Infrastructure of Singapore Changi Airport
|Length||25,300 m (83,000 ft)|
|Width||30 m (98 ft)|
|Passenger terminal buildings|
|Floor area||1,046,000 m2 (11,260,000 sq ft)|
|Handling capacity||82 million passengers|
|Parking bays||117 (aerobridge)|
|Opened||1 July 1981 (operational)|
29 December 1981 (official)
|Floor area||308,000 m2 (3,320,000 sq ft)|
|Handling capacity||21 million passengers|
|Parking bays||29 (aerobridge)|
|Opened||22 November 1990 (operational)|
1 June 1991 (official)
|Floor area||358,000 m2 (3,850,000 sq ft)|
|Handling capacity||23 million passengers|
|Parking bays||35 (aerobridge)|
|Former Budget Terminal|
|Opened||26 March 2006 (operational)|
31 October 2006 (official)
|Closed||25 September 2011|
|Floor area||28,200 m2 (304,000 sq ft)|
|Handling capacity||7 million passengers|
|Parking bays||10 (contact)|
|JetQuay (CIP Terminal)|
|Opened||15 August 2006 (operational)|
29 September 2006 (official)
|Floor area||2,000 m2 (22,000 sq ft)|
|Opened||9 January 2008 (operational)|
25 July 2008 (official)
|Floor area||380,000 m2 (4,100,000 sq ft)|
|Handling capacity||22 million passengers|
|Parking bays||28 (aerobridge)|
|Opened||31 October 2017 (operational)|
3 August 2018 (official)
|Floor area||195,000 m2 (2,100,000 sq ft)|
|Handling capacity||16 million passengers|
|Parking bays||25 (aerobridge)|
|Target Opening Date||Late-2020s|
|Handling capacity||30–50 million passengers|
|Jewel Changi Airport|
|Target Opening Date||2019|
|Floor area||35,000 m2 (380,000 sq ft)|
|Handling capacity||3 million passengers|
|Car Parking Spaces||2,500|
This article delineates the infrastructure comprising Singapore Changi Airport, Singapore's main airport and a major aviation hub in Southeast Asia. The airport is located approximately 17.2 km (10.7 mi) northeast from the commercial centre in Changi, on a 13 square kilometres (5.0 sq mi) site.
- 1 Background
- 2 Changi Airport Control Tower
- 3 Runways
- 4 Air Traffic Service Communication Facilities
- 5 Airport Hotel
- 6 Airbus A380 operations
- 7 Jewel Changi Airport
- 8 Passenger terminals
- 9 Services
- 10 References
Given limited land resources in Singapore, Singapore Changi Airport was designed for both current and future needs as the country's primary airport. The airport was designed to be capable of doubling in size using reclaimed land with enough space for two more runways and at least two new passenger terminal buildings.
The master plan for the existing airport initially involved a dual-terminal and dual-runway configuration over two phases with provisions for another two passenger terminals in the near future. Phase 1 included the construction for the first passenger terminal, the first runway, 45 aircraft parking bays, support facilities and structures, including a large maintenance hangar, the first fire station, workshops and administrative offices, an airfreight complex, two cargo agents' buildings, in-flight catering kitchens and a 80 m (260 ft) control tower. Construction for the second phase would commence immediately after the completion of Phase 1 and include the second runway, 23 additional aircraft parking bays, a second fire station and a third cargo agents' building.
Changi Airport Control Tower
The Air traffic control tower (ATC) was constructed as part of Phase One of the Changi Airport redevelopment plan. The iconic tower is situated between Changi International Airport 2 runways and stands at about 81 m Above Mean Sea Level (AMSL). It provides aerodrome control service to aircraft landing and departing Changi Airport and aircraft maneuvering within the airport.
Changi Airport has two parallel runways, 02L/20R and 02C/20C, each 4,000 by 60 m (13,123 by 197 ft). 02L/20R was completed and opened in 1981 as part of the airport's first phase. It has a displaced threshold of 740 m (2,428 ft) leaving the rest of the runway at 3,260 m (10,696 ft) long. 02C/20C, formerly 02R/20L, was built completely on reclaimed land and opened with phase 2, 1.6 km (0.99 mi) to the east of 02L/20R. Four instrument landing systems (ILS) are installed on the two runways to guide landing aircraft safely under all weather conditions. Both runways are also used by the Republic of Singapore Air Force as part of Changi Airbase.
A new parallel runway 02R/20L (named 01/19 when opened in 2004) was built 1.8 km (1.1 mi) to the east of 02C/20C, currently used only by Republic of Singapore Air Force aircraft as part of Changi Air Base. Originally at a length of 2.75 km, it has been lengthened to 4 km to handle larger passenger aircraft. Almost 40 km of new taxiways will also be built to connect the runway with the current airport. New facilities such as navigation aids, airfield lighting systems and a fire station will need to be built as well.
|Runway Informations, Radio Navigations & Landing Aids |
|Runway Name||Runway Direction||Magnetic Heading||Type of Surface||Length (m)||Width (m)||Instrument Landing System Name (IDENT)||Frequencies (MHz)||ILS categories for precision approach and landing||Users|
|Instrument Landing System Localizer (ILS-LLZ)||Instrument Landing System Glide Path (ILS-GP)||Instrument Landing System Distance Measuring Equipment (ILS-DME)||Commercial||Military|
|02L/20R||02L||023.02°||Bituminous Concrete||4,000||4,000||60||ICW||110.90||330.80||CH46X||CAT II|
|02C/20C||02C||023.03°||Bituminous Concrete||4,000||4,000||60||ICE||108.30||334.10||CH20X||CAT I|
|02R/20L||02R||023.01°||Bituminous Concrete||4,000||4,000||60||ICX||110.50||329.60||CH42X||CAT II||✗|
Air Traffic Service Communication Facilities
|Air Traffic Service Communication Facilities |
|Service Designation||Call Sign||Frequencies (MHz)||Hours of Operation (SST)||Remarks|
|Air Control Center (ACC)||Singapore Radar||124.050||0000-1530||Flow control service: Arrival & Departure Aircraft|
|133.250||24 Hr - 7 Day||North|
|134.400||24 Hr - 7 Day||South|
|123.700||24 Hr - 7 Day||East|
|134.200||24 Hr - 7 Day||South-East|
|Approach (APP)||Singapore Changi Arrival||119.300||24 Hr - 7 Day||Intermediate & Final Approach|
|Singapore Changi Approach||120.300||24 Hr - 7 Day||Intermediate Approach|
|Singapore Changi Control Tower||118.250||0000-1600||Runway 02C/20C|
|118.600||24 Hr - 7 Day||All Departures (Takeoff) & Arrivals (Landing)|
|Singapore Changi Ground Movement Control||121.725||0000-1700||Aircraft On East Of Terminal 2|
|121.850||0000-1800||Aircraft On North Of Terminal 1|
|124.300||1600-0000||Start-up/Push-back/Taxiing Of All Aircraft|
|0000-1600||Aircraft on West of Terminal 3|
|Singapore Delivery||121.650||24 Hr - 7 Day||Pre-flight Check/ATC Clearance|
|Singapore Changi Apron||121.900||24 Hr - 7 Day||Vehicular Movements On Taxiways and Runways|
The Crowne Plaza Hotel, designed by WOHA, is linked to Changi Airport's Terminal 3 via a covered link bridge, with Terminals 1 and 2 reachable by Skytrain located within the immediate vicinity of Changi Airport. It is 9 storeys high and has 320 guest rooms. In 2017, the Crowne Plaza Hotel was named as the world's best airport hotel by Skytrax for the third year running.
Airbus A380 operations
With Changi-based Singapore Airlines being the launch customer for the Airbus A380, works to ensure full capability in handling the large aircraft were given priority in time for its introduction in October 2007. The Civil Aviation Authority of Singapore spent S$60 million in upgrading the two existing terminals and airport infrastructure, including enlarged gate holdrooms, new finger piers, and extended baggage belt carousels from the normal 70 m (230 ft) to 90 m (300 ft). With these new carousels in place, the airport does not expect embarking and disembarking passengers and baggage from the A380 to take longer than it does from a Boeing 747-400, which carries fewer passengers. On 16 August 2005, Changi Airport unveiled the first of 11 specially built gates capable of handling the giant aircraft. Costing S$15 million, the gates or 'fingers' enable passengers to board the upper deck of the new 555-seater aircraft directly from the gate hold rooms. The hold rooms themselves have been enlarged and appointed to cater for the larger number of passengers aboard an A380. Beside the 11 new A380-capable gates at Terminals 1 and 2, eight more A380-capable gates were opened at Terminal 3 on 9 January 2008.
Jewel Changi Airport
Announced in August 2013, this is a new terminal structure intended as a mix-use complex. It will be situated on a 3.5-hectare site where the Terminal 1 car park now resides. Jewel is a joint venture between Changi Airport (51%) and CapitaMalls Asia (49%). Essentially, a new multi-storey underground car park of about 2,500 car park spaces will replace the existing facilities, while an indoor garden (with a waterfall) will be built above. The new building will sit between the three existing terminal buildings, enabling passengers to transfer via the new complex, whilst being an attraction and shopping destination in itself. The design will consist of a circular structure, reminiscent of a doughnut, with a large garden located at the centre and water falling from the edge of the circular atrium opening. There would also be a hotel of about 130 rooms as part of the project.
As part of the project, Terminal 1 will be expanded to allow more space for the arrival hall, baggage claim areas and taxi bays. These enhancements will increase T1's passenger handling capacity to 24 million passenger movements per annum by 2018.
Changi Airport currently has four terminals, T1, T2, T3, and T4, with a total annual handling capacity of 80 million. Terminals 1, 2, and 3 are directly connected via a people mover system, with airside passengers being able to freely move between the terminals without going through immigration. Transport within and between these three terminals is also provided by people movers and the skytrain system, although it is also possible to walk between the terminals on foot for landside visitors.
A former Budget Terminal, capable of handling 7 million passenger per year, was purpose-built for low-cost carriers. It was physically separated from the main terminals towards the south, where connections were possible via a free shuttle bus service to and from Terminal 2. Demolition began in 2013 to make way for a new and bigger Terminal 4.
Singapore Changi Airport's oldest terminal operated as the sole terminal from its opening on 1 July 1981 right up until the opening of Terminal 2 nine years later. Configured in a H-shaped layout to maximise the number of aerobridges which may be built, it underwent two major upgrading works over its lifespan. A major refurbishment was completed in 1995 at a cost of S$170 million and work to extend two finger piers to add 14 aerobridges at a cost of S$420 million took place from 1996 to 1999. Today, the terminal spans an area of 308,000 m² and can accommodate a maximum passenger capacity of 21 million passengers a year.
On 7 March 2012, Minister of State for Transport Josephine Teo said that the open-air car park between Terminal 1 and Changi's iconic control tower will be redeveloped into a multi-use complex. This new complex will be integrated with the existing building, and will increase Terminal 1's public areas, pick-up driveways, and car park spaces. With this expansion, Terminal 1's handling capacity will increase from 21 to 24 million passengers per annum. The expansion of Terminal 1 will go together with Terminal 4.
As of 12 July 2012, a $500 million facelift for Terminal 1 has been completed, completing the terminal's largest renovation to date, involving works on its facade and halls under a theme called "Tropical City". About 22,000 m2 have been added to the building, bringing the total floor space of T1 to about 308,000 m2. The larger floor area provides for more spatial comfort, better passenger flow, additional facilities and expanded retail and F&B offerings. The refurbishment includes the installation of a two-part kinetic sculpture, Kinetic Rain, which was billed as the largest kinetic sculpture in the world.
Terminal 2 opened on 22 November 1990 as part of Phase II in the original airport masterplan. Deploying a linear configuration parallel to the runways, it is located adjacent to Terminal 1 towards the south, and heralded the opening of the original skytrain system linking the two terminals via the landside. All Singapore Airlines and SilkAir flights moved to the new terminal when it opened, along with several Southeast Asian carriers including Malaysia Airlines, Philippine Airlines, PAL Express, and Royal Brunei Airlines. They were joined by several airlines, some of which are allied to Singapore Airlines, in particular Lufthansa, both fellow Star Alliance members. Air France was a former user before moving back to Terminal 1. Other former users include Air Canada and Austrian Airlines, which ceased operations to Changi in October 2006. Etihad Airways was the latest airline to operate from Terminal 2 when it commenced flights in September 2007. All Nippon Airways moved to Terminal 2 from 1 October 2008. Airlines operating at Budget Terminal, including Tigerair, and Cebu Pacific, moved to Terminal 2 as the Budget Terminal closed for site redevelopment. Singapore Airlines' flights departing for South Asia and South East Asia uses this terminal.
The fourth storey of the terminal houses the Civil Aviation Authority of Singapore. In addition Terminal 2 houses the offices of the Air Accident Investigation Bureau of Singapore and Changi Airport Group.
On 15 July 2013, the Airport unveiled its latest themed garden that has a display of colours and interactive technology – a first for Changi Airport, which has pioneered the concept of airport gardens since its opening in 1981. The new 'Enchanted Garden' – Changi Airport's fifth themed garden – takes pride in the spot where the Fern Garden once stood. It is open, free of charge, to passengers round-the-clock. Motion sensors trigger sounds of nature and blooming flowers while fibre-optic and LED lighting, embedded in the flooring, form a fascinating carpet of sparkling lights. There is also a pond containing Archerfish and Koi.
Former Budget Terminal
Changi Airport was the second in Asia (after Kuala Lumpur International Airport) to open a dedicated terminal catering to the budget traveller. The name of the Budget Terminal was decided as a result of a naming contest open to the public. However, the terminal is not included in the numbering scheme, even though it is the third passenger terminal to be opened when it opened on 26 March 2006; and Terminal 3 is actually the fifth terminal to be opened at the airport (with the fourth being the cargo terminal).
To offer lower landing fees, handling fees and airport taxes, it cuts back on amenities such as aerobridges, elaborate physical structures and decorations in the passenger terminal building. There is no transfer facility at the Budget Terminal.
In September 2008, expansion works costing $10 million began and took seven months to complete. The terminal was then able to handle seven million passengers a year, up from originally 2.7 million. There are more boarding gates, check-in counters, shops and dining options. In addition, air-conditioning has been installed for arriving passengers.
On 2 March 2012, it was announced that the Budget Terminal would be closed on 25 September 2012 and demolished to make way for Terminal 4. All airlines previously operating from the Budget Terminal moved to Terminal 2, after the last flight departed Budget Terminal at 2 am on 25 September. Construction of Terminal 4 began in 2013, and was completed on 31 October 2017. It will have a capacity for 16 million passengers per annum, up from the previous 7 million of the Budget Terminal, and will have aerobridges. It also promises to have a wider choice of retail and food and beverage offerings compared to the current Budget Terminal. Terminal 4 will be designed to enable efficient passenger processing and quick turnaround of aircraft. That is because once the ASEAN Open Skies agreement is in place by 2011, passenger traffic will likely grow by at least five per cent each year.
JetQuay CIP Terminal
JetQuay CIP Terminal, is a privately run terminal, located in between T2 and the VIP terminal. JetQuay provides private check-in, baggage handling, and immigration clearance services. It is the second luxury airport terminal in world to open after the Lufthansa First Class Terminal in Frankfurt Airport. However, unlike the Lufthansa First Class Terminal, JetQuay is an elite, dedicated CIP (Commercially Important People) terminal that can be used by any passenger travelling in any class, on any airline, through any terminal (T1, T2, T3, or T4).
Terminal 3, the airport's fourth passenger terminal, became operational on 9 January 2008, increasing the airport's annual passenger capacity by 22 million. The test flight out of Terminal 3 was a Singapore Airlines flight from Singapore to Perth. The flight departed T3 at 5:30 pm local time, landing in Perth International Airport at approximately 11:30 pm. The terminal has 28 aerobridge gates, with eight capable of handling the Airbus A380. While the other two terminals use separate waiting areas for different gates, Terminal 3 has common waiting areas for some of the gates.
Designed by CPG Corporation, with Skidmore, Owings and Merrill designing the roof feature and interior design by Woodhead, Terminal 3 departs from the largely utilitarian architecture in the first two terminals. Like other new airports in the region, it has a structure mainly made of glass, with big transparent spaces inside the terminal. However, unlike these newer airports, it incorporates "natural" features and "warm" tone extensively to balance the sterile feel of glass and steel. For example, the column is given a wood-like cladding and the floor of the terminal is mostly cream/ beige colour. The roof has been designed to allow natural light to enter the building, with 919 skylights. A 5 m (16 ft)-high "Green Wall" with hanging creepers and waterfall was incorporated to enhance the tropical feel. The Green Wall, designed by Singapore-based Landscape Design firm Tierra Design, also helps to regulate the internal temperature of the terminal with the occasional misting. The interior architecture of Terminal 3 recently won the Honour Award from ASLA.
Singapore Airlines operated the first flights into Terminal 3 on 9 January 2008, with flight SQ001 from San Francisco via Hong Kong arriving at 1150 hours to a welcome ceremony by Minister for Transport and Second Minister for Foreign Affairs, Lim Siang Keat Raymond and the chairman of CAG, Liew Mun Leong. The first departure flight, SQ318, took off at 1250 hours bound for London-Heathrow. Since then, its regional and long-haul flights bound for Africa, Americas, Europe, Middle East, North Asia, South Asia and South West Pacific will depart from T3 while all other destinations depart from T2, becoming the first and only airline to operate from multiple terminals in Changi Airport.
China Eastern Airlines, Jet Airways, Qatar Airways and United Airlines also moved operations to the terminal on 1 January 2008, while Kingfisher Airlines launched services to Singapore using T3 in 2009. Garuda Indonesia, Saudi Arabian Airlines, Vietnam Airlines and Sri Lankan Airlines have also moved operations to T3 in 2011. In 2013, Asiana Airlines and Lion Air have also moved operations to T3. Ethiopian Airlines and Spring Airlines used to operate from Terminal 3. On 2 July 2015, China Airlines and EVA Air shifted its operations to T3.
T4 opened on 31 October 2017. This terminal replaced the Budget Terminal.
Cathay Pacific and Korean Air were the first two airlines to move to T4 on 31 October 2017. They were followed by Cebu Pacific and Spring Airlines on 2 November 2017. The final two airlines to move were the AirAsia Group and Vietnam Airlines on 7 November 2017.
A fifth terminal, Terminal 5, will be ready in the next decade as announced by Transport Minister, Lui Tuck Yew on 7 May 2013. Terminal 5 will be built on 1,080 hectares of reclaimed land in Changi East, making it one of the largest terminals in the world. The terminal could handle a capacity of 50 million passengers annually. With the addition of the fifth terminal, Changi Airport will be able to cater to more than 135 million passengers every year. With the national carrier at Terminal 5, each alliance of airlines such as SkyTeam and Oneworld could also operate out of dedicated terminals. Terminal 5 is also expected to have more self-service facilities and bigger lounges. Terminal 5 will be linked to the other terminals at Changi Airport. This will allow the expanded Changi Airport to be operated as a single, integrated airport for ease of transfer between different terminals, maximum passenger convenience and airfield operational efficiency.
In order to create a contiguous and integrated airfield, the former Changi Coast Road and the park connector beside it was replaced with a new at-grade road and park connector further east, along the eastern coastline, the present Tanah Merah Coast Road. The terminal may be connected to the MRT network by an extension to the Changi Branch of the East West Line or the Thomson East Coast Line. More details will be released after engineering studies are completed. The adequacy of bus services to the airport will also be reviewed. These plans will ensure that all airport users and staff are able to travel to the airport easily and conveniently.
Part the newly increased airport levy will be used to fund the terminal and other projects.
Changi Airport is a top airport in terms of customer service and security and has won over 500 awards and accolades as best airport since its opening in 1981, from organisations such as Skytrax and Business Traveller. 
The airport has over 70,000 m2 (753,500 sq ft) of space spread between its three main terminals for shopping and eating outlets, with Terminal 3 having the largest amount of retail space at 20,000 m2 (215,300 sq ft).
From two different lounges with 24-hour napping areas, showers and spa facilities, to hotel and pool amenities, this airport also includes Singapore Tours (created for those in transit for more than 5 hours who are granted a special pass to leave the airport on one of two city tour options), Nature Trail (with six themed garden reserves) and comprehensive dining and entertainment options.
In terms of sales, the airport outstrips other shopping malls in Singapore, including those in top tourist spot Orchard Road. The Changi Airport Group derives 55% of its total annual revenue from non-aeronautical sources, such as office and warehouse rental. The airport derives the majority of its commercial revenue from the duty-free shopping, with the most popular items being liquor and tobacco, perfume and cosmetics, and luxury goods.
In addition to a wide array of shopping and dining outlets, Changi Airport has nine garden areas spread across all four terminals and are all located in the transit areas.
|1||Cactus Garden |
Sculptural Tree Garden
Water Lily Garden
|2||Enchanted Garden |
|3||Butterfly Garden |
|4||Steel in Bloom|
Changi Airport has numerous business centres located around the airport. Within the international transit area of the interconnected Terminals 1,2 and 3, internet and games facilities, prayer rooms, showers, spas, gym, swimming pool and a hotel are provided. Various lounge areas are provided, some including children's play areas or televisions showing news, movie and sport channels. The Qantas Singapore Lounge draws on Qantas’ flagship lounges in Sydney and Melbourne including a live cooking station and communal dining areas designed by Hurley Palmer Flatt.
Passengers at Changi Airport will soon be able to board their flights faster, with the introduction of self-boarding gates. The Changi Airport Group (CAG) has been conducting trials of the self-boarding gates at a common gatehold room in Terminal 2 since May with Lufthansa. The self-boarding gates are just one component of a fast and seamless travel (FAST) initiative which CAG will be rolling out across terminals at the airport. Since April 2014, the gates have been progressively introduced in common gatehold rooms in all three terminals.
The ongoing trial of a number of self-service functions – check-in, bag tagging and bag drop – will run for about three months until August 2014. It will enable CAG to assess improvements and adjustments needed for the hardware and software of the various systems.
Two self bag-drop units and four self check-in kiosks have been fitted alongside the Jetstar check-in counters in Terminal 1. Passengers on selected Jetstar flights are invited to use these self-service options. At the self check-in kiosk, passengers print their boarding pass as well as baggage tag after checking in. After tagging their baggage, they can drop it off at the self bag-drop counter. A receipt is provided for checked-in baggage. Instructional videos and signs are available to guide passengers, and on-ground staff are also present to provide assistance. Since the trial started in early May, about 1,000 passengers have used the FAST facilities.
Ground handling services are handled by two companies: Singapore Airport Terminal Services (SATS) and Dnata. SATS is the dominant player with close to 70% of the market in the airport. Dnata Singapore, formerly Changi International Airport Services (CIAS), was formed in 1977 by the Port of Singapore Authority and five airlines (Air France, China Airlines, Garuda Indonesia, Koninklijke Luchtvaart Maatschappij N.V. (KLM; Royal Dutch Airlines) and Lufthansa). It handles the remaining market share.
In the early 2000s, the government decided to introduce competition into the market by offering an additional licence. Swissair's Swissport won the 10-year licence and commenced operations on 2 March 2005.
As Swissair folded and was subsequently taken over by Swiss International Air Lines, the latter became the company's first customer. Adam Air chose Swissport as its ground handler in 2005, while Tiger Airways followed suit in 2006. Other customers of Swissport include Swiss World Cargo, AirAsia, and Cardig Air. Former customers of Swissport include Australian Airlines. Swissport ceased operation on 31 March 2009 due to massive losses.
In 2009, a wholly owned subsidiary of SATS, Asia Pacific Star (APS) began operating. It concentrates mainly on budget carriers by providing point-to-point ground handling services such as passenger, ramp and baggage handling, and aircraft interior cleaning with short turnaround times. Some of the airlines APS handles include the AirAsia Group, Cebu Pacific and Spring Airlines.
CIAS underwent restructuring when its shareholding was bought over by Dubai's Dnata in 2004, being relaunched in August 2011 with a new branding. Its security services were amalgamated into the new Temasek-owned Aetos Security Management.
Six aircraft hangars, capable of full aircraft maintenance, repair and overhaul is operated and managed by SIA Engineering Company at Changi Airfreight Centre and five aircraft hangars by SASCO/ST Aerospace. It includes a 20,000 m2 (215,300 sq ft) column-free hangar at SIA Engineering Company, Hangar 1, which was the world's largest when opened in 1981.
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