John Patrick Shanley Warner Bros. $25 million $39 million
Back to the Future Part III Robert Zemeckis Robert Zemeckis and Bob Gale Bob Gale Universal Studios $40 million $244.5 million
Total Recall Paul Verhoeven Ronald Shusett, Dan O'Bannon and Jon Povill Ronald Shusett, Dan O'Bannon and Gary Goldman TriStar Pictures $50 million $300 million
Die Hard 2 Renny Harlin Steven E. de Souza and Doug Richardson 20th Century Fox $70 million $240 million
Ghost Jerry Zucker Bruce Joel Rubin Paramount Pictures $22 million $505.7 million
Arachnophobia Frank Marshall Don Jakoby and Al Williams Don Jakoby and Wesley Strick Buena Vista Pictures $31 million $53.2 million
Dreams Akira Kurosawa and Ishirō Honda Akira Kurosawa Warner Bros. $12 million TBA
The Godfather Part III Francis Ford Coppola Francis Ford Coppola and Mario Puzo Paramount Pictures $54 million $136.8 million
1991 Flight of the Intruder John Milius Robert Dillon and David Shaber $35 million $14 million
The Doors Oliver Stone J. Randal Johnson and Oliver Stone TriStar Pictures $38 million $34.4 million
Switch Blake Edwards Warner Bros. $15 million TBA
Backdraft Ron Howard Gregory Widen Universal Studios $75 million $152.3 million
Hudson Hawk Renny Harlin Bruce Willis and Robert Kraft Steven E. de Souza and Daniel Waters TriStar Pictures $65 million $17.2 million
The Rocketeer Joe Johnston Danny Bilson, Paul De Meo and William Dear Danny Bilson and Paul De Meo Buena Vista Pictures $40 million $46.7 million
Terminator 2: Judgment Day James Cameron James Cameron and William Wisher TriStar Pictures $94 million $519.8 million
Hook Steven Spielberg James V. Hart and Nick Castle James V. Hart and Malia Scotch Marmo $70 million $300.9 million
Star Trek VI: The Undiscovered Country Nicholas Meyer Nicholas Meyer and Denny Martin Flinn Paramount Pictures $27 million $96.9 million
1992 Memoirs of an Invisible Man John Carpenter Robert Collector, Dana Olsen and William Goldman Warner Bros. $40 million $14.4 million
Death Becomes Her Robert Zemeckis Martin Donovan and David Koepp Universal Studios $55 million $149 million
1993 Alive Frank Marshall John Patrick Shanley Buena Vista Pictures
United International Pictures
$32 million $36.7 million
Fire in the Sky Robert Lieberman Tracy Tormé Paramount Pictures $15 million $19.9 million
Jurassic Park Steven Spielberg Michael Crichton and David Koepp Universal Studios $63 million $1.029 billion
Last Action Hero John McTiernan Zak Penn and Adam Leff Shane Black, David Arnott and William Goldman Columbia Pictures $85 million $137.3 million
Rising Sun Philip Kaufman Michael Crichton, Philip Kaufman and Michael Backes 20th Century Fox $35 million $107.2 million
The Meteor Man Robert Townsend Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer $30 million $8 million
Manhattan Murder Mystery Woody Allen Woody Allen and Marshall Brickman TriStar Pictures $13.5 million $11 million
Malice Harold Becker Aaron Sorkin and Jonas McCord Aaron Sorkin and Scott Frank Columbia Pictures $20 million $46 million
The Nutcracker Emile Ardolino Susan Cooper Warner Bros. $19 million $2 million
Schindler's List Steven Spielberg Steven Zaillian Universal Studios $22 million $321.2 million
1994 The Hudsucker Proxy Joel and Ethan Coen Joel Cohen, Ethan Coen and Sam Raimi Warner Bros.
Universal Studios
$25 million $2.8 million
Forrest Gump Robert Zemeckis Eric Roth Paramount Pictures $55 million $677.9 million
Maverick Richard Donner William Goldman Warner Bros. $75 million $183 million
The Flintstones Brian Levant Tom S. Parker, Jim Jennewein and Steven E. de Souza Universal Studios $46 million $341.6 million
Wolf Mike Nichols Jim Harrison, Wesley Strick and Elaine May Columbia Pictures TBA $131 million
Baby's Day Out Patrick Read Johnson John Hughes 20th Century Fox $48 million $16.8 million
The Mask Chuck Russell Michael Fallon and Mark Verheiden Mike Werb New Line Cinema $23 million $351.6 million
Radioland Murders Mel Smith George Lucas Willard Huyck, Gloria Katz, Jeff Reno and Ron Osborn Universal Studios $15 million $1.3 million
Disclosure Barry Levinson Paul Attanasio Warner Bros. $55 million $214 million
Star Trek Generations David Carson Rick Berman, Ronald D. Moore and Brannon Braga Ronald D. Moore and Brannon Braga Paramount Pictures $35 million $118 million
1995 In the Mouth of Madness John Carpenter Michael De Luca New Line Cinema $8 million $8.9 million
Village of the Damned David Himmelstein Universal Studios $22 million $9.4 million
Congo Frank Marshall John Patrick Shanley Paramount Pictures $50 million $152 million
The Indian in the Cupboard Frank Oz Melissa Mathison Paramount Pictures
Columbia Pictures
$45 million $35 million
Casper Brad Silberling Sherri Stoner and Deanna Oliver Universal Studios $55 million $287.9 million
Jumanji Joe Johnston Greg Taylor, Jonathan Hensleigh and Jim Strain TriStar Pictures $65 million $262.8 million
The American President Rob Reiner Aaron Sorkin Columbia Pictures
Universal Studios
$62 million $107 million
Sabrina Sydney Pollack Barbara Benedek and David Rayfiel Paramount Pictures $50 million $53 million
1996 Twister Jan de Bont Michael Crichton, Anne-Marie Martin and Joss Whedon Warner Bros.
Universal Studios
$92 million $494.4 million
Mission: Impossible Brian De Palma David Koepp and Steven Zaillian David Koepp and Robert Towne Paramount Pictures $80 million $457.7 million
Dragonheart Rob Cohen Charles Edward Pogue and Patrick Read Johnson Charles Edward Pogue Universal Studios $15 million $115 million
Eraser Chuck Russell Tony Puryear, Walon Green and Michael S. Chernuchin Tony Puryear and Walon Green Warner Bros. $100 million $242.3 million
The Trigger Effect David Koepp Gramercy Pictures
Universal Studios
$8 million $3 million
Sleepers Barry Levinson Warner Bros.
Buena Vista Pictures
$44 million $165.6 million
Star Trek: First Contact Jonathan Frakes Rick Berman, Brannon Braga and Ronald D. Moore Brannon Braga and Ronald D. Moore Paramount Pictures $45 million $146 million
101 Dalmatians Stephen Herek John Hughes Buena Vista Pictures $75 million $320.6 million
Daylight Rob Cohen Leslie Bohem Universal Studios $80 million $159.2 million
Mars Attacks! Tim Burton Jonathan Gems Warner Bros. $70 million $101.3 million
1997 The Lost World: Jurassic Park Steven Spielberg David Koepp Universal Studios $75 million $618.6 million
Speed 2: Cruise Control Jan de Bont Jan de Bont and Randall McCormick Randall McCormick and Jeff Nathanson 20th Century Fox $110 million $164.5 million
Men in Black Barry Sonnenfeld Ed Solomon Columbia Pictures $90 million $589.4 million
Contact Robert Zemeckis Carl Sagan and Ann Druyan James V. Hart and Michael Goldenberg Warner Bros. $90 million $171.1 million
Spawn Mark A.Z. Dippé Alan B. McElroy and Mark A.Z. Dippé Alan B. McElroy New Line Cinema $40 million $87.8 million
Starship Troopers Paul Verhoeven Edward Neumeier TriStar Pictures
Buena Vista Pictures
$105 million $121.2 million
Midnight in the Garden of Good and Evil Clint Eastwood John Lee Hancock Warner Bros. $30 million $25.1 million
Flubber Les Mayfield John Hughes and Bill Walsh Buena Vista Pictures $80 million $177.9 million
Amistad Steven Spielberg David Franzoni DreamWorks Pictures $36 million $44.2 million
Deconstructing Harry Woody Allen Fine Line Features
Hollywood Pictures
$20 million $10 million
Titanic James Cameron Paramount Pictures
20th Century Fox
$200 million $2.187 billion
1998 Deep Rising Stephen Sommers Stephen Sommers and Robert Mark Kamen Buena Vista Pictures
Cinergi Pictures
$45 million $11.2 million
Mercury Rising Harold Becker Lawrence Konner and Mark Rosenthal Universal Studios $60 million $93 million
Deep Impact Mimi Leder Bruce Joel Rubin and Michael Tolkin Paramount Pictures
DreamWorks Pictures
$80 million $349.4 million
Small Soldiers Joe Dante Gavin Scott, Adam Rifkin, Ted Elliott, Terry Rossio and Anne Spielberg DreamWorks Pictures
Universal Studios
$40 million $54.7 million
Saving Private Ryan Steven Spielberg Robert Rodat DreamWorks Pictures
Paramount Pictures
$70 million $481.8 million
Snake Eyes Brian De Palma Brian De Palma and David Koepp David Koepp Paramount Pictures
Buena Vista Pictures
$73 million $103.8 million
Reach the Rock William Ryan John Hughes Gramercy Pictures TBA $4,960
Meet Joe Black Martin Brest Bo Goldman, Kevin Wade, Ron Osborn and Jeff Reno Universal Studios $90 million $142 million
Celebrity Woody Allen Miramax Films $12 million $5 million
Jack Frost Troy Miller Mark Steven Johnson, Steve Bloom, Jonathan Roberts and Jeff Cesario Warner Bros. $85 million $34.6 million
Mighty Joe Young Ron Underwood Merian C. Cooper, Ruth Rose, Mark Rosenthal and Lawrence Konner Buena Vista Pictures $90 million $50 million
1999 October Sky Joe Johnston Lewis Colick Universal Studios $25 million $34.7 million
The Mummy Stephen Sommers Stephen Sommers, Lloyd Fonvielle and Kevin Jarre Stephen Sommers $80 million $415.9 million
Star Wars: Episode I – The Phantom Menace George Lucas 20th Century Fox $115 million $1.027 billion
Wild Wild West Barry Sonnenfeld S. S. Wilson, Brent Maddock, Jeffrey Price and Peter S. Seaman Warner Bros. $170 million $222.1 million
The Haunting Jan de Bont David Self and Michael Tolkin DreamWorks Pictures $80 million $177.3 million
Deep Blue Sea Renny Harlin Duncan Kennedy, Donna Powers and Wayne Powers Warner Bros. $60 million $164.6 million
Bringing Out the Dead Martin Scorsese Paul Schrader Paramount Pictures
Buena Vista Pictures
$55 million $16.8 million
Sleepy Hollow Tim Burton Andrew Kevin Walker and Kevin Yagher Andrew Kevin Walker and Tom Stoppard Paramount Pictures $100 million $206 million
The Green Mile Frank Darabont Warner Bros. $60 million $290.7 million
Magnolia Paul Thomas Anderson New Line Cinema $37 million $48.5 million
Snow Falling on Cedars Scott Hicks Ron Bass and Scott Hicks Universal Studios $35 million $23 million
Galaxy Quest Dean Parisot David Howard David Howard and Robert Gordon DreamWorks Pictures $45 million $90.7 million
2000s
2000 Sweet and Lowdown Woody Allen Sony Pictures Classics TBA $4 million
Mission to Mars Brian De Palma Lowell Cannon, Jim Thomas and John Thomas Jim Thomas, John Thomas and Graham Yost Buena Vista Pictures $100 million $110.9 million
The Perfect Storm Wolfgang Petersen William D. Wittliff and Bo Goldman Warner Bros. $120 million $328.7 million
The Adventures of Rocky and Bullwinkle Des McAnuff Kenneth Lonergan Universal Studios $76 million $35 million
Space Cowboys Clint Eastwood Ken Kaufman and Howard Klausner Warner Bros. $60 million $128.9 million
Pollock Ed Harris Barbara Turner and Susan Emshwiller Sony Pictures Classics TBA $10 million
Pay It Forward Mimi Leder Leslie Dixon Warner Bros. $40 million $55 million
2001 The Pledge Sean Penn Jerzy Kromolowski and Mary Olson-Kromolowski $35 million $29.4 million
Sweet November Pat O'Connor Paul Yurick and Kurt Voelker $40 million $65 million
The Mummy Returns Stephen Sommers Universal Studios $98 million $433 million
Pearl Harbor Michael Bay Randall Wallace Buena Vista Pictures $140 million $449.2 million
A.I. Artificial Intelligence Steven Spielberg Warner Bros.
DreamWorks Pictures
$100 million $235.9 million
Jurassic Park III Joe Johnston Peter Buchman, Alexander Payne and Jim Taylor Universal Studios $93 million $368.8 million
Planet of the Apes Tim Burton William Broyles, Jr., Lawrence Konner and Mark Rosenthal 20th Century Fox $100 million $362.2 million
Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone Chris Columbus Steve Kloves Warner Bros. $125 million $974.8 million
The Majestic Frank Darabont Michael Sloane $72 million $37.3 million
2002 Impostor Gary Fleder Scott Rosenberg Caroline Case, Ehren Kruger and David Twohy Dimension Films $40 million $8 million
The Time Machine Simon Wells John Logan DreamWorks Pictures
Warner Bros.
$80 million $123.7 million
Big Trouble Barry Sonnenfeld Robert Ramsey and Matthew Stone Buena Vista Pictures $40 million $8.5 million
Star Wars: Episode II – Attack of the Clones George Lucas George Lucas and Jonathan Hales 20th Century Fox $115 million $649.4 million
The Bourne Identity Doug Liman Tony Gilroy and William Blake Herron Universal Studios $60 million $214 million
Minority Report Steven Spielberg Scott Frank and Jon Cohen DreamWorks Pictures
20th Century Fox
$102 million $358.4 million
Men in Black II Barry Sonnenfeld Robert Gordon Robert Gordon and Barry Fanaro Columbia Pictures $140 million $441.8 million
K-19: The Widowmaker Kathryn Bigelow Louis Nowra Christopher Kyle Paramount Pictures $100 million $65.7 million
Signs M. Night Shyamalan Buena Vista Pictures $72 million $408.2 million
Blood Work Clint Eastwood $50 million $31 million
Punch-Drunk Love Paul Thomas Anderson Columbia Pictures $25 million $24.7 million
Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets Chris Columbus Steve Kloves Warner Bros. $100 million $879 million
Gangs of New York Martin Scorsese Jay Cocks Jay Cocks, Steven Zaillian and Kenneth Lonergan Miramax Films $97 million $193.8 million
2003 Tears of the Sun Antoine Fuqua Alex Lasker and Patrick Cirillo Columbia Pictures $100.5 million $86.5 million
The Hunted William Friedkin David Griffiths, Peter Griffiths and Art Monterastelli Paramount Pictures
Redbus Film Distribution
$55 million $45 million
Dreamcatcher Lawrence Kasdan William Goldman and Lawrence Kasdan Warner Bros. $68 million $75.7 million
Hulk Ang Lee James Schamus James Schamus, Michael France and John Turman Universal Studios $137 million $245.4 million
Terminator 3: Rise of the Machines Jonathan Mostow John Brancato, Michael Ferris and Tedi Sarafian John Brancato and Michael Ferris Warner Bros.
Columbia Pictures
$187 million $433.4 million
Pirates of the Caribbean: The Curse of the Black Pearl Gore Verbinski Ted Elliott, Terry Rossio, Stuart Beattie and Jay Wolpert Ted Elliott and Terry Rossio Buena Vista Pictures $140 million $654.3 million
The League of Extraordinary Gentlemen Stephen Norrington James Dale Robinson 20th Century Fox $78 million $179.3 million
Once Upon a Time in Mexico Robert Rodriguez Columbia Pictures
Dimension Films
$28 million $98.1 million
Master and Commander: The Far Side of the World Peter Weir Peter Weir and John Collee 20th Century Fox
Universal Studios
$150 million $212 million
Timeline Richard Donner Jeff Maguire and George Nolfi Paramount Pictures $80 million $34 million
Stuck on You Peter and Robert Farrelly 20th Century Fox $55 million $65 million
Peter Pan P. J. Hogan P. J. Hogan and Michael Goldenberg Universal Studios
Columbia Pictures
$130 million $122 million
2004 Along Came Polly John Hamburg Universal Studios $42 million $171 million
Twisted Philip Kaufman Sarah Thorp Paramount Pictures $50 million $41 million
Hidalgo Joe Johnston John Fusco Buena Vista Pictures $40 million $108.1 million
Van Helsing Stephen Sommers Universal Studios $160 million $300.3 million
The Day After Tomorrow Roland Emmerich Roland Emmerich and Jeffrey Nachmanoff 20th Century Fox $125 million $544.3 million
Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban Alfonso Cuarón Steve Kloves Warner Bros. $130 million $796.7 million
The Chronicles of Riddick David Twohy Universal Studios $105 million $115.8 million
The Bourne Supremacy Paul Greengrass Tony Gilroy $75 million $288.5 million
The Village M. Night Shyamalan Buena Vista Pictures $60 million $256.7 million
Sky Captain and the World of Tomorrow Kerry Conran Paramount Pictures $70 million $58 million
Lemony Snicket's A Series of Unfortunate Events Brad Silberling Robert Gordon Paramount Pictures
DreamWorks Pictures
$140 million $209.1 million
2005 Are We There Yet? Brian Levant Steven Gary Banks and Claudia Grazioso Steven Gary Banks, Claudia Grazioso, J. David Stem and David N. Weiss Columbia Pictures $32 million $97 million
Son of the Mask Lawrence Guterman Lance Khazei New Line Cinema $84 million $57.6 million
The Pacifier Adam Shankman Thomas Lennon and Robert Ben Garant Buena Vista Pictures $56 million $198.6 million
Eros Wong Kar-wai, Steven Soderbergh and Michelangelo Antonioni Warner Independent Pictures
Artificial Eye
TBA $1 million
The Amityville Horror Andrew Douglas Scott Kosar Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer
Dimension Films
$19 million $108 million
XXX: State of the Union Lee Tamahori Simon Kinberg Columbia Pictures $87 million $71 million
Star Wars: Episode III – Revenge of the Sith George Lucas 20th Century Fox $113 million $848.8 million
The Adventures of Sharkboy and Lavagirl in 3-D Robert Rodriguez Racer Rodriguez Robert Rodriguez and Marcel Rodriguez Dimension Films
Columbia Pictures
$50 million $69.4 million
Herbie: Fully Loaded Angela Robinson Thomas Lennon, Ben Garant, Alfred Gough and Miles Millar Buena Vista Pictures $50 million $144.1 million
War of the Worlds Steven Spielberg Josh Friedman and David Koepp Paramount Pictures
DreamWorks Pictures
$132 million $591.7 million
The Island Michael Bay Caspian Tredwell-Owen Alex Kurtzman, Roberto Orci and Caspian Tredwell-Owen DreamWorks Pictures
Warner Bros.
$126 million $162.9 million
Jarhead Sam Mendes William Broyles, Jr. Universal Studios $72 million $96.9 million
Chicken Little Mark Dindal Mark Dindal and Mark Kennedy Steve Bencich, Ron J. Friedman and Ron Anderson Buena Vista Pictures $150 million $314.4 million
Rent Chris Columbus William Broyles, Jr. Columbia Pictures $40 million $31.6 million
Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire Mike Newell Steve Kloves Warner Bros. $150 million $896.9 million
The Chronicles of Narnia: The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe Andrew Adamson Ann Peacock, Andrew Adamson, Christopher Markus and Stephen McFeely Buena Vista Pictures $180 million $745 million
Munich Steven Spielberg Tony Kushner and Eric Roth Universal Studios
DreamWorks Pictures
$70 million $130.4 million
Cheaper by the Dozen 2 Adam Shankman Sam Harper 20th Century Fox $60 million $129.1 million
2006 Eight Below Frank Marshall David DiGillio Buena Vista Pictures $40 million $120.4 million
Mission: Impossible III J. J. Abrams J. J. Abrams, Alex Kurtzman and Roberto Orci Paramount Pictures $150 million $397.9 million
Poseidon Wolfgang Petersen Mark Protosevich Warner Bros. $160 million $181.7 million
Pirates of the Caribbean: Dead Man's Chest Gore Verbinski Ted Elliott and Terry Rossio Buena Vista Pictures $225 million $1.066 billion
Lady in the Water M. Night Shyamalan Warner Bros. $70 million $72.8 million
Eragon Stefen Fangmeier Peter Buchman 20th Century Fox $100 million $249.5 million
2007 Pirates of the Caribbean: At World's End Gore Verbinski Ted Elliott and Terry Rossio Buena Vista Pictures $300 million $963.4 million
Evan Almighty Tom Shadyac Steve Oedekerk Steve Oedekerk, Joel Cohen and Alec Sokolow Universal Studios $175 million $173.4 million
Transformers Michael Bay John Rogers, Roberto Orci and Alex Kurtzman Roberto Orci and Alex Kurtzman DreamWorks Pictures
Paramount Pictures
$150 million $709.7 million
Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix David Yates Michael Goldenberg Warner Bros. $150 million $939.9 million
Rush Hour 3 Brett Ratner Jeff Nathanson New Line Cinema $140 million $258 million
Lions for Lambs Robert Redford Matthew Michael Carnahan Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer
20th Century Fox
$35 million $63.2 million
National Treasure: Book of Secrets Jon Turteltaub Gregory Poirier, Cormac Wibberley, Marianne Wibberley, Terry Rossio and Ted Elliott Cormac Wibberley and Marianne Wibberley Walt Disney Studios
Motion Pictures
$130 million $457.4 million
There Will Be Blood Paul Thomas Anderson Paramount Vantage
Miramax Films
$25 million $76.2 million
2008 The Spiderwick Chronicles Mark Waters Karey Kirkpatrick, David Berenbaum and John Sayles Paramount Pictures $90 million $162 million
Iron Man Jon Favreau Mark Fergus, Hawk Ostby, Art Marcum and Matt Holloway $140 million $585.2 million
Speed Racer The Wachowski Brothers Warner Bros. $120 million $93.9 million
Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull Steven Spielberg George Lucas and Jeff Nathanson David Koepp Paramount Pictures $185 million $786.6 million
The Happening M. Night Shyamalan 20th Century Fox $48 million $163.4 million
WALL-E Andrew Stanton Andrew Stanton and Pete Docter Andrew Stanton and Jim Reardon Walt Disney Studios
Motion Pictures
$180 million $521.3 million
Miracle at St. Anna Spike Lee James McBride $45 million $9.3 million
The Tale of Despereaux Sam Fell and Robert Stevenhagen Will McRobb and Chris Viscardi Gary Ross Universal Studios $60 million $86.9 million
2009 Confessions of a Shopaholic P. J. Hogan Tim Firth and Tracey Jackson Walt Disney Studios
Motion Pictures
TBA $108.3 million
Star Trek J. J. Abrams Roberto Orci and Alex Kurtzman Paramount Pictures $150 million $385.7 million
Terminator Salvation McG John Brancato, Michael Ferris, Jonathan Nolan and Paul Haggis Warner Bros.
Columbia Pictures
$200 million $371.4 million
Transformers: Revenge of the Fallen Michael Bay Ehren Kruger, Roberto Orci and Alex Kurtzman DreamWorks Pictures
Paramount Pictures
$200 million $836.3 million
Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince David Yates Steve Kloves Warner Bros. $250 million $934.4 million
Avatar James Cameron 20th Century Fox $237 million $2.788 billion
2010s
2010 Iron Man 2 Jon Favreau Justin Theroux Paramount Pictures $200 million $623.9 million
The Last Airbender M. Night Shyamalan $150 million $319.7 million
2011 I Am Number Four D. J. Caruso Alfred Gough, Miles Millar and Marti Noxon Walt Disney Studios
Motion Pictures
$50 million $149.9 million
Rango Gore Verbinski John Logan, Gore Verbinski and James Ward Byrkit John Logan Paramount Pictures $135 million $245.7 million
Pirates of the Caribbean: On Stranger Tides Rob Marshall Ted Elliott and Terry Rossio Walt Disney Studios
Motion Pictures
$378.5 million $1.046 billion
Super 8 J. J. Abrams Paramount Pictures $50 million $260.1 million
Transformers: Dark of the Moon Michael Bay Ehren Kruger $195 million $1.124 billion
Cowboys & Aliens Jon Favreau Mark Fergus, Hawk Ostby and Steve Oedekerk Roberto Orci, Alex Kurtzman, Damon Lindelof, Mark Fergus and Hawk Ostby Universal Studios
Paramount Pictures
$163 million $174 million
Hugo Martin Scorsese John Logan Paramount Pictures $150 million $185.5 million
Mission: Impossible – Ghost Protocol Brad Bird Josh Appelbaum and André Nemec $145 million $694.7 million
2012 Red Tails Anthony Hemingway John Ridley and Aaron McGruder John Ridley 20th Century Fox $58 million $50.4 million
The Avengers Joss Whedon Zak Penn and Joss Whedon Joss Whedon Walt Disney Studios
Motion Pictures
$220 million $1.520 billion
Battleship Peter Berg Jon Hoeber and Erich Hoeber Universal Studios $220 million $303 million
Cloud Atlas Lana Wachowski, Tom Tykwer and Andy Wachowski Warner Bros. $128.5 million $130.5 million
2013 Identity Thief Seth Gordon Jerry Eeten and Craig Mazin Craig Mazin Universal Studios $35 million $174 million
G.I. Joe: Retaliation Jon M. Chu Rhett Reese and Paul Wernick Paramount Pictures $130 million $375.7 million
Pain & Gain Michael Bay Christopher Markus and Stephen McFeely $26 million $86.2 million
The Great Gatsby Baz Luhrmann Baz Luhrmann and Craig Pearce Warner Bros. $105 million $351 million
Star Trek Into Darkness J. J. Abrams Roberto Orci, Alex Kurtzman and Damon Lindelof Paramount Pictures $185 million $467.4 million
Now You See Me Louis Leterrier Boaz Yakin and Edward Ricourt Ed Solomon, Boaz Yakin and Edward Ricourt Universal Studios $75 million $351.7 million
The Lone Ranger Gore Verbinski Justin Haythe, Ted Elliott and Terry Rossio Walt Disney Studios
Motion Pictures
$225 million $260.5 million
Pacific Rim Guillermo del Toro Travis Beacham Guillermo del Toro and Travis Beacham Warner Bros. $190 million $411 million
RED 2 Dean Parisot Jon Hoeber and Erich Hoeber Summit Entertainment $84 million $148.1 million
Elysium Neill Blomkamp TriStar Pictures $115 million $286.1 million
Lone Survivor Peter Berg Universal Studios $49 million $149.3 million
2014 Noah Darren Aronofsky Darren Aronofsky and Ari Handel Paramount Pictures $125 million $362.6 million
Captain America: The Winter Soldier Anthony and Joe Russo Christopher Markus and Stephen McFeely Walt Disney Studios
Motion Pictures
$170 million $714.4 million
Transformers: Age of Extinction Michael Bay Ehren Kruger Paramount Pictures $210 million $1.104 billion
Lucy Luc Besson Universal Studios $40 million $463.4 million
Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles Jonathan Liebesman Josh Appelbaum, André Nemec and Evan Daugherty Paramount Pictures $125 million $493.3 million
Unbroken Angelina Jolie Joel Coen, Ethan Coen, Richard LaGravenese and William Nicholson Universal Studios $65 million $163.3 million
2015 Strange Magic Gary Rydstrom George Lucas David Berenbaum, Irene Mecchi and Gary Rydstrom Walt Disney Studios
Motion Pictures
TBA $13.6 million
Avengers: Age of Ultron Joss Whedon $279.9 million $1.405 billion
Tomorrowland Brad Bird Damon Lindelof, Brad Bird and Jeff Jensen Damon Lindelof and Brad Bird $190 million $209 million
Jurassic World Colin Trevorrow Rick Jaffa and Amanda Silver Rick Jaffa, Amanda Silver, Derek Connolly and Colin Trevorrow Universal Studios $150 million $1.669 billion
Terminator Genisys Alan Taylor Laeta Kalogridis and Patrick Lussier Paramount Pictures $155 million $440.6 million
Ant-Man Peyton Reed Edgar Wright and Joe Cornish Edgar Wright, Joe Cornish, Adam McKay and Paul Rudd Walt Disney Studios
Motion Pictures
$130 million $518.6 million
Hitman: Agent 47 Aleksander Bach Skip Woods Michael Finch and Skip Woods 20th Century Fox $35 million $82.3 million
The Martian Ridley Scott Drew Goddard $108 million $588.4 million
Paranormal Activity: The Ghost Dimension Gregory Plotkin Brantley Aufill, Jason Harry Pagan and Andrew Deutschman Jason Harry Pagan, Andrew Deutschman, Adam Robitel and Gavin Heffernan Paramount Pictures $10 million $77 million
Spectre Sam Mendes John Logan, Neal Purvis and Robert Wade John Logan, Neal Purvis, Robert Wade and Jez Butterworth Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer
Columbia Pictures
$250 million $870 million
Star Wars: The Force Awakens J. J. Abrams Lawrence Kasdan, J. J. Abrams and Michael Arndt Walt Disney Studios
Motion Pictures
$200 million $2.062 billion
The Revenant Alejandro G. Iñárritu Mark L. Smith and Alejandro G. Iñárritu 20th Century Fox $135 million $506.8 million
2016 Captain America: Civil War Anthony and Joe Russo Christopher Markus and Stephen McFeely Walt Disney Studios
Motion Pictures
$250 million $780.1 million
Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles: Out of the Shadows Dave Green Josh Appelbaum and André Nemec Paramount Pictures $135 million $142.7 million
Warcraft Duncan Jones Charles Leavitt and Duncan Jones Chris Metzen Universal Studios $160 million $377.6 million
Upcoming films Status
2016 Star Trek Beyond Justin Lin Simon Pegg and Doug Jung Paramount Pictures $150 million
Doctor Strange Scott Derrickson Jon Spaihts and C. Robert Cargill Walt Disney Studios
Motion Pictures
Filming
Rogue One: A Star Wars Story Gareth Edwards Gary Whitta and Chris Weitz John Knoll
2017 Mighty Morphin Power Rangers Dean Israelite Ashely Miller and Zack Stentz Lionsgate Filming
Guardians of the Galaxy Vol. 2 James Gunn Walt Disney Studios
Motion Pictures
Star Wars: Episode VIII Rian Johnson
Transformers: The Last Knight Michael Bay Art Marcum, Matt Holloway and Ken Nolan Paramount Pictures In development
Spider-Man: Homecoming Jon Watts John Francis Daley and Jonathan M. Goldstein Columbia Pictures
Thor: Ragnarok Taika Waititi Stephany Folsom Craig Kyle and Christopher Yost Walt Disney Studios
Motion Pictures

Television[edit]

Year Name of television show[12]
1987–1994
2014–2015

Notable employees and clients[edit]

Photoshop was first used at the Industrial Light & Magic as an image-processing program. Photoshop was created by ILM Visual Effects Supervisor John Knoll and his brother Thomas as a summer project. It was used on The Abyss. The Knoll brothers sold the program to Adobe shortly before the film's release.[citation needed]

Adam Savage, Grant Imahara and Tory Belleci of MythBusters fame have all worked at Industrial Light & Magic.[14]

Industrial Light & Magic is also famous for their commercial work. Their clients include Energizer, Benson & Hedges, Apple, Nike, Coca-Cola, Pepsi, Budweiser, Nickelodeon and other companies.[citation needed]

Actor Masi Oka worked on several major ILM productions as a programmer, including Revenge of the Sith, before joining the cast of the NBC show Heroes as Hiro Nakamura.[15]

American film director David Fincher worked at ILM for four years in the early 1980s.[citation needed]

Film director Joe Johnston was a Visual effects artist and an Art Director.

Film Director Mark A.Z. Dippé was a Visual Effects animator who directed Spawn (film) which was released in 1997.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "ILMxLAB". 
  2. ^ "Global Locations". 
  3. ^ "Disney would acquire a visual effects firm with Lucasfilm deal". Los Angeles Times. 31 October 2012. Retrieved 4 November 2012. 
  4. ^ 1970's - School of Computer Science - Carnegie Mellon School of Computer Science
  5. ^ a b "About OpenEXR". ILM. Retrieved 5 November 2012. 
  6. ^ Lucasfilm's Industrial Light + Magic Exploring Opening New Facility in Vancouver, The Hollywood Reporter
  7. ^ LATimes (31 October 2012). "Disney would acquire a visual effects firm with Lucasfilm deal". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 4 November 2012. 
  8. ^ LucasArts Shut Down, Layoffs At ILM. Starwarsprequelappreciationsociety.wordpress.com (2013-04-03). Retrieved on 2013-09-04.
  9. ^ "Disney to Shut LucasArts Videogame Unit". The Wall Street Journal. 2013-04-03. Retrieved 2013-04-18. 
  10. ^ Cohen, David S. (3 April 2013). "LucasArts Shutdown Triggers Layoffs at ILM". Variety. Retrieved 6 April 2013. 
  11. ^ Ritman, Alex (October 16, 2014). "Lucasfilm's Industrial Light & Magic Opens London Studio". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved 4 November 2014. 
  12. ^ "Our Work". ilm.com. Retrieved 18 February 2015. 
  13. ^ "AGENT CARTER: Creating Movie Effects on a TV Schedule". WIRED's Design FX. Retrieved 18 February 2015. 
  14. ^ Mythbusters. Season 16. Episode 10. March 2016. 
  15. ^ Gaudiosi, John (25 October 2006). "Masi Oka: Coder, Actor, Hero". Wired. 

External links[edit]