Infante Sebastian of Portugal and Spain
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|Born||4 November 1811|
Quinta da Boa Vista, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
|Died||14 February 1875 (aged 63)|
|Spouse||Maria Amalia of Bourbon-Two Sicilies|
Maria Cristina of Spain
|Issue||Francisco Maria, Duke of Marchena |
Pedro de Alcantara, Duke of Dúrcal
Luís, Duke of Ansola
|Father||Infante Pedro Carlos of Spain and Portugal|
|Mother||Infanta Maria Teresa of Portugal|
Dom Sebastian Gabriel of Bourbon and Braganza, (Rio de Janeiro, 4 November 1811 – Pau, 14 February 1875) Infante of Portugal and Spain, was an Iberian prince of the 19th century, progenitor of the Spanish ducal lines of Hernani, Ansola, Dúrcal and Marchena, and Carlist army commander in the First Carlist War.
He was born in Rio de Janeiro in 1811 as the only child of Infanta Maria Teresa, Princess of Beira and Infante Pedro Carlos of Spain and Portugal. His mother was the eldest daughter of King John VI of Portugal (and also a granddaughter of King Charles IV of Spain); and his father, who died before Sebastian was born, was a male-line grandson of King Charles III of Spain, as well as a female-line grandson of the Queen regnant Maria I of Portugal and Brazil. Sebastian was soon granted the title of Infante of Portugal and Brazil. As he was only a great-grandson in the male line of a Spanish monarch, he was not a Spanish infante from birth, however in 1824 he was granted the style Infante of Spain by his maternal granduncle, Ferdinand VII of Spain.
Sebastian's mother remarried two decades later, in 1838, her uncle, Don Carlos, Count of Molina, the first Carlist pretender of Spain. Teresa had been a Carlist supporter since the succession dispute started in 1833, and spent her time in the Carlist camp, usually in northern Spain.
Sebastian participated in the second siege of Bilbao and became commander of the Carlist Army of the North from December 30, 1836. He won the Battle of Oriamendi (March 16, 1837) against the British Legion under George de Lacy Evans. Then he led the failed Royal Expedition against Madrid and was sacked upon its return to the north in late 1837.
On January 15, 1837, during the First Carlist War, the then 23-year-old Sebastian was excluded, by law of the Cortes, ratified by royal decree of Queen Regent Maria Christina, from the Spanish succession, on the grounds that he had joined Don Carlos' rebellion against Isabella II of Spain. Sebastian was also declared to be stripped of his Spanish titles and status as a dynast.
The same exclusion was legislated against Sebastian's mother and uncle, the deposed Miguel I of Portugal, as well as Don Carlos and his sons,.
In 1859 Sebastian was restored to his Spanish titles, in conjunction with his second marriage. He returned to Spain from Naples where he had lived since the end of the war in 1839.
Marriage and family
Sebastian first wed his cousin Princess Maria Amalia of Bourbon-Two Sicilies, but the marriage, which lasted several decades, remained childless. When widowed at the age of 50 he remarried, on 19 November 1860, his cousin Infanta Maria Cristina of Spain, the niece of his first wife, and two decades his junior. Their three sons, all Spanish dynasts until their marriages, were each granted dukedoms.
Their children, reckoned members of the House of Bourbon-Braganza, were:
- Francisco, Duke of Marchena (Madrid, 1861 – Neuilly-sur-Seine, 1923), wed María del Pilar de Muguiro y Beruete, Duchess of Villafranca.
- Pedro de Alcántara, Duke of Dúrcal (Madrid, 1862 – Paris, 1892), wed María de la Caridad de Madán y Uriondo.
- Luis, Duke of Ansola (Madrid, 1864 – Algiers, 1889), wed María Ana Bernaldo de Quirós y Muñoz, Marquise of Atarfe.
- Don Alfonso de Borbón-Braganza y Borbón (Madrid, 1866 – Madrid, 1934).
- Don Gabriel de Borbón-Braganza y Borbón (Pau, 1869 – Madrid, 1889).
The last head of one of these branches, the Duke of Hernani, adopted in the 1970s their distant cousin, Infanta Margarita of Spain, Duchess of Soria, who thus became the next and current Duchess of Hernani.
After the overthrow of Isabella II of Spain in 1868 Sebastian moved to Pau, where he tried to reconcile the Carlist and Isabeline branches of the House of Bourbon, without success.
- Mateos Sainz de Medrano, Ricardo. "Pedro Carlos de Borbón y Braganza". Diccionario biográfico España (in Spanish). Real Academia de la Historia.
- Wilhelmsen, Alexandra. "María Teresa de Braganza y Borbón". Diccionario biográfico España (in Spanish). Real Academia de la Historia.
- Genealogie ascendante jusqu'au quatrieme degre inclusivement de tous les Rois et Princes de maisons souveraines de l'Europe actuellement vivans [Genealogy up to the fourth degree inclusive of all the Kings and Princes of sovereign houses of Europe currently living] (in French). Bourdeaux: Frederic Guillaume Birnstiel. 1768. p. 9.
- Genealogie ascendate, p. 15
- de los Ángeles Pérez Samper, María. "Carlota Joaquina de Borbón". Diccionario biográfico España (in Spanish). Real Academia de la Historia.
- Genealogie ascendate, p. 96