Informatics is the study of natural and engineered computational systems. The central notion is the transformation of information, whether by organisms or artifacts. According to ACM - Informatics Europe joint report "Informatics Education in Europe: Are We All in The Same Boat?", informatics is European equivalent for both computer science and computing as a discipline. In the United States, however, informatics is linked with computing in context of another domain - most often associated with applications computer technology in healthcare, where the term informatics first appeared in the US. On the other hand, in United Kingdom and Japan the term informatics is associated with study the natural and neural computation. In continental Europe, universities usually translate informatics as computer science, while polytechnics as computer science & engineering.
European informatics is widely understood computer science, not only as a theory but also as a practice of computing, including engineering of computer systems and its applications. Its central notion is information processing, including phenomena of natural computing. Therefore, informatics research can be found in computer science, cognitive science and systems biology, among others. Acknowledged sciences are grouped into three great domains: physical, life, and social. Informatics is referred a fourth great domain, a computational new kind of science.
|United States||Germany||Russia||France||Italy||English transcription|
|Computing, Computer Science, Scientific Computing||Informatik||информатика (latinized: informatika)||Informatique||Informatica||Informatics|
|Theoretical Computer Science||Theoretische Informatik||компьютерная наука||Informatique théorique||Informatica teorica||Theoretical Informatics|
|Computer Engineering||Technische Informatik||компьютерная инженерия||Ingénierie or génie informatique||Ingegneria informatica||Technical Informatics|
|Cognitive science, Neurocomputing||Neuroinformatik||нейроинформатика||Neuro-informatique||Neuroinformatica||Neuroinformatics|
- Association for Computing Machinery
- IEEE Computer Society
- Informatics Europe
- Scottish Informatics and Computer Science Alliance
- Computing Research Association
- Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence
- American Society for Information Science and Technology
- International Federation for Information Processing
- Association for Logic, Language and Information
- Gesellschaft für Informatik
- Association for Women in Computing
- Computer Science Teachers Association
- Computability in Europe
- Raspberry Pi Foundation
Computer Science. Informatics
- artificial intelligence
- computation and language
- computational complexity
- computational engineering, finance, and science
- computational geometry
- game theory
- computer vision and pattern recognition
- computers and society
- cryptography and security
- data structures and algorithms
- digital libraries
- discrete mathematics
- distributed, parallel and cluster computing
- emerging technologies
- formal languages and automata theory
- general literature
- hardware architecture
- human-computer Interaction
- information retrieval
- information theory
- logic in computer science
- machine learning
- mathematical software
- multiagent systems
- networking and internet architecture
- neural computing and evolutionary computing
- numerical analysis
- operating systems
- other computer science
- programming languages
- social and information networks
- software engineering
- symbolic computation
- systems and control
Cognitive Science. Neuroinformatics and Cognitive Informatics
Informatics as a study of information processing is not limited to artificial systems. Cognitive scientists (neuroinformaticians) study mind, intelligence and behavior, with a focus on how nervous systems represent, process, and transform information.
Hardware and Software Engineering. Technical and Engineering Informatics
- software design and development
- software maintenance and testing
- electronic, protein and DNA computing
- quantum and optical computing
- information and communication technology
- information and cyber-physical systems
- information and control engineering
- information and computer security
- data science and statistical computing
Notable journals and conferences
- Neural Information Processing Systems
- Information and Computation (previous name: Information and Control)
- International Journal of Cognitive Informatics and Natural Intelligence
- Journal of Automata, Languages and Combinatorics (previous name: Journal of Information Processing and Cybernetics)
- Fundamenta Informaticae
- Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (previous name: Pattern Recognition and Image Processing)
- Symposium on Theory of Computing
- European Conference on Computer Vision
- Information Processing Letters
- International Conference on Learning Representations
- Brain Informatics
- Automatic Control and Computer Sciences
- Autonomous Robots
- Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence
- Journal of Signal Processing Systems
- International Conference on Computer Vision
- International Conference on Machine Learning
- Symposium on Foundations of Computer Science (previous name: Symposium on Switching Circuit Theory and Logical Design)
- European Symposium on Algorithms
- Symposium on Discrete Algorithms
- Journal of Logic and Computation
- Neural Computing and Applications
- Autonomous Agents and Multi-Agent Systems
- International Symposium on Fundamentals of Computation Theory
- International Colloquium on Automata, Languages and Programming
- Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics
- Journal of Scientific Computing
- Systems and Control Letters
- Annual IEEE Symposium on Foundations of Computer Science
- Annual Symposium on Computational Geometry
- Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation
- Simulation & Gaming
- Acta Informatica
- Journal of Machine Learning Research
- Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research
- ACM Transactions on Graphics
- IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
- IEEE Transactions on Computers
- IEEE/ACM International Symposium on Microarchitecture
- Journal of Network and Computer Applications
- ACM Symposium on Computer and Communications Security
- Symposium on Parallelism in Algorithms and Architectures
- Symposium on Foundations of Computer Science
- Journal of Complexity
Academic schools and departments
- MIT Schwarzman College of Computing at Massachusetts Institute of Technology
- Department for Informatics at University of Hamburg
- School of Computer Science & Engineering at University of Washington
- Department of Computer Science and Engineering at University of Notre Dame
- School of Informatics at University of Edinburgh
- Department of Computer Science, University of Oxford
- Department of Computer Science and Engineering at Santa Clara University
- Faculty for Computer Science and Engineering at University of Michigan
- Department of Computer Science & Engineering at University of Nevada
- Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences
- Institute of Neuroinformatics at University of Zurich
- Department of Computer Science at American University of Beirut
- Department of Computing at Imperial College London
- Institut für Neuroinformatik at Ruhr-Universität Bochum
- Stanford University's Computer Science Department
- Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences at UC Berkeley
- Department of Computer Science and Software Engineering at University of Cantenbury
In 1956, the German informatician Karl Steinbuch coined the word Informatik by publishing a paper called Informatik: Automatische Informationsverarbeitung ("Informatics: Automatic Information Processing"). The morphology—informat-ion + -ics—uses "the accepted form for names of sciences, as conics, mathematics, linguistics, optics, or matters of practice, as economics, politics, tactics", and so, linguistically, the meaning extends easily to encompass both the science of information and the practice of information processing. The German word Informatik is usually translated to English as computer science by universites or computer science & engineering by polytechnics (german equivalents for institutes of technology). Depending on the context, informatics is also translated into computing, scientific computing or information and computer technology. The French term informatique was coined in 1962 by Philippe Dreyfus. In the same month was also proposed independently by Walter F. Bauer (1924–2015) and associates who co-founded software company Informatics Inc. The term for the new discipline quickly spread throughout Europe, but it did not catch on in the United States. Over the years, many different definitions of informatics have been developed, most of them claim that the essence of informatics is one of these concepts: information processing, algorithms, compuation, information, algorithmic processes, computational processes or computational systems.
In United States
The earliest uses of the term informatics in the United States was during the 1950s with the beginning of computer use in healthcare. Early practitioners interested in the field soon learned that there were no formal education programs, and none emerged until the late 1960s. Professional development, therefore, played a significant role in the development of health informatics. According to Imhoff et al., 2001, healthcare informatics is not only the application of computer technology to problems in healthcare, but covers all aspects of generation, handling, communication, storage, retrieval, management, analysis, discovery, and synthesis of data information and knowledge in the entire scope of healthcare. Furthermore, they stated that the primary goal of health informatics can be distinguished as follows: To provide solutions for problems related to data, information, and knowledge processing. To study general principles of processing data information and knowledge in medicine and healthcare. The term health informatics quickly spread throughout the United States in various forms such as nursing informatics, public health informatics or medical informatics. Analogous terms were later introduced for use of computers in various fields, such as business informatics, forest informatics, legal informatics etc. However, these fields have more to do with digital literacy than with real informatics. Their name is probably the result of a lack of knowledge of the true meaning of informatics. Later in the United States, next absurd term such as computational informatics were developed, while all informatics is computational by its nature.
- A New Kind of Science
- Computational theory of mind
- Models of neural computation
- Information processing system
- Cellular automaton
- Computer simulation
- Computational circuit
- Swarm intelligence
- Behavior informatics
- Information processing
- Neural computation
- Real-time computing
- Computer architecture
- Artificial intelligence
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- Selected literature