Indiana Jones (franchise)
Official franchise logo
|Created by||George Lucas|
|Original work||Raiders of the Lost Ark (1981)|
|Owned by||The Walt Disney Company|
|Book(s)||See the Literature section|
|Novel(s)||See the Novels section|
|Films and television|
|Television series||The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles (1992–1993)|
|Traditional||See the Merchandise section|
|Role-playing||See the Role-playing games section|
|Video game(s)||See the Video games section|
|Toy(s)||See the Toy lines section, Lego Indiana Jones|
|Theme park attractions|
Indiana Jones is an American media franchise based on the adventures of Dr. Henry Walton "Indiana" Jones, Jr., a fictional professor of archaeology that began in 1981 with the film Raiders of the Lost Ark. In 1984, Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom, a prequel, was released. That was followed by a sequel, Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade, in 1989, and a fourth film, Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull, in 2008. A fifth film is in development and is provisionally scheduled to be released in 2022. The series was created by George Lucas, directed by Steven Spielberg and stars Harrison Ford as Indiana Jones.
In 1992, the franchise expanded to a television series withThe Young Indiana Jones Chronicles, portraying the character as a child and his adventures with his father. Marvel Comics began publishing The Further Adventures of Indiana Jones in 1983, and Dark Horse Comics gained the comic book rights to the character in 1991. Novelizations of the films have been published, as well as many novels with original adventures, including a series of German novels by Wolfgang Hohlbein, twelve novels set before the films published by Bantam Books, and a series set during the character's childhood inspired by the television show. Numerous Indiana Jones video games have been released since 1982.
During 1973, George Lucas wrote The Adventures of Indiana Smith. Like Star Wars, it was an opportunity to create a modern version of the movie serials of the 1930s and 1940s. Lucas discussed the concept with Philip Kaufman, who worked with him for several weeks and decided upon the Ark of the Covenant as the MacGuffin. The project was stalled when Clint Eastwood hired Kaufman to write The Outlaw Josey Wales. In May 1977, Lucas was in Maui, trying to escape the enormous success of Star Wars. His friend and colleague Steven Spielberg was also there, on vacation from work on Close Encounters of the Third Kind. Spielberg told Lucas he was interested in making a James Bond film, but Lucas told him of an idea "better than James Bond", outlining the plot of Raiders of the Lost Ark. Spielberg loved it, calling it "a James Bond film without the hardware", and had the character's surname changed to Jones. Spielberg and Lucas made a deal with Paramount Pictures for five Indiana Jones films.
Spielberg and Lucas aimed to make Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom much darker, because of their personal moods following their respective breakups and divorces. Lucas made the film a prequel as he did not want the Nazis to be the villains again. He had ideas regarding the Monkey King and a haunted castle, but eventually created the Sankara Stones. He hired Willard Huyck and Gloria Katz to write the script as he knew of their interest in Indian culture. The major scenes that were dropped from Raiders of the Lost Ark were included in this film: an escape using a giant rolling gong as a shield, a fall out of a plane in a raft, and a mine cart chase. For the third film, Spielberg revisited the Monkey King and haunted castle concepts, before Lucas suggested the Holy Grail. Spielberg had previously rejected this as too ethereal, but then devised a father-son story and decided that "The Grail that everybody seeks could be a metaphor for a son seeking reconciliation with a father and a father seeking reconciliation with a son."
Following the 1989 release of Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade, Lucas let the series end as he felt he could not think of a good plot device to drive the next installment, and chose instead to produce The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles, which explored the character in his early years. Ford played Indiana in one episode, narrating his adventures in 1920 Chicago. When Lucas shot Ford's role in December 1992, he realized that the scene opened up the possibility of a film with an older Indiana set in the 1950s. The film could reflect a science fiction 1950s B-movie, with aliens as the plot device. Ford disliked the new angle, telling Lucas: "No way am I being in a Steve Spielberg movie like that." Spielberg himself, who depicted aliens in Close Encounters of the Third Kind and E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial, resisted it. Lucas devised a story, which Jeb Stuart turned into a script from October 1993 to May 1994. Lucas wanted Indiana to get married, which would allow Henry Jones Sr. to return, expressing concern over whether his son is happy with what he has accomplished. After learning that Joseph Stalin was interested in psychic warfare, Lucas decided to have Russians as the villains and the aliens to have psychic powers. Following Stuart's next draft, Lucas hired Last Crusade writer Jeffrey Boam to write the next three versions, the last of which was completed in March 1996. Three months later, Independence Day was released, and Spielberg told Lucas he would not make another alien invasion film (or at least not until War of the Worlds in 2005). Lucas decided to focus on the Star Wars prequels instead.
In 2000, Spielberg's son asked when the next Indiana Jones film would be released, which made him interested in reviving the project. The same year, Ford, Lucas, Spielberg, Frank Marshall, and Kathleen Kennedy met during the American Film Institute's tribute to Ford, and decided they wanted to enjoy the experience of making an Indiana Jones film again. Spielberg also found returning to the series a respite from his many dark films during this period. Spielberg and Lucas discussed the central idea of a B-movie involving aliens, and Lucas suggested using crystal skulls to ground the idea. Lucas found these artifacts as fascinating as the Ark, and had intended to feature them for a Young Indiana Jones episode before the show's cancellation. M. Night Shyamalan was hired to write for an intended 2002 shoot, but he was overwhelmed by the task, and claimed it was difficult to get Ford, Spielberg, and Lucas to focus. Stephen Gaghan and Tom Stoppard were also approached.
Frank Darabont, who wrote various Young Indiana Jones episodes, was hired to write in May 2002. His script, titled Indiana Jones and the City of Gods, was set in the 1950s, with ex-Nazis pursuing Jones. Spielberg conceived the idea because of real-life figures such as Juan Perón in Argentina, who allegedly protected Nazi war criminals. Darabont claimed Spielberg loved the script, but Lucas had issues with it, and decided to take over writing himself. Lucas and Spielberg acknowledged that the 1950s setting could not ignore the Cold War, and the Russians were more plausible villains. Spielberg decided he could not satirize the Nazis after directing Schindler's List, while Ford felt "We plum[b] wore the Nazis out." Darabont's main contribution was reintroducing Marion Ravenwood as Indiana's love interest, but he gave them a 13-year-old daughter, which Spielberg decided was too similar to The Lost World: Jurassic Park.
Jeff Nathanson met with Spielberg and Lucas in August 2004, and turned in the next drafts in October and November 2005, titled The Atomic Ants. David Koepp continued on from there, giving his script the subtitle Destroyer of Worlds, based on the Robert Oppenheimer quote. It was changed to Kingdom of the Crystal Skull, as Spielberg found this a more inviting title which actually named the plot device. Koepp wanted to depict the character of Mutt as a nerd, but Lucas refused, explaining he had to resemble Marlon Brando in The Wild One; "he needs to be what Indiana Jones' father thought of [him] – the curse returns in the form of his own son – he's everything a father can't stand". Koepp collaborated with Lawrence Kasdan on the film's "love dialogue".
The Walt Disney Company has owned the Indiana Jones intellectual property since its acquisition of Lucasfilm, the series' production company, in 2012, when Lucas sold it for $4 billion, and the distribution and marketing rights to future Indiana Jones films since 2013, with Paramount retaining the distribution rights to the first four films and receiving "financial participation" from any additional films.
|Film||U.S. release date||Director(s)||Screenwriter(s)||Story by||Producer(s)|
|Raiders of the Lost Ark||June 12, 1981||Steven Spielberg||Lawrence Kasdan||George Lucas and Philip Kaufman||Frank Marshall|
|Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom||May 23, 1984||Willard Huyck and Gloria Katz||George Lucas||Robert Watts|
|Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade||May 24, 1989||Jeffrey Boam||George Lucas and Menno Meyjes|
|Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull||May 22, 2008||David Koepp||George Lucas and Jeff Nathanson||Frank Marshall|
|Untitled fifth film||July 29, 2022||James Mangold||Jonathan Kasdan & David Koepp||Frank Marshall, Kathleen Kennedy and Steven Spielberg|
Raiders of the Lost Ark (1981)
The first film is set in 1936. Indiana Jones (Harrison Ford) is hired by government agents to locate the Ark of the Covenant before the Nazis. The Nazis have teams searching for religious artifacts, including the Ark, which is rumored to make an army that carries the Ark before it invincible. The Nazis are being helped by Indiana's nemesis René Belloq (Paul Freeman). With the help of his old flame Marion Ravenwood (Karen Allen) and Sallah (John Rhys-Davies), Indiana manages to recover the Ark in Egypt. The Nazis steal the Ark and capture Indiana and Marion. Belloq and the Nazis perform a ceremony to open the Ark, but when they do so, they are all killed gruesomely by the Ark's wrath. Indiana and Marion, who survived by closing their eyes, manage to get the Ark to the United States, where it is stored in a secret government warehouse.
Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom (1984)
The second film is set in 1935, a year before Raiders of the Lost Ark. Indiana escapes Chinese gangsters with the help of singer/actress Willie Scott (Kate Capshaw) and his twelve-year-old sidekick Short Round (Jonathan Ke Quan). The trio crash-land in India, where they come across a village whose children have been kidnapped. The Thuggee led by Mola Ram (Amrish Puri) has also taken the holy Sankara Stones, which they will use to take over the world. Indiana manages to overcome Mola Ram's evil power, rescues the children and returns the stones to their rightful place, overcoming his own mercenary nature. The film has been noted as an outlier in the franchise, as it does not feature Indy's university or any antagonistic political entity, and is less focused on archaeology, being presented as a dark movie with gross-out elements, human sacrifice and torture.
Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade (1989)
The third film opens in 1912 with a thirteen-year-old Indiana (River Phoenix) attempting to recover an ornamental cross belonging to Francisco Vásquez de Coronado, a task which he finally completes in 1938. Indiana and his friend Marcus Brody (Denholm Elliott) are assigned by American businessman Walter Donovan (Julian Glover) to find the Holy Grail. They are teamed up with Dr. Elsa Schneider (Alison Doody), following on from where Indiana's estranged father Henry (Sean Connery) left off before he disappeared. It transpires that Donovan and Elsa are in league with the Nazis, who captured Henry Jones in order to get Indiana to help them find the Grail. However, Indiana recovers his father's diary filled with his research, and manages to rescue him before finding the location of the Grail. Both Donovan and Elsa fall to the temptation of the Grail, while Indiana and Henry realize that their relationship with each other is more important than finding the relic.
Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull (2008)
The fourth film is set in 1957, nineteen years after The Last Crusade. Indiana is having a quiet life teaching before being thrust into a new adventure. He races against agents of the Soviet Union, led by Irina Spalko (Cate Blanchett) for a crystal skull. His journey takes him across Nevada, Connecticut, Peru, and the Amazon rainforest in Brazil. Indiana is faced with betrayal by one of his best friends, Mac (Ray Winstone), is introduced to a greaser named Mutt Williams (Shia LaBeouf), who turns out to be his son (his real name revealed to be Henry Jones III), and is reunited with, and eventually marries, Marion Ravenwood, who was introduced in the first movie.
Untitled fifth film
A fifth Indiana Jones film is in development under Disney with James Mangold directing, Spielberg producing, Ford returning to play the titular character, Lucas returning to executive produce, and John Williams returning to compose the score. Frank Marshall has affirmed that the film will be a sequel. Disney CEO Bob Iger has indicated that it will not be the conclusion of the franchise as a whole. The film was scheduled to begin principal photography as early as April 2020, with the most recent script being worked on by David Koepp. Its release date has been postponed from July 2020 to July 2021, and again to July 2022.
Ford said he would return for a fifth film if it does not take another twenty years to develop, while Spielberg stated that it would happen "only if you [the audience] want more". At the 2008 Cannes Film Festival, Lucas suggested that he might "make Shia LaBeouf the lead character next time and have Harrison Ford come back like Sean Connery did in the last movie". Lucas also said that age need not be a factor, as Ford was "65 and did everything in this movie. The old chemistry is there, and it's not like he's an old man. He's incredibly agile; he looks even better than he did 20 years ago, if you ask me." In August 2008, Lucas was researching potential plot devices, and stated that Spielberg was open to the idea of the fifth film. He also changed his mind about continuing the series with a spin-off focused on Mutt Williams. Two months later, Ford stated that Lucas' concept for the fifth film "crazy but great".
Speaking to BBC journalist Lizo Mzimba in June 2009, LaBeouf confirmed that "Steven [Spielberg] just said that he cracked the story on it [the fifth film], I think they're gearing that up." In December 2009, Lucas said he was working on the film. In November 2010, Ford said that he and Spielberg were waiting for Lucas to present an idea to them. In March 2011, Karen Allen said, "What I know is that there's a story that they like, which is a huge step forward. I heard this about six months ago, that they have a story that they like and they're working on it." In July 2012, Frank Marshall indicated that the film was unlikely to be announced in the near future, saying, "I don't know if it's definitely not happening, but it's not up and running... It's not on until there is a writer on the project. There is no writer on Indy."
In October 2012, The Walt Disney Company acquired Lucasfilm, thereby granting Disney ownership rights to the Indiana Jones intellectual property. In December 2013, Walt Disney Studios purchased the distribution and marketing rights to future Indiana Jones films, with Paramount Pictures retaining the distribution rights to the first four films, and receiving "financial participation" from any additional films. Although a new film installment was not announced with the deal, Bob Iger has expressed an interest in monetizing the franchise across Disney's various company divisions. In December 2013, studio chairman Alan Horn said that a fifth Indiana Jones film would not be ready for at least two to three years. In a May 2015 interview with Vanity Fair, Kathleen Kennedy confirmed plans for a fifth film, stating that another film "will one day be made inside this company. When it will happen, I'm not quite sure. We haven't started working on a script yet, but we are talking about it."
On March 15, 2016, Walt Disney Studios announced that the fifth film would be released on July 19, 2019, with Ford reprising his role, Spielberg directing, Koepp writing and Kennedy and Marshall acting as producers. Lucas was initially not going to be involved with the film, but during a press event for Disney's The BFG, Spielberg said Lucas would return as executive producer. Spielberg also announced that John Williams would be returning to compose the score. On April 25, 2017, the official Star Wars website updated the film's release date to July 10, 2020. In January 2018, Deadline Hollywood reported that Spielberg was eyeing the fifth Indiana Jones film as his next project following the completion of Ready Player One. According to Variety, the film was to begin principal photography at the start of 2019. In March 2018, Spielberg said filming would commence in April 2019 in the United Kingdom.
In the wake of the horror film A Quiet Place in early 2018, Lucasfilm approached its screenwriters Scott Beck and Bryan Woods to discuss the Indiana Jones and Star Wars franchises. In what Beck described as an "open canvas talk", they were "ruminating on if [they] did an Indiana Jones movie, what would [they] want to see in Indiana Jones". He stated that it "started going down the line a little bit" but that he and Woods were more interested in creating original ideas and establishing a new franchise. In June 2018, eventually, news was received that Jonathan Kasdan had replaced Koepp as scriptwriter, and that the film would miss its mid-2020 release date. Shortly thereafter, Disney postponed the film's release date to July 9, 2021. Following up on this, Marshall soon said that he was in the process of assembling something like a writers' room, commenting: "a lot of people that we trust pitch ideas and things. Gathering info." In May 2019, it was reported that Kasdan had written his script from scratch, but that his work was now being replaced by Dan Fogelman, whose screenplay used "an entirely different premise". Two months later, Ford mentioned that the film "should be starting to shoot sometime next year". Later reports narrowed the beginning of filming down to April 2020, suggesting principal photography to take place at the Iver-based Pinewood Studios. Speaking in September 2019, Koepp said that he was working on Indiana Jones 5 again, that they were "still trying" and that they had "got a good idea this time". In February 2020, Ford hinted that his involvement in the picture would begin as early as April.
When asked how being married to Marion Ravenwood and having a son would affect the character in a fifth film, Ford only replied: "He's seen something. Remember those are the only witnesses to what he's seen. That's kind of interesting." However, Koepp later stated that Mutt Williams would not return in the movie. In 2020, Ford said that the script was "very good" and would show "new developments in [Indiana Jones'] life, his relationship", also resolving "part of his history". Marshall stated that the film would be a continuation of the events following Kingdom of the Crystal Skull. Both Spielberg and Iger discussed the fifth film, with Spielberg stating that Indiana Jones would not be killed off. However, Iger said the future of the franchise with Ford was unknown, but that the fifth film "won't be just a one-off". In February 2020, Spielberg stepped down as director stating that he wanted to "pass along Indy's whip to a new generation to bring their perspective to the story". James Mangold has entered early negotiations to direct the film, while Spielberg will remain attached as a "hands-on" producer. In April 2020, it was reported that the film's release date is delayed to July 29, 2022.
|First aired||Last aired||Network|
|1||6||March 4, 1992||April 8, 1992||ABC|
|2||22||September 21, 1992||July 24, 1993|
|TV films||4||October 15, 1994||June 16, 1996||The Family Channel|
A television series titled The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles (1992–1996) featured three incarnations of the character: Sean Patrick Flanery played Indiana aged 16–21; Corey Carrier played an 8- to 10-year-old version in several episodes; and George Hall narrated the show as the 93-year-old Jones, who bookended each episode. Lucas began developing the series in 1990 as "edutainment" that would be more cerebral than the films. The show was his first collaboration with producer Rick McCallum, and he wrote the stories for each episode. Writers and directors on the show included Carrie Fisher, Frank Darabont, Vic Armstrong, Ben Burtt, Terry Jones, Nicolas Roeg, Mike Newell and Joe Johnston. In the Chronicles, Jones crosses paths with many historical figures, played by stars such as Daniel Craig, Christopher Lee, Bob Peck, Jeffrey Wright, Marc Warren, Catherine Zeta-Jones, Elizabeth Hurley, Anne Heche, Vanessa Redgrave, Julian Fellowes, Timothy Spall and even Harrison Ford as a 50-year-old Indiana in one episode (taking the usual place of Hall).
The show was filmed in over 25 countries for over 150 weeks. Season one was shot from March 1991 to March 1992; the second season began two months later and wrapped in April 1993. The ABC network was unsure of Lucas's cerebral approach, and attempted to advertise the series as an action-adventure like the films. Ratings were good if unspectacular, and ABC was nervous enough to put the show on hiatus after six episodes until September 1992. With only four episodes left of the second season to air, ABC eventually sold the show to the Family Channel, who changed the format from 50-minute episodes to 90-minute TV movies. Filming for the final four episodes took place from January 1994 to May 1996. The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles received a mixed reception from fans, although it won 10 Emmy Awards out of 23 nominations, as well as a 1994 Golden Globe nomination for Best Drama series. It was also an experimentation ground in digital effects for Lucasfilm.
The series was released on home video in VHS and DVD formats. Lucas had been working for some time on drastically reediting and restructuring the show for a home video release; major structural changes were made, including the complete removal of the 93-year-old Jones 'bookend' sections. The DVD boxset was released to tie in with the theatrical debut of Kingdom of the Crystal Skull. Among other extras, the discs include approximately 100 new historical featurettes.
Cast and crew
This is a list of characters who have appeared in the Indiana Jones film franchise.
|Raiders of the Lost Ark||The Temple of Doom||The Last Crusade||Kingdom of the Crystal Skull||Untitled fifth film||The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles|
|Dr. Henry Jones Jr.
|Harrison Ford||Harrison Ford||Harrison Ford||Sean Patrick Flanery (age 16–21)|
|Corey Carrier (age 8–10)|
|Harrison Ford (age 50)|
|George Hall (age 93)|
|Boutalat (age 3)|
|Neil Boulane (infant)|
|Marcus Brody||Denholm Elliott||Denholm Elliott||Denholm Elliott
|Sallah||John Rhys-Davies||John Rhys-Davies||John Rhys-Davies
|Marion Ravenwood||Karen Allen||Karen Allen|
|Major Arnold Toht||Ronald Lacey|
|René Belloq||Paul Freeman|
|Colonel Dietrich||Wolf Kahler|
|Wilhelmina "Willie" Scott||Kate Capshaw||Kate Capshaw
|Short Round||Jonathan Ke Quan|
|Mola Ram||Amrish Puri|
|Henry Jones, Sr.||Sean Connery||Sean Connery
|Walter Donovan||Julian Glover|
|Elsa Schneider||Alison Doody|
|Colonel Vogel||Michael Byrne|
|George "Mac" MacHale||Ray Winstone|
|Irina Spalko||Cate Blanchett|
|Henry "Mutt" Jones III||Shia LaBeouf|
|Harold Oxley||John Hurt|
|Colonel Dovchenko||Igor Jijikine|
|Charles Stanforth||Jim Broadbent|
|Anna Jones||Ruth De Sosa|
|Helen Seymour||Margaret Tyzack|
|Remy Baudouin||Ronny Coutteure|
|T. E. Lawrence||Douglas Henshall|
|Joseph A. Bennett|
Additional crew & production details
|Raiders of the Lost Ark||John Williams||Michael Kahn||Douglas Slocombe||Lucasfilm Ltd.||Paramount Pictures|
|Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom|
|Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade|
|Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull||Janusz Kamiński|
|Untitled fifth film||Walt Disney Studios Motion Pictures|
Box office performance
|Film||Original release date||Total box office gross||Box office ranking||Budget||Ref(s)|
|Raiders of the Lost Ark||June 12, 1981||$248,159,971||$141,766,000||$389,925,971||#85 (#20(A))||#237||$18 million|||
|Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom||May 23, 1984||$179,870,271||$153,237,000||$333,107,271||#187 (#86(A))||#321||$28 million|||
|Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade||May 24, 1989||$197,171,806||$277,000,000||$474,171,806||#153 (#99(A))||#174||$48 million|||
|Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull||May 22, 2008||$317,101,119||$473,552,823||$790,653,942||#76 (#131(A))||#93||$185 million|||
Critical and public response
|Raiders of the Lost Ark||95% (76 reviews)||85 (16 reviews)||N/A|
|Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom||85% (66 reviews)||57 (14 reviews)||N/A|
|Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade||88% (69 reviews)||65 (14 reviews)||A|
|Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull||78% (273 reviews)||65 (40 reviews)||B|
|Raiders of the Lost Ark||Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom||Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade||Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull|
|Best Art Direction||Won|
|Best Film Editing||Won|
|Best Original Score||Nominated|
|Best Sound Effects Editing||Won|
|Best Visual Effects||Won|
|Special Achievement Award for Sound Effects Editing||Won
(Ben Burtt and Richard L. Anderson)
A novelization of Raiders of the Lost Ark was written by Campbell Black and published by Ballantine Books in April 1981. It was followed by Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom, written by James Kahn and published by Ballantine in May 1984. Finally, Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade was published in May 1989, and was the first Indiana Jones book by Rob MacGregor. A fan of the first two films, MacGregor admitted that writing the novelization made him "somewhat disappointed" with the third film, as he had expanded the script whereas Steven Spielberg had cut scenes to tighten the story.
George Lucas asked MacGregor to continue writing original novels for Bantam Books. These were geared toward an adult or young adult audience, and were prequels set in the 1920s or early 1930s after Jones graduates from college. Of the film characters, Lucas only permitted Marcus Brody to appear. He asked MacGregor to base the books on real myths, but except for the deletion of a sex scene, the writer was given total creative freedom. Barring Stonehenge, MacGregor chose locations he had visited in the past. His six books – Indiana Jones and the Peril at Delphi, Indiana Jones and the Dance of the Giants, Indiana Jones and the Seven Veils, Indiana Jones and the Genesis Deluge, Indiana Jones and the Unicorn's Legacy, and Indiana Jones and the Interior World – were published from February 1991 to November 1992. The Genesis Deluge, published in February 1992 and featuring Noah's Ark, was the best-selling novel; MacGregor felt this was because it "had a strong following among religious-oriented people [...] because they tend to take the Noah's Ark story to heart and think of it as history and archaeological fact, rather than myth." MacGregor's favorite book was The Seven Veils, which featured real-life explorer Percy Fawcett and the death of Indiana's wife, Deirdre Campbell.
Martin Caidin wrote the next two novels in Bantam's series, Indiana Jones and the Sky Pirates and Indiana Jones and the White Witch. These feature Gale Parker as Indiana's sidekick; they introduced afterwords to the series, regarding each novel's historical context.
Caidin became ill, so Max McCoy took over in 1995 and wrote the final four novels: Indiana Jones and the Philosopher's Stone, Indiana Jones and the Dinosaur Eggs, Indiana Jones and the Hollow Earth, and Indiana Jones and the Secret of the Sphinx. McCoy set his books closer in time to the events of Raiders of the Lost Ark, which led to his characterizing Indiana as "a bit darker". The prolog of his first book featured a crystal skull, and this became a recurring story, concluding when Jones gives it up in the final novel. Lucas' involvement with McCoy's novels was limited, although LucasFilm censored sexual or outlandish elements in order to make the books appeal to younger readers; they also rejected the theme of time travel in the final book. Sallah, Lao Che, Rene Belloq and the Nazis made appearances, and McCoy also pitted Jones against Benito Mussolini's fascists and the Japanese. Jones also has a doomed romance with Alecia Dunstin, a librarian at the British Museum. A novel involving the Spear of Destiny was dropped, because Dark Horse Comics was developing the idea and later DC Comics developed the idea.
The books were only published in paperback, as the series editor felt readers would not be prepared to pay the hardback price for an adventure novel.
In February 2008, the novelizations of the first three films were published in one edition; James Rollins' Kingdom of the Crystal Skull novelization arrived the following May. Children's novelizations of all four films were published by Scholastic in 2008.
MacGregor was said to be writing new books for Ballantine for early 2009, but none have been published.
Additionally, German author Wolfgang Hohlbein wrote eight Indiana Jones novels in the early 1990s, which were never translated to English.
List of novels
All of the following were published by Bantam Books, with the exception of Army of the Dead, which was published by Del Rey.
- Indiana Jones and the Peril at Delphi (Feb 1991) – by Rob Macgregor
- Indiana Jones and the Dance of the Giants (June 1991) – by Rob Macgregor
- Indiana Jones and the Seven Veils (Dec 1991) – by Rob Macgregor
- Indiana Jones and the Genesis Deluge (Feb 1992) – by Rob Macgregor
- Indiana Jones and the Unicorn's Legacy (Sept 1992) – by Rob Macgregor
- Indiana Jones and the Interior World (1992) – by Rob Macgregor
- Indiana Jones and the Sky Pirates (Dec 1993) – by Martin Caidin
- Indiana Jones and the White Witch (1994) – by Martin Caidin
- Indiana Jones and the Philosopher's Stone (1995) – by Max McCoy
- Indiana Jones and the Dinosaur Eggs (1996) – by Max McCoy
- Indiana Jones and the Hollow Earth (1997) – by Max McCoy
- Indiana Jones and the Secret of the Sphinx (1999) – by Max McCoy
- Indiana Jones and the Army of the Dead (2009) – by Steve Perry
Indiana Jones novels by Wolfgang Hohlbein:
- Indiana Jones und das Schiff der Götter (1990) – (Indiana Jones and the Longship of the Gods)
- Indiana Jones und die Gefiederte Schlange (1990) – (Indiana Jones and the Feathered Snake)
- Indiana Jones und das Gold von El Dorado (1991) – (Indiana Jones and the Gold of El Dorado)
- Indiana Jones und das verschwundene Volk (1991) – (Indiana Jones and the Lost People)
- Indiana Jones und das Schwert des Dschingis Khan (1991) – (Indiana Jones and the Sword of Genghis Khan)
- Indiana Jones und das Geheimnis der Osterinseln (1992) – (Indiana Jones and the Secret of Easter Island)
- Indiana Jones und das Labyrinth des Horus (1993) – (Indiana Jones and the Labyrinth of Horus)
- Indiana Jones und das Erbe von Avalon (1994) – (Indiana Jones and the Legacy of Avalon)
Find Your Fate
Ballantine Books published a number of Indiana Jones books in the Find Your Fate line, written by various authors. These books were similar to the Choose Your Own Adventure series, allowing the reader to select from options that change the outcome of the story. Indiana Jones books comprised 11 of the 17 releases in the line, which was initially titled Find Your Fate Adventure.
- Indiana Jones and the Curse of Horror Island (June 1984) – R. L. Stine
- Indiana Jones and the Lost Treasure of Sheba (June 1984) – Rose Estes
- Indiana Jones and the Giants of the Silver Tower (Aug 1984) – R. L. Stine
- Indiana Jones and the Eye of the Fates (Aug 1984) – Richard Wenk
- Indiana Jones and the Cup of the Vampire (Oct 1984) – Andy Helfer
- Indiana Jones and the Legion of Death (Dec 1984) – Richard Wenk
- Indiana Jones and the Cult of the Mummy's Crypt (Feb 1985) – R. L. Stine
- Indiana Jones and the Dragon of Vengeance (Apr 1985) – Megan Stine and H. William Stine
- Indiana Jones and the Gold of Genghis Khan (May 1985) – Ellen Weiss
- Indiana Jones and the Ape Slaves of Howling Island (1986) – R. L. Stine
- Indiana Jones and the Mask of the Elephant (Feb 1987) – Megan Stine and H. William Stine
In 2008, Scholastic released a series of middle-grade novels based on the stories and screenplays. Each book of this edition included several pages of color stills from filming.
- Indiana Jones and the Raiders of the Lost Ark – Ryder Windham
- Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom – Suzanne Weyn
- Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade – Ryder Windham
In May 2009, two new middle-grade books were to begin a new series of Untold Adventures, though no further books appeared.
- Indiana Jones and the Pyramid of the Sorcerer – Ryder Windham
- Indiana Jones and the Mystery of Mount Sinai – J.W. Rinzler
Young Indiana Jones
In the early 1990s, different book series featured childhood and young adult adventures of Indiana Jones in the early decades of the century. Not all were directly tied to the Young Indiana Jones Chronicles TV series.
- Random House
The following books are set in Indy's mid- to late-teen years.
- Young Indiana Jones and the Plantation Treasure (1990) – by William McCay
- Young Indiana Jones and the Tomb of Terror (1990) – by Les Martin
- Young Indiana Jones and the Circle of Death (1990) – by William McCay
- Young Indiana Jones and the Secret City (1990) – by Les Martin
- Young Indiana Jones and the Princess of Peril (1991) – by Les Martin
- Young Indiana Jones and the Gypsy Revenge (1991) – by Les Martin
- Young Indiana Jones and the Ghostly Riders (1991) – by William McCay
- Young Indiana Jones and the Curse of Ruby Cross – by William McCay
- Young Indiana Jones and the Titanic Adventure (1993) – by Les Martin
- Young Indiana Jones and the Lost Gold of Durango (1993) – by Megan Stine and H. William Stine
- Young Indiana Jones and the Face of the Dragon – by William McCay
- Young Indiana Jones and the Journey to the Underworld (1994) – by Megan Stine and H. William Stine
- Young Indiana Jones and the Mountain of Fire (1994) – by William McCay
- Young Indiana Jones and the Pirates' Loot (1994) – by J.N. Fox
- Young Indiana Jones and the Eye of the Tiger (1995) – by William McCay
- Young Indiana Jones and the Mask of the Madman (unpublished) – by Megan Stine and H. William Stine
- Young Indiana Jones and the Ring of Power (unpublished) – Megan Stine
- Random House
These books were novelizations of episodes of the TV series. Some feature Indy around age 8; others have him age 16-18.
- The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles: The Mummy's Curse – by Megan Stine and H. William Stine
- The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles: Field of Death – by Les Martin
- The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles: Safari Sleuth – by A.L. Singer
- The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles: The Secret Peace – by William McCay
- The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles: The Trek of Doom – by Les Martin
- The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles: Revolution! – by Gavin Scott
- The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles: Race to Danger – by Stephanie Calmenson
- The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles: Prisoner of War – by Sam Mclean
- Bantam Books
These are labeled Choose Your Own Adventure books. Like the TV series, some feature Indy around age 8, others age 16-18.
The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles:
- The Valley of the Kings – by Richard Brightfield
- South of the Border – by Richard Brightfield
- Revolution in Russia – by Richard Brightfield
- Masters of the Louvre – by Richard Brightfield
- African Safari – by Richard Brightfield
- Behind the Great Wall – by Richard Brightfield
- The Roaring Twenties – by Richard Brightfield
- The Irish Rebellion – by Richard Brightfield
- Ballantine Books
Young Indiana Jones:
- The Mata Hari Affair – by James Luceno
- The Mummy's Curse – by Parker Smith
- Graphic novels
- The Curse of the Jackal – by Dan Barry
- The Search for the Oryx – by Dan Barry
- The Peril of the Fort – by Dan Barry
- Non-fiction books
- Lost Diaries of Young Indiana Jones – by Eric D. Weiner
- The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles: On the Set and Behind the Scenes – by Dan Madsen
- Indiana Jones Explores Ancient Egypt – by John Malam
- Indiana Jones Explores Ancient Rome – by John Malam
- Indiana Jones Explores Ancient Greece – by John Malam
- Indiana Jones Explores The Vikings – by John Malam
- Indiana Jones Explores The Incas – by John Malam
- Indiana Jones Explores The Aztecs – by John Malam
Since the release of the original film, there have been a number of video games based on the Indiana Jones series. These include both games based on (or derived from) the films, as well as those featuring the characters in new storylines.
Games adapted or derived from the films
- Raiders of the Lost Ark (1982, Atari Inc) – The first Indiana Jones video game. Released on the Atari 2600.
- Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom (1985, Atari Games) – Arcade game, later converted to many home computer and console formats, including an NES version in 1988.
- Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade: The Action Game (1989, LucasArts) – One of two Last Crusade-based games released by LucasArts in 1989.
- Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade: The Graphic Adventure (1989, LucasArts)
- Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade (1991, Taito) – Released for the NES console.
- Indiana Jones' Greatest Adventures (1994, JVC/LucasArts) – The final film adaptation until 2008, based upon all three original films. Released on the Super Nintendo Entertainment System.
- Lego Indiana Jones: The Original Adventures (2008, LucasArts) – Based on the original three movies and the Lego toy franchise.
- Lego Indiana Jones 2: The Adventure Continues (2009, LucasArts) – A sequel to the original Lego Indiana Jones game.
- Indiana Jones in the Lost Kingdom (1985, Mindscape)
- Indiana Jones in Revenge of the Ancients (1987, Mindscape) – Released for the Apple II and PC DOS computer platforms.
- Indiana Jones and the Fate of Atlantis (1992, LucasArts) – Released for DOS (IBM PC) compatibles in 1992.
- The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles (1993, Jaleco) – Released for the NES console.
- Instruments of Chaos starring Young Indiana Jones (1994, LucasArts) – Released for the Sega Genesis
- Indiana Jones and His Desktop Adventures (1996, LucasArts)
- Indiana Jones and the Infernal Machine (1999, LucasArts) – Released in 1999 on the PC, as well as for the Nintendo 64
- Indiana Jones and the Infernal Machine (2D Version) (2001, LucasArts) – A 2D version of Infernal Machine released for the Game Boy Color
- Indiana Jones and the Emperor's Tomb (2003, LucasArts) – a prequel to Temple of Doom. Released on the PlayStation 2, Xbox and Microsoft Windows in 2003.
- Indiana Jones and the Staff of Kings (2009, LucasArts) – Released in June 2009 for the Nintendo DS, Wii, PSP and PS2.
- Indiana Jones and the Lost Puzzles (2009, THQ) – Developed by Universomo and published by THQ Wireless for BlackBerry, iOS, and Windows Mobile.
- Indiana Jones Adventure World (2011, Zynga) – The social gaming company Zynga partnered with Lucasfilm to produce this game late 2011.
- Indiana Jones and the Iron Phoenix – An intended sequel to The Fate of Atlantis, intended for a 1995 release, but was canceled.
Theme park attractions
Prior to Disney's acquisition, George Lucas collaborated with Walt Disney Imagineering on several occasions to create Indiana Jones attractions for Walt Disney Parks and Resorts worldwide. Indiana Jones-themed attractions at Disney theme parks include:
- The Indiana Jones Epic Stunt Spectacular! show opened at Disney's Hollywood Studios in Lake Buena Vista, Florida, in 1989.
- The Indiana Jones et le Temple du Péril roller-coaster opened at Disneyland Paris in Marne-la-Vallée, France, in 1993.
- The Indiana Jones Adventure, which opened at Disneyland in Anaheim, California, in 1995 and at Tokyo DisneySea in Chiba, Japan, in 2001.
- An Indiana Jones-themed bar lounge, "Jock Lindsey's Hangar Bar", opened in 2015 at Disney Springs at the Walt Disney World Resort.
- The Great Movie Ride at Disney's Hollywood Studios featured a scene based on Raiders of the Lost Ark.
For the holiday season following the June 1981 debut of Raiders of the Lost Ark, Kenner produced a 12-inch-tall "Authentically styled Action Figure" of Indiana Jones. The next spring they delivered nine smaller-scale (33⁄4") action figures, three playsets, replicas of the German desert convoy truck and Jones' horse, all derived from the Raiders movie. They also offered a Raiders board game.
In conjunction with the theatrical release of The Temple of Doom in 1984, TSR, Inc. released miniature metal versions of twelve characters from both films for a role playing game. LJN Toys Ltd. also released action figures of Jones, Mola Ram, and the Giant Thugee; there were plans for the addition of Willie Scott and Short Round, and also a mine car racing set, but these were never made available.
No toys were produced to tie in with The Last Crusade in 1989, but in 1993 Horizon released highly detailed vinyl model kits of Indiana and Henry Jones, while in 1995 Micro Machines produced a set of ten die-cast toy vehicles from all three films. Micro Machines also considered a mini. playset, but this was never made available. In 1999, Toys McCoy released a Japanese-market-only limited edition 12-inch figure of Indiana and his horse from Raiders. In 2001, Walt Disney Parks and Resorts sold new, exclusive action figures and model vehicles, and a second wave followed in August 2003. This included G.I. Joe versions of Jones, including an African-American styled toy, to honor the black performers at their stunt shows.
Hasbro released toys based on Raiders of the Lost Ark and Kingdom of the Crystal Skull in 2008. Further figures, including characters from The Temple of Doom and The Last Crusade, followed later in the year, but were distributed on a very limited basis. This line of toys included 33⁄4-inch and 12-inch figures, vehicles, a playset, and a series of "Adventure Heroes" aimed at young children. Hasbro announced the cancellation of the line in the fall of 2008, due to decreasing sales, although some figures continued to be released up until the 2011 San Diego Comic Convention.
Sideshow Collectibles, Gentle Giant, Diamond Select Toys and Kotobukiya also earned Indiana Jones licensing rights in 2008. Lego released eight play sets to coincide with the fourth film, based on Raiders and The Last Crusade as well as on Kingdom of the Crystal Skull
Merchandise featuring franchise cross-overs include a Mr. Potato Head "Taters Of The Lost Ark" set by Hasbro, Mickey Mouse as Indiana Jones, and a Muppets-branded Adventure Kermit action figure, produced by Palisades Toys and based on the frog's appearance in the Disney World stunt show as seen in The Muppets at Walt Disney World.
There have been two publications of role-playing games based on the Indiana Jones franchise. The Adventures of Indiana Jones Role-Playing Game was designed and published by TSR, Inc. under license in 1984. Ten years later, West End Games acquired the rights to publish their own version, The World of Indiana Jones.
- Hearn, p.80
- Indiana Jones: Making the Trilogy (DVD). Paramount Pictures. 2003.
- Hearn, pp. 112–115
- McBride, pp. 309–322
- "Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom". Empire. October 2006. pp. 86–92.
- Hearn, pp. 144–7
- "Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade". Empire. October 2006. pp. 96–100.
- Rinzler, Bouzereau, Chapter 11: "Atomic Ants from Space: May 1989 to June 2007" p. 231–247
- Daly, Steve (April 16, 2008). "Indiana Jones: The Untold Story". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved April 17, 2008.
- Rinzler, Bouzereau, "Script draft by David Koepp summary and commentary: April 23, 2007", p. 248–255
- Ann Donahue. "Indiana Jones and the Curse of Development Hell". Premiere. Archived from the original on June 18, 2007. Retrieved July 17, 2007.
- Matthew Leyland (June 2008). "Fortune and Glory". Total Film. pp. 68–71.
- Jim Windolf (February 2008). "Keys to the Kingdom". Vanity Fair. Retrieved January 2, 2008.
- Patrick Lee (August 5, 2002). "M. Night Shyamalan had a sense that all Signs pointed to Mel Gibson". Science Fiction Weekly. Archived from the original on October 11, 2007. Retrieved July 17, 2007.
- Ken Plume (May 17, 2002). "IGN FilmForce Exclusive: Has Indy IV Found Its Writer?". IGN. Archived from the original on December 16, 2008. Retrieved January 2, 2007.
- Jim Windolf (December 2, 2007). "Q&A: Steven Spielberg". Vanity Fair. Retrieved December 2, 2007.
- Steve Daly (April 16, 2008). "Steven Spielberg and George Lucas: The Titans Talk!". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved April 17, 2008.
- Rinzler, Bouzereau, Chapter 12: "Mr. Jones's Wild Ride: June to December 2007", p. 254–295
- Peter N. Chumo II (May–June 2008). "Matinee Magic: David Koepp and Indiana Jones Enter the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull". Creative Screenwriting. 15 (3).
- Graser, Marc (October 30, 2012). "Disney buys LucasFilm, new 'Star Wars' planned". Variety. Archived from the original on November 1, 2012. Retrieved September 27, 2018.
- Ford, Rebecca (December 6, 2013). "Disney Takes Control of 'Indiana Jones' Franchise for Future Films". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved December 7, 2013.
- Kroll, Justin (December 6, 2013). "Disney Acquires Rights to Future 'Indiana Jones' Movies". Variety. Retrieved March 15, 2016.
- Faughnder, Ryan (December 6, 2013). "Disney acquires control of future 'Indiana Jones' movies". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved December 7, 2013.
- "Raiders of the Lost Ark: Revised Third Draft" (PDF). Retrieved December 27, 2016.
- Vary, Adam B.; Kroll, Justin; Lang, Brent (February 26, 2020). "Steven Spielberg Won't Direct 'Indiana Jones 5,' James Mangold in Talks to Replace (EXCLUSIVE)". Variety. Retrieved February 26, 2020.
- Rainey, James (April 11, 2016). "Frank Marshall: Harrison Ford Is One and Only 'Indiana Jones,' 'Not Going to Do the Bond Thing'". Variety. Retrieved April 12, 2016.
- "Indiana Jones 5: George Lucas to Executive Produce". June 22, 2016. Retrieved July 3, 2016.
- "John Williams Will Compose Indiana Jones 5 and Star Wars Episode VIII Score". /Film. June 10, 2016. Retrieved June 10, 2016.
- "Shia LaBeouf's Mutt Williams is Not in Indiana Jones 5". ComingSoon.net. September 4, 2017. Retrieved September 4, 2017.
- "Jurassic Park screenwriter David Koepp on Indiana Jones 5, Spider-Man and his debut novel". Den of Geek. September 19, 2019. Retrieved September 21, 2019.
- "Star Wars: Episode IX and Next Indiana Jones Get Release Dates". StarWars.com. April 25, 2017. Retrieved April 25, 2017.
- McClintock, Pamela (July 10, 2018). "Disney Pushes 'Indiana Jones 5' a Year to 2021, Dates 'Maleficent 2,' 'Jungle Cruise'". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on July 10, 2018. Retrieved July 10, 2018.
- McClintock, Pamela (April 3, 2020). "'Black Widow,' 'Mulan' Land New 2020 Release Dates, 'Jungle Cruise' Delayed a Year". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved April 3, 2020.
- Breznican, Anthony (April 16, 2008). "Harrison Ford is a portrait of rugged individualism". USA Today. Retrieved April 18, 2008.
- "Spielberg eyes more Indiana films". BBC News Online. May 18, 2008. Retrieved May 18, 2008.
- Friedman, Roger (May 16, 2008). "Lucas: 'Indy 5' a Possibility". Fox News. Retrieved May 16, 2008.
- Lee, Patrick (August 5, 2008). "Lucas: Indy V Research In Works". Sci Fi Wire. Archived from the original on August 5, 2008. Retrieved August 5, 2008.
- Adler, Shawn (August 5, 2008). "'Indiana Jones 5' Won't Center on Shia LaBeouf, Insists George Lucas". MTV Movies Blog. Archived from the original on August 28, 2008. Retrieved August 5, 2008.
- Boucher, Geoff (October 3, 2008). "Harrison Ford says George Lucas in 'think mode' on another 'Indiana Jones' film". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved October 5, 2008.
- "Shia LaBeouf talks Transformers". BBC News Online. June 15, 2009. Retrieved June 16, 2009.
- Jennings, Randy (December 3, 2009). "TAFs on the Red Carpet for Cal Hall of Fame 2009! Interviews with Lucas, Burnett and Joe Weider!". The Arnold Fans. Archived from the original on March 9, 2012. Retrieved March 15, 2016.
The next Indy film? Yes, we're working on it. It's in development. That's all I can say right now.
- Ditzian, Eric; Horowitz, Josh (November 8, 2010). "Harrison Ford Is 'Looking Forward' To 'Indiana Jones 5'". MTV News. Retrieved March 15, 2016.
- Seeton, Reg (March 25, 2011). "Karen Allen Talks Indiana Jones 5". The Deadbolt. Archived from the original on April 30, 2011. Retrieved March 20, 2020.
- "Frank Marshall talks Indy 5 and Jurassic Park 4". Complex.com. July 31, 2012. Retrieved March 15, 2016.
- Shaw, Lucas (October 30, 2012). "Disney to Buy Lucasfilm for $4.05B, Plans New 'Star Wars' Films". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved November 1, 2012.
- "Disney would acquire a visual effects firm with Lucasfilm deal". Los Angeles Times. October 31, 2012. Retrieved November 4, 2012.
- Oldham, Stuart (October 30, 2012). "READ: Disney chief Bob Iger's internal memo to staff: 'Lucasfilm fits perfectly with Disney's strategic priorities'". Variety. Retrieved November 13, 2013.
- Graser, Marc (December 13, 2013). "Don't Expect a New Indiana Jones Movie for at Least Two to Three Years". Variety. Retrieved December 14, 2013.
- "Lucasfilm President Finally Confirms Indiana Jones Sequel Is on the Horizon". Vanity Fair. Retrieved March 15, 2016.
- D'Alessandro, Anthony (March 15, 2016). "Steven Spielberg & Harrison Ford Team Up For 'Indiana Jones 5', Disney Sets July 2019 Release". Deadline Hollywood. Retrieved March 15, 2016.
- Kit, Borys (March 18, 2016). "Steven Spielberg Enlists a Familiar Writer for 'Indiana Jones 5' (Exclusive)". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved March 18, 2016.
- "Steven Spielberg Eyes Indiana Jones & 'West Side Story' Atop Next Directing Vehicles". Deadline Hollywood. January 19, 2018. Retrieved January 20, 2018.
- Kroll, Justin (March 9, 2018). "Steven Spielberg's Secret Table Read: What Could It Be and How Does it Affect 'West Side Story'? (EXCLUSIVE)". Variety. Retrieved March 12, 2018.
- "Indiana Jones 5 Filming to Start in April 2019". ComingSoon.net. March 19, 2018. Retrieved March 19, 2018.
- Scott, Ryan (September 9, 2019). "A Quiet Place Writers Met with Lucasfilm About Star Wars & Indiana Jones [Exclusive]". MovieWeb. Watchr Media. Retrieved September 21, 2019.
- Sneider, Jeff (June 28, 2018). "Exclusive: 'Solo' Scribe Jonathan Kasdan Writing 'Indiana Jones 5' for Steven Spielberg". Collider. Retrieved May 6, 2019.
- Lang, Brent. "'Indiana Jones 5' Will Miss 2020 Release Date (EXCLUSIVE)". Variety. variety.com. Retrieved July 4, 2018.
- Evry, Max (October 1, 2018). "Exclusive: Indiana Jones 5 Will Return to Global Scope, Says Frank Marshall".
- Pearson, Ben (May 1, 2019). "Rumor: 'Indiana Jones 5' Now Being Written By 'This Is Us' Creator; Learn Plot Details of Jon Kasdan's Abandoned Draft [Updated]". /Film. Retrieved May 6, 2019.
- Carras, Christi (June 2, 2019). "Harrison Ford Talks 'Indiana Jones' Reboot, Visiting Disney's 'Star Wars' Land". Variety.com. Retrieved September 21, 2019.
- Barnhardt, Adam (July 29, 2019). "Indiana Jones 5 to Reportedly Start Filming in 2020". ComicBook.com. Pop Culture Media. Retrieved September 21, 2019.
- "'Indiana Jones 5' Will Begin Filming This Summer, Harrison Ford Says". The Hollywood Reporter. February 14, 2020. Retrieved February 18, 2020.
- Horowitz, Josh (November 19, 2008). "Harrison Ford Talks Fifth Indiana Jones Film". MTV Movies Blog. Retrieved November 19, 2008.
- Nolfi, Joey (September 4, 2017). "Indiana Jones 5 won't feature Shia LaBeouf's character". Entertainment Weekly. Time Inc. Retrieved September 4, 2017.
- Vejvoda, Jim (February 15, 2020). "Indiana Jones 5 Will "See Part of His History Resolved," According to Harrison Ford". IGN. Retrieved February 18, 2020.
- Hearn, pp. 170–179
- "Exploring 'Young Indiana Jones'". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved April 23, 2008.
- "The Young Indiana Jones". Empire. May 3, 2008. Retrieved May 8, 2008.
- Hearn, p.186
- Redmond, Caroline (October 31, 2018). "River Phoenix Died 25 Years Ago Today at 23: Inside the Beloved Actor's Turbulent Life". People.com. Meredith Corporation. Retrieved May 25, 2019.
- Flint, Hannah (June 27, 2018). "This detail will change the way you watch 'Raiders of the Lost Ark' forever". Yahoo! Movies. Yahoo!. Retrieved May 25, 2019.
- Chapman, Deanna (August 7, 2017). "EDITORIAL: What took you so long?: 'Indiana Jones: Raiders of the Lost Ark'". Substream Magazine. Retrieved May 25, 2019.
- "Pensacon 2018 recap: Check out all the highlights". Pensacola News Journal. Gannett. February 26, 2018. Retrieved May 25, 2019.
- Kyriazis, Stefan (June 10, 2017). "What happened to Indiana Jones' Temple of Doom sidekick Short Round? LOOK at him now". Daily Express. Express Newspapers. Retrieved May 25, 2019.
- Bollywood News (June 22, 2018). "Amrish Puri birth anniversary: For Steven Spielberg, he was the best villain 'the world has ever produced'". Times Now News. Bennett, Coleman & Company Limited. Retrieved May 25, 2019.
- Schedeen, Jesse (May 23, 2019). "15 Things You Never Knew About 'Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade' on its 30th Anniversary". Moviefone. MoviePass. Retrieved May 25, 2019.
- Derrick, Paul (October 22, 2018). "Star Wars and Indiana Jones actor Julian Glover helps launch sci-fi and action exhibition at Bury St Edmunds' Moyse's Hall Museum". Bury Free Press. Iliffe Media Publishing Ltd. Retrieved May 25, 2019.
- Butler, Laura (July 9, 2014). "Former Bond girl Alison Doody is back in new action role". Independent.ie. INM Website. Retrieved May 25, 2019.
- Roberts, Brian (March 31, 2008). "Indiana Jones actor Michael Byrne joins Coronation Street". Daily Mirror. MGN Limited. Retrieved February 3, 2012.
- "Raiders of the Lost Ark (1981)". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved July 15, 2012.
- "Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom (1984)". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved July 15, 2012.
- "Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade(1989)". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved July 15, 2012.
- "Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull (2008)". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved July 15, 2012.
- "Indiana Jones Moviesat the Box Office". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved July 15, 2014.
- "Raiders of the Lost Ark". Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved September 1, 2012.
- "Raiders of the Lost Ark". Metacritic.
- "Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom". Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved September 1, 2012.
- "Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom". Metacritic.
- "Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade". Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved September 1, 2012.
- "Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade". Metacritic.
- "CinemaScore". cinemascore.com. Retrieved March 8, 2015.
- "Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull". Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved March 2, 2020.
- "Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull". Metacritic.
- Campbell Black (April 2008). Indiana Jones and the Raiders of the Lost Ark. Ballantine Books. ISBN 978-0-345-35375-7.
- James Kahn (May 1984). Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom. Ballantine Books. ISBN 978-0-345-31457-4.
- Rob MacGregor (September 1989). Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade. Ballantine Books. ISBN 978-0-345-36161-5.
- Aaron Gantt. "Interview with Rob MacGregor". The Indy Experience. Archived from the original on November 10, 2007. Retrieved March 1, 2008.
- "Rob MacGregor interview". TheRaider.net. June 29, 2002. Retrieved March 1, 2008.
- Rob MacGregor (January 1991). Indiana Jones and the Peril of Delphi. Bantam Books. ISBN 978-0-553-28931-2.
- Rob MacGregor (May 1991). Indiana Jones and the Dance of Giants. Bantam Books. ISBN 978-0-553-29035-6.
- Rob MacGregor (November 1991). Indiana Jones and the Seven Veils. Bantam Books. ISBN 978-0-553-29035-6.
- Rob MacGregor (January 1992). Indiana Jones and the Genesis Deluge. Bantam Books. ISBN 978-0-553-29502-3.
- Rob MacGregor (August 1992). Indiana Jones and the Unicorn's Legacy. Bantam Books. ISBN 978-0-553-29666-2.
- Rob MacGregor (November 1992). Indiana Jones and the Interior World. Bantam Books. ISBN 978-0-553-29966-3.
- Martin Caidin (November 1993). Indiana Jones and the Sky Pirates. Bantam Books. ISBN 978-0-553-56192-0.
- Martin Caidin (March 1994). Indiana Jones and the White Witch. Bantam Books. ISBN 978-0-553-56194-4.
- "Max McCoy interview". TheRaider.net. October 31, 2002. Retrieved March 1, 2008.
- Eddie Mishan (October 28, 2004). "Interview with Max McCoy". The Indy Experience. Archived from the original on November 10, 2007. Retrieved March 1, 2008.
- Max McCoy (1995). Indiana Jones and the Philosopher's Stone. Bantam Books. ISBN 978-0-553-56196-8.
- Max McCoy (1996). Indiana Jones and the Dinosaur Eggs. Bantam Books. ISBN 978-0-553-56193-7.
- Max McCoy (1997). Indiana Jones and the Hollow Earth. Bantam Books. ISBN 978-0-553-56195-1.
- Max McCoy (1999). Indiana Jones and the Secret of the Sphinx. Bantam Books. ISBN 978-0-553-56197-5.
- Scott Chitwood (February 23, 2000). "The Lost Adventures of Indiana Jones". Archived from the original on January 13, 2009. Retrieved March 1, 2008.
- The Adventures of Indiana Jones. Del Rey Books. February 2008. ISBN 978-0-345-50127-1.
- James Rollins (May 2008). Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull. Del Rey Books. ISBN 978-0-345-50128-8.
- "Indiana Jones Junior Novelizations On the Way". StarWars.com. February 19, 2008. Archived from the original on February 25, 2008. Retrieved February 19, 2008.
- "Works". Rob MacGregor's official site. Archived from the original on December 23, 2007. Retrieved March 1, 2008.
- Steve Perry. Indiana Jones and the Army of the Dead. Ballantine Books. p. 352. ISBN 978-0-345-50698-6.
- "Jason" (December 13, 2011). "Rob MacGregor opens up about buried Staff of Kings novelization". The International House of Mojo.
- Demian's Gamebook Web Page Archived May 14, 2011, at the Wayback Machine "Demian's Gamebook Web Page"
- "First Look: The Untold Adventures of Indiana Jones". StarWars.com. December 19, 2008. Archived from the original on December 24, 2008. Retrieved December 23, 2008.
- McWhertor, Michael (January 23, 2009). "Indiana Jones and the Staff of Kings Hits Wii In Spring, Says New Trailer – LucasArts". Kotaku. Retrieved June 16, 2009.
- Mundy, Jon (September 10, 2009). "Indiana Jones and the Lost Puzzles". Pocket Gamer. Retrieved November 6, 2017.
- Podolsky, Andrew (February 12, 2010). "Indiana Jones and the Lost Puzzles Review (Windows Mobile)". GameSpot. Retrieved November 6, 2017.
- Squires, Jim (March 15, 2010). "Indiana Jones and the Lost Puzzles Review". Gamezebo. Retrieved November 6, 2017.
- "Indiana Jones and the Lost Puzzles". Slide to Play. Retrieved November 6, 2017.
- Indiana Jones raids Zynga's Adventure World, c|net, December 1, 2011.
- Clark, Darcy (May 12, 2015). "Jock Lindsey's Hangar Bar to Open this Fall at Downtown Disney at Walt Disney World Resort". The Disney Parks Blog. Retrieved May 16, 2015.
- Mauney, Matt (September 22, 2015). "Indiana Jones-themed bar now open at Disney Springs". Orlando Sentinel. Retrieved September 22, 2015.
- "The Adventures of Indiana Jones". Cool Toy Review. Retrieved February 21, 2008.
- "Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom: Action Figures". TheRaider.net. Retrieved February 21, 2008.
- "Indiana Jones vinyl figure kits". TheRaider.net. Retrieved February 21, 2008.
- "Indiana Jones Micro Machines". TheRaider.net. Retrieved February 21, 2008.
- "Toys McCoy Indiana Jones figures". TheRaider.net. Retrieved February 21, 2008.
- "Disney Figures: Series 1". TheRaider.net. Retrieved February 21, 2008.
- "Disney Figures: Series 2". TheRaider.net. Retrieved February 21, 2008.
- "Hasbro: Indiana Jones". Cool Toy Review. Retrieved January 3, 2013.
- "Toy Fair 2008 – Indiana Jones Presentation". Cool Toy Review. Retrieved February 17, 2008.
- "Kotobukiya USA – Manufacturer of science fiction, comic, movie and video games figures. Japan". Retrieved October 25, 2014.
- "Indiana Jones 'Raiders of the Lost Ark' – Sideshow Exclusive Edition". Sideshow Collectibles. February 21, 2008. Archived from the original on May 1, 2013. Retrieved February 21, 2008.
- "Toy Fair 2008 – Gentle Giant Indiana Jones". Cool Toy Review. Retrieved February 21, 2008.
- Scott Collura (February 25, 2008). "Toy Fair 08: Diamond Select Nabs Lucasfilm License". IGN. Archived from the original on January 14, 2009. Retrieved February 27, 2008.
- "USTF: Kotobukiya's Indiana Jones Lines". Action-Figure. February 16, 2008. Archived from the original on January 21, 2016. Retrieved February 21, 2008.
- "Indiana Jones – Products". Lego. Retrieved February 17, 2008.
- "New Indy Movie LEGO Sets Offer Exclusive Peek Into Crystal Skull". Gizmodo. Retrieved February 17, 2008.
- Toy News International "Taters Of The Lost Ark Mr. Potato Head"
- endorexpress.net "Indiana Jones Mickey Action Figure"
- Indiana Jones: The Ultimate Guide. DK Publishing. ISBN 0-7566-3500-4.
- Mauney, Matt (January 10, 2014). "New Disney Vinylmation figures include Indiana Jones and limited edition Duffy". Orlando Sentinel. Retrieved January 10, 2014.
- "The History of TSR". Wizards of the Coast. Archived from the original on October 4, 2008. Retrieved August 20, 2005.
- "Indiana Jones". Pinball News. March 20, 2008. Retrieved April 7, 2008.
- Hearn, Marcus (2005). The Cinema of George Lucas. New York: Harry N. Abrams Inc, Publishers. ISBN 0-8109-4968-7.
- McBride, Joseph (1997). Steven Spielberg. New York City: Faber and Faber. ISBN 0-571-19177-0.
- Rinzler, J.W.; Laurent Bouzereau (2008). The Complete Making of Indiana Jones. Random House. ISBN 978-0-09-192661-8.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Indiana Jones.|
|Wikiquote has quotations related to: Indiana Jones|