Infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis

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IHHN virus
Virus classification
Group: Group II (ssDNA)
Family: Parvoviridae
Subfamily: Densovirinae
Genus: Brevidensovirus
Species: IHHN virus

Infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis (IHHN) is a viral disease of penaeid shrimp that causes mass mortality (up to 90%) among the Western blue shrimp (Penaeus stylirostris) and severe deformations in the Pacific white shrimp (P. vannamei). It occurs in Pacific farmed and wild shrimp, but not in wild shrimp on the Atlantic coast of the Americas. The shrimp-farming industry has developed several broodstocks of both P. stylirostris and P. vannamei that are resistant against IHHN infection.[1]

The disease is caused by a single-stranded DNA virus simply called "IHHN virus", the smallest of the known penaeid shrimp viruses (22 nm).[2]


This virus has been classified as Penaeus stylirostris densovirus. The genome is 4.1 kilobases in length. There are three open reading frames in its genome:[3] a left non structural protein (NS1) of 2001 base pairs (bp), a mid non structural protein (NS2) of 1092 bp and a right capsid protein of 990 bp. NSI appears to be a DNA helicase with ATPase activity.

The mutation rate in the genome has been estimated to be ~1.4 x 10−4 substitutions/site/year.[4] This is considerably higher than the rate in the double stranded DNA viruses and similar to that found in RNA viruses. It is also similar to the rate found in other single stranded DNA viruses.


  1. ^ World Organization for Animal Health (OIE): Aquatic Manual, 4th Ed., 2003. Section 4.1.6. ISBN 92-9044-563-7.
  2. ^ Gulf States Marine Fisheries Commission: Non-Native Species Summaries: Infectious Hypodermal and Hematopoietic Necrosis Virus (IHHNV), 2003. Accessed June 30, 2005.
  3. ^ Rai P, Safeena MP, Karunasagar I, Karunasagar I (2011) Complete nucleic acid sequence of Penaeus stylirostris densovirus (PstDNV) from India. Virus Res 158(1-2):37-45
  4. ^ Robles-Sikisaka R, Bohonak AJ, McClenaghan LR Jr, Dhar AK (2010) Genetic signature of rapid IHHNV (infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus) expansion in wild Penaeus shrimp populations. PLoS One 5(7):e11799. Link

External links[edit]

Viral zone [1]