||The examples and perspective in this article may not represent a worldwide view of the subject. (June 2013)|
Infant and toddler clothing size is typically based on age. These are usually preemie for a preterm birth baby, 0 to 3 months, 3 to 6 months, 6 to 9 months, 9 to 12 months, 12 months, 18 months, and 24 months, though there is no industry standard definition for those sizes. Most retailers provide sizing charts based on a child's weight, height, or both, and the child's weight and height percentile may also be used for properly sizing clothing for the infant.
In an article in the October 1945 issue of Ladies' Home Journal, B. F. Skinner stated that clothing and bedding "interfere with normal exercise and growth and keep the baby from taking comfortable postures or changing posture during sleep". An infant may stretch, necessitating clothing that is sufficiently loose to allow movement.
In the United States, before the 1890s children predominantly wore clothing made by their parents. By 1910, retailers had formed a "publicity structure" toward children for the sale of children's goods, which resulted in a significant increase in the sale of manufactured children's clothing, sportswear, candy, and baby clothing. By 1915, baby clothing had become one of the nation's largest industries.
In the 1980s, infant and toddler clothing fashion design became an increasing source of revenue for US designer labels and fashion design houses, such as Polo Ralph Lauren and Guess. Gap Inc. established Baby Gap in 1990, four years after it had introduced the Gap Kids line.
The age of first-time mothers has been increasing in Western cultures, from 21.5 years old in 1970 to over 25 years old in the early 2000s, and hence they have more disposable income to spend for infant goods, including clothing.
Infant clothing is within the retail and wholesale trade categories of the North American Industry Classification System (NAICS). For the 2012 revision, wholesale infant clothing is in category 424330 (Women's, Children's, and Infants' Clothing and Accessories Merchant Wholesalers) and retail infant clothing is in category 448130 (Children's and Infants' Clothing Stores).
The manner in which an infant is dressed "affects behavior toward the infant". Clothing may be sex-typed by colour (e.g. - pink or yellow for girls, blue or red for boys), or by style (ruffles and puffed sleeves for girls).
A 1985 study found that US parents were not "bothered by strangers' mistaking the infant's sex".
Excessive thermal insulation has been associated with an increased incidence of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). The primary causes are an excess of bedding or clothing, soft sleep surfaces, and stuffed animals. The odds ratio of SIDS associated with thermal insulation at least two togs above the lower critical value (after adjusting for season and confounding factors) was 1.35 in a New Zealand study, which also found that SIDS had some correlation with too little thermal insulation. A 1984 study of 34 infant cot deaths found that for 2/3 excessive clothing and over-wrapping was a contributing cause.
Clothing was responsible for an increased incidence of congenital hip dislocation (CDH) in Japanese infants. By custom, a diaper and clothing had been applied to the infants "with the legs in extension". Before 1965, the incidence of CDH in infants was up to 3.5%, but a national campaign established in 1975 "to avoid prolonged extension of the hips and knees of infants during the early postnatal period" led to a reduction in incidence of CDH in infants to 0.2% by the early 1980s.
Close-fitting nightwear is "invariably safer than long, loose nightwear".
Canada prohibits the importation, sale, or advertising of classes of clothing and other consumer products that do not meet the minimum flammability standards. Standards for infant and children's sleepwear were defined in 1971 and amended in 1987 as part of the Hazardous Products Act. Any textile product must also satisfy textile labelling requirements specified in the Textile Labelling Act administered by the Competition Bureau of Industry Canada.
In the United States, textile flammability is subject to the U.S. Flammable Fabrics Act. A study found that children less than five years old had a higher incidence of sleepwear fires than other age groups, and that they had an "unreasonable risk of death or injury from fire accidents involving sleepwear". This led to the first flammability standard for infant and children's sleepwear. On 30 April 1996, the Consumer Product Safety Commission relaxed standards for children's sleepwear flammability, allowing retailers to sell "tight-fitting children's sleepwear and sleepwear for infants aged 9 months or younger" that does not meet the flammability criteria.
Hygiene and health
- Consumer Reports.
- Skinner 1945.
- Beegum 2005, p. 18.
- Leach 1994, p. 85.
- Peterson & Kellogg 2008, p. 360.
- Condra 2008, p. 225.
- Danziger 2004.
- United States Census Bureau: NAICS 424330.
- United States Census Bureau: NAICS 448130.
- Shakin, Shakin & Hall Sternglanz 1985.
- Fleming et al. 1993.
- Williams, Taylor & Mitchell 1996.
- Stanton 1984.
- Ishida 1977.
- Yamamuro & Ishida 1984.
- Gordon & Pressley 1978.
- Health Canada.
- Sita 1977.
- Cusick, Grant & Kucan 1997.
- Beegum 2005, p. 19.
- Beegum, M. Raheema (2005). Speaking of Child Care and Nutrition. New Dawn Press Group, Sterling Publishing. ISBN 9781845570279.
- Condra, Jill, ed. (2008). 1801 to the Present. The Greenwood Encyclopedia of Clothing Through World History 3 (Greenwood Publishing Group). ISBN 9780313336652. LCCN 2007030705.
- Cusick, Janet M.; Grant, Ernest J.; Kucan, John (September–October 1997). "Children's Sleepwear: Relaxation of the Consumer Product Safety Commission's Flammability Standards". Journal of Burn Care & Rehabilitation 18 (5).
- Danziger, Pamela (2004). Why People Buy Things They Don't Need: Understanding and Predicting Consumer Behavior. Kaplan Financial Series. Kaplan Publishing. ISBN 0793186021. LCCN 2004003269.
- Fleming, PJ; Levine, MR; Azaz, Y; Wigfield, R; Stewart, AJ (August 1993). "Interactions between thermoregulation and the control of respiration in infants: possible relationship to sudden infant death". Acta Paediatrica (John Wiley & Sons) 82 (Supplemental s390): 57–59. doi:10.1111/j.1651-2227.1993.tb12878.x. PMID 8374195.
- Gordon, P.G.; Pressley, T.A. (September 1978). "The fire hazard of children's nightwear: the Australian experience in developing clothing fire hazard standards". Burns 5 (1): 13–18. doi:10.1016/0305-4179(78)90034-7.
- Ishida, Katsumasa (July–August 1977). "Prevention of the Development of the Typical Dislocation of the Hip". Clinical Orthopaedics & Related Research (Lippincott Williams & Wilkins) 126: 167–169. doi:10.1097/00003086-197707000-00028.
- Leach, William R. (1994). Land of Desire: Merchants, Power, and the Rise of a New American Culture. Vintage Series. Vintage Books. ISBN 0679754113.
- Shakin, Madeline; Shakin, Debra; Hall Sternglanz, Sarah (May 1985). "Infant clothing: Sex labeling for strangers". Sex Roles: A Journal of Research (Springer Link) 12 (9-10): 955–964. doi:10.1007/bf00288097. ISSN 0360-0025.
- Peterson, Amy T.; Kellogg, Ann T., eds. (2008). The Greenwood Encyclopedia of Clothing Through American History 1900 to the Present: 1900-1949 1. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 9780313334177. LCCN 2008024624.
- Sita, Rose Marie (1977). "Fire Resistant Sleepwear for Young Hospital Patients". Hospital Topics (Routledge) 55 (4): 40–41. doi:10.1080/00185868.1977.9950414. ISSN 0018-5868.
- Skinner, B.F. (October 1945). "Baby in a box". Ladies' Home Journal (Curtis Publishing Company).
- Stanton, A.N. (November 1984). "Overheating and cot death". The Lancet 324 (8413): 1199–1201. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(84)92753-3.
- Williams, MS; Taylor, BJ; Mitchell, EA (April 1996). National Cot Death Study Group. "Sudden Infant Death Syndrome: Insulation from Bedding and Clothing and its Effect Modifiers". International Journal of Epidemiology (Oxford University Press) 25 (2): 366–375. doi:10.1093/ije/25.2.36610.1093/ije/25.2.366.
- Yamamuro, Takao; Ishida, Katsumasa (April 1984). "Recent Advances in the Prevention, Early Diagnosis, and Treatment of Congenital Dislocation of the Hip in Japan". Clinical Orthopaedics & Related Research (Lippincott Williams & Wilkins) 184: 24–40. doi:10.1097/00003086-198404000-00005.
- "Baby clothes buying guide". Baby clothes. Consumer Reports. Retrieved 2013-06-12.
- "Flammability of Textile Products in Canada", Consumer Product Safety (Health Canada), 2009, ISBN 9780662063513, retrieved 2013-06-12
- "424330 Women's, Children's, and Infants' Clothing and Accessories Merchant Wholesalers". 2012 NAICS Definition. United States Census Bureau. 2 November 2010. Retrieved 2013-06-12.
- "448130 Children's and Infants' Clothing Stores". 2012 NAICS Definition. United States Census Bureau. 2 November 2010. Retrieved 2013-06-12.
- Barraclough Paoletti, Jo (2012). Pink and Blue: Telling the Boys from the Girls in America. Indiana University Press. ISBN 9780253001177. LCCN 2011039889.
- Reeves, Wilson A.; Barker, Robert H. (1977). "Fire‐resistant apparel fabrics". CRC Critical Reviews in Environmental Control 8 (1-4): 91–100. doi:10.1080/10643387709381659. ISSN 0007-8999.
- Stanwick, Richard S. (1985). "Clothing burns in Canadian children". Canadian Medical Association Journal 132 (10): 1143–1149. PMC 1345939. PMID 3995433.
- Wilson, CA; Taylor, BJ; Laing, RM; Williams, SM; Mitchell, EA (December 1994). New Zealand Cot Death Study Group. "Clothing and bedding and its relevance to sudden infant death syndrome: Further results from the New Zealand Cot Death Study". Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health (John Wiley & Sons) 30 (6): 506–512. doi:10.1111/j.1440-1754.1994.tb00722.x.