Infrastructure of Singapore Changi Airport

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Aerial view of Singapore Changi Airport. The forested area to the right of the airfield has since been cleared for Terminal 5.
Infrastructure[1]
Taxiways
Length 25,300 m (83,000 ft)
Width 30 m (98 ft)
Passenger terminal buildings
Total
Floor area 1,046,000 m2 (11,260,000 sq ft)
Handling capacity 85 million passengers
Parking bays 117 (aerobridge)
42 (remote)
Terminal One
Opened 1 July 1981 (operational)
29 December 1981 (official)
Floor area 308,000 m2 (3,320,000 sq ft)
Handling capacity 21 million passengers
Parking bays 29 (aerobridge)
16 (remote)
Terminal Two
Opened 22 November 1990 (operational)
1 June 1991 (official)
Floor area 358,000 m2 (3,850,000 sq ft)
Handling capacity 23 million passengers
Parking bays 35 (aerobridge)
11 (remote)
Former Budget Terminal
Opened 26 March 2006 (operational)
31 October 2006 (official)
Closed 25 September 2012
Floor area 28,200 m2 (304,000 sq ft)
Handling capacity 7 million passengers
Parking bays 10 (contact)
JetQuay (CIP Terminal)
Opened 15 August 2006 (operational)
29 September 2006 (official)
Floor area 2,000 m2 (22,000 sq ft)
Handling capacity N/A
Parking bays 0
Terminal Three
Opened 9 January 2008 (operational)
25 July 2008 (official)
Floor area 380,000 m2 (4,100,000 sq ft)
Handling capacity 22 million passengers
Parking bays 28 (aerobridge)
15 (remote)
Terminal Four
Opened 31 October 2017 (operational)
3 August 2018 (official)
Floor area 195,000 m2 (2,100,000 sq ft)
Handling capacity 16 million passengers
Parking bays 25 (aerobridge)
Terminal Five[2][3]
Target Opening Date Late-2020s
Floor area TBC
Handling capacity 30–50 million passengers
Parking bays TBC
Mixed-use development
Jewel Changi Airport[4][5]
Opened 17 April 2019
Floor area 35,000 m2 (380,000 sq ft)
Handling capacity 3 million passengers
Car Parking Spaces 2,500

Singapore Changi Airport is the country's primary international airport and a major aviation hub in Asia. It is located approximately 17.2 km (10.7 mi) from the city's commercial centre, on a 13 square kilometres (5.0 sq mi) site on the easternmost point of the main island.[6]

Changi airport's infrastructure includes passenger terminals, runways, taxiways, maintenance buildings and services, ground support equipment.

Background[edit]

Given limited land resources in Singapore, Singapore Changi Airport was developed on reclaimed land on the eastern tip of the island. As the country's primary international airport, it was designed for current needs and future expansion to double its passengers handling. Land can further be reclaimed from the sea for more runways and terminal buildings.

The master plan initially involved a dual-terminal and dual-runway configuration over two phases with provisions for another two passenger terminals. Phase 1 included the construction for terminal 1, the first runway, 45 aircraft parking bays, support facilities and structures, including a large maintenance hangar, the first fire station, workshops and administrative offices, an airfreight complex, two cargo agents' buildings, in-flight catering kitchens and a 80 m (260 ft) control tower. Phase II construction commenced immediately after the completion of Phase 1 and include the second runway, 23 additional aircraft parking bays, a second fire station and a third cargo agents' building.

Changi Airport Control Tower[edit]

Changi Control Tower.

The Air traffic control tower (ATC) was constructed in Phase One, sited in between the first 2 runways and stands at about 81 m Above Mean Sea Level (AMSL). It provides aerodrome control service to aircraft landing, departing and maneuvering within the airport.[7]

Runways[edit]

Changi Airport has two parallel runways of size 4,000 by 60 m (13,123 by 197 ft) each, designated 02L/20R and 02C/20C.[6] 02L/20R was completed in 1981 with a displaced threshold of 740 m (2,428 ft) leaving the rest of the runway at 3,260 m (10,696 ft) long.[6] 02C/20C (formerly named 02R/20L) was built completely on reclaimed land and opened with phase 2, 1.6 km (0.99 mi) to the east of 02L/20R. Four instrument landing systems (ILS) are installed on the two runways to guide landing aircraft safely under all weather conditions. Both runways are also used by the Republic of Singapore Air Force as part of Changi Airbase.

A new parallel runway 02R/20L (named 01/19 wheb it was opened in 2004) was built 1.8 km (1.1 mi) to the east of 02C/20C - used only by Republic of Singapore Air Force as part of Changi Air Base. Originally at a length of 2.75 km, it has been lengthened to 4 km to handle larger passenger aircraft. Almost 40 km of new taxiways were built to connect the runway with the main airport. New facilities such as navigation aids, airfield lighting systems and a fire station were included.[8][9]

Runway Informations, Radio Navigations & Landing Aids [10][11][12]
Runway Name Runway Direction Magnetic Heading Type of Surface Length (m) Width (m) Instrument Landing System
Name
(IDENT)
Frequencies (MHz) ILS categories for precision approach and landing Users
Land Depart Instrument Landing System Localizer
(ILS-LLZ)
Instrument Landing System Glide Path
(ILS-GP)
Instrument Landing System Distance Measuring Equipment
(ILS-DME)
Commercial Military
02L/20R 02L 023.02° Bituminous Concrete 4,000 4,000 60 ICW 110.90 330.80 CH46X CAT II Green tickY Green tickY
20R 203.02° 3,260 ICH 108.90 329.30 CH26X CAT I
02C/20C 02C 023.03° Bituminous Concrete 4,000 4,000 60 ICE 108.30 334.10 CH20X CAT I Green tickY Green tickY
20C 203.03° ICC 109.70 333.20 CH34X CAT II
02R/20L 02R 023.01° Bituminous Concrete 4,000 4,000 60 ICX 110.50 329.60 CH42X CAT II Green tickY
20L 203.01° ICZ 108.55 329.75 CH22Y CAT II

Air Traffic Service Communication Facilities[edit]

Air Traffic Service Communication Facilities [13]
Service Designation Call Sign Frequencies (MHz) Hours of Operation (SST) Remarks
Air Control Center (ACC) Singapore Radar 124.050 0000-1530 Flow control service: Arrival & Departure Aircraft
133.250 24 Hr - 7 Day North
134.400 24 Hr - 7 Day South
123.700 24 Hr - 7 Day East
134.200 24 Hr - 7 Day South-East
Approach (APP) Singapore Changi Arrival 119.300 24 Hr - 7 Day Intermediate & Final Approach
Singapore Changi Approach 120.300 24 Hr - 7 Day Intermediate Approach
Tower (TWR)
Singapore Changi Control Tower 118.250 0000-1600 Runway 02C/20C
118.600 24 Hr - 7 Day All Departures (Takeoff) & Arrivals (Landing)
0000-1600 Runway 02L/20R
Singapore Changi Ground
Movement Control
121.725 0000-1700 Aircraft On East Of Terminal 2
2100-0000
121.850 0000-1800 Aircraft On North Of Terminal 1
2300-0000
124.300 1600-0000 Start-up/Push-back/Taxiing Of All Aircraft
0000-1600 Aircraft on West of Terminal 3
Singapore Delivery 121.650 24 Hr - 7 Day Pre-flight Check/ATC Clearance
Singapore Changi Apron 121.900 24 Hr - 7 Day Vehicular Movements On Taxiways and Runways

Airport Hotel[edit]

Crowne Plaza at Changi Airport.

The Crowne Plaza Hotel, designed by WOHA, is linked to Changi Airport's Terminal 3 via a covered link bridge, with Terminals 1 and 2 reachable by Skytrain located within the immediate vicinity of Changi Airport. It is 9 storeys high and has 320 guest rooms.[14] In 2018, the Crowne Plaza Hotel was named as the world's best airport hotel by Skytrax for the fourth year running.[15]

Airbus A380 operations[edit]

Singapore Airlines A380-800 (9V-SKD)

With Changi-based Singapore Airlines being the launch customer for the Airbus A380, works to ensure full capability in handling the large aircraft were given priority in time for its introduction in October 2007. The Civil Aviation Authority of Singapore spent S$60 million in upgrading the two existing terminals and airport infrastructure, including enlarged gate holdrooms, new finger piers, and extended baggage belt carousels from the normal 70 to 90 m (230 to 300 ft). With these new carousels in place, the airport does not expect embarking and disembarking passengers and baggage from the A380 to take longer than it does from a Boeing 747-400, which carries fewer passengers. On 16 August 2005, Changi Airport unveiled the first of 11 specially built gates capable of handling the giant aircraft. Costing S$15 million, the gates or 'fingers' enable passengers to board the upper deck of the new 555-seater aircraft directly from the gate hold rooms. The hold rooms themselves have been enlarged and appointed to cater for the larger number of passengers aboard an A380. Beside the 11 new A380-capable gates at Terminals 1 and 2, eight more A380-capable gates were opened at Terminal 3 on 9 January 2008.[16]

Jewel Changi Airport[edit]

Jewel Changi

Announced in August 2013, this is a new terminal structure intended as a mix-use complex.[17] It is situated on a 3.5-hectare site where the Terminal 1 car park used to reside. Jewel is a joint venture between Changi Airport (51%) and CapitaMalls Asia (49%). Essentially, a new multi-storey underground car park of about 2,500 car park spaces replace the existing facilities, while an indoor garden (with a waterfall) is built above. The new building sits between the three existing terminal buildings, enabling passengers to transfer via the new complex, whilst being an attraction and shopping destination in itself. The design consists of a circular structure, reminiscent of a doughnut, with a large garden and located at the centre is the HSBC Rain Vortex. There is also a hotel of about 130 rooms as part of the project.[4]

As part of the project, Terminal 1 is expanded to allow more space for the arrival hall, baggage claim areas and taxi bays. These enhancements increases T1's passenger handling capacity to 24 million passenger movements per annum by 2018.[18] It opened on 17 April 2019.

Passenger terminals[edit]

Changi Airport currently has four terminals, T1, T2, T3, and T4, with a total annual handling capacity of 80 million. Terminals 1, 2, and 3 are directly connected via a people mover system, with airside passengers being able to freely move between the terminals without going through immigration. Transport within and between these three terminals is also provided by people movers and the skytrain system, although it is also possible to walk between the terminals on foot for landside visitors.

A former Budget Terminal, capable of handling 7 million passenger per year, was purpose-built for low-cost carriers. It was physically separated from the main terminals towards the south, where connections were possible via a free shuttle bus service to and from Terminal 2. Demolition began in 2013 to make way for a new and bigger Terminal 4.[19][20]

Terminal 1[edit]

Swimming pool in the transit area of Terminal 1.

Singapore Changi Airport's oldest terminal operated as the sole terminal from its opening on 1 July 1981 right up until the opening of Terminal 2 nine years later. Configured in a H-shaped layout to maximise the number of aerobridges which may be built, it underwent two major upgrading works over its lifespan. A major refurbishment was completed in 1995 at a cost of S$170 million and work to extend two finger piers to add 14 aerobridges at a cost of S$420 million took place from 1996 to 1999. Today, the terminal spans an area of 308,000 m² and can accommodate a maximum passenger capacity of 21 million passengers a year.

On 7 March 2012, Minister of State for Transport Josephine Teo said that the open-air car park between Terminal 1 and Changi's iconic control tower will be redeveloped into a multi-use complex. This new complex will be integrated with the existing building, and will increase Terminal 1's public areas, pick-up driveways, and car park spaces. With this expansion, Terminal 1's handling capacity will increase from 21 to 24 million passengers per annum. The expansion of Terminal 1 will go together with Terminal 4.[21]

As of 12 July 2012, a $500 million facelift for Terminal 1 has been completed,[22] completing the terminal's largest renovation to date, involving works on its facade and halls under a theme called "Tropical City".[23] About 22,000 m2 have been added to the building, bringing the total floor space of T1 to about 308,000 m2. The larger floor area provides for more spatial comfort, better passenger flow, additional facilities and expanded retail and F&B offerings. The refurbishment includes the installation of a two-part kinetic sculpture, Kinetic Rain, which was billed as the largest kinetic sculpture in the world.[24]

The Southwest Finger of Level 3 of Terminal 1 has the head office of Jetstar Asia Airways and Scoot.[25]

Terminal 2[edit]

Terminal 2 Departure Hall.

Terminal 2 opened on 22 November 1990 as part of Phase II in the original airport masterplan.[citation needed] Deploying a linear configuration parallel to the runways, it is located adjacent to Terminal 1 towards the south, and heralded the opening of the original skytrain system linking the two terminals via the landside. All Singapore Airlines and SilkAir flights moved to the new terminal when it opened, along with several Southeast Asian carriers including Malaysia Airlines, Philippine Airlines, PAL Express, and Royal Brunei Airlines. They were joined by several airlines, some of which are allied to Singapore Airlines, in particular Lufthansa, both fellow Star Alliance members. Air France was a former user before moving back to Terminal 1. Other former users include Air Canada and Austrian Airlines, which ceased operations to Changi in October 2006. Etihad Airways was the latest airline to operate from Terminal 2 when it commenced flights in September 2007. All Nippon Airways moved to Terminal 2 from 1 October 2008.[26] Airlines operating at Budget Terminal, including Tigerair, and Cebu Pacific, moved to Terminal 2 as the Budget Terminal closed for site redevelopment. Singapore Airlines' flights departing for South Asia (except India) and South East Asia uses this terminal.

The fourth storey of the terminal houses the Civil Aviation Authority of Singapore.[27] In addition Terminal 2 houses the offices of the Air Accident Investigation Bureau of Singapore and Changi Airport Group.[28][29]

On 15 July 2013, the Airport unveiled its latest themed garden that has a display of colours and interactive technology – a first for Changi Airport, which has pioneered the concept of airport gardens since its opening in 1981. The new 'Enchanted Garden' – Changi Airport's fifth themed garden – takes pride in the spot where the Fern Garden once stood. It is open, free of charge, to passengers round-the-clock. Motion sensors trigger sounds of nature and blooming flowers while fibre-optic and LED lighting, embedded in the flooring, form a fascinating carpet of sparkling lights. There is also a pond containing Archerfish and Koi.[30]

Former Budget Terminal[edit]

Changi Airport was the second in Asia (after Kuala Lumpur International Airport) to open a dedicated terminal catering to the budget traveller. The name of the Budget Terminal was decided as a result of a naming contest open to the public. However, the terminal is not included in the numbering scheme, even though it is the third passenger terminal to be opened when it opened on 26 March 2006; and Terminal 3 is actually the fifth terminal to be opened at the airport (with the fourth being the cargo terminal).

To offer lower landing fees, handling fees and airport taxes, it cuts back on amenities such as aerobridges, elaborate physical structures and decorations in the passenger terminal building. There is no transfer facility at the Budget Terminal.

In September 2008, expansion works costing $10 million began and took seven months to complete. The terminal was then able to handle seven million passengers a year, up from originally 2.7 million. There are more boarding gates, check-in counters, shops and dining options. In addition, air-conditioning has been installed for arriving passengers.

On 2 March 2012, it was announced that the Budget Terminal would be closed on 25 September 2012 and demolished to make way for Terminal 4. All airlines previously operating from the Budget Terminal moved to Terminal 2, after the last flight departed Budget Terminal at 2 am on 25 September. Construction of Terminal 4 began in 2013, and was completed on 31 October 2017. It will have a capacity for 16 million passengers per annum, up from the previous 7 million of the Budget Terminal, and will have aerobridges. It also promises to have a wider choice of retail and food and beverage offerings compared to the current Budget Terminal. Terminal 4 will be designed to enable efficient passenger processing and quick turnaround of aircraft. That is because once the ASEAN Open Skies agreement is in place by 2011, passenger traffic will likely grow by at least five per cent each year.

JetQuay CIP Terminal[edit]

JetQuay CIP Terminal, is a privately run terminal, located in between T2 and the VIP terminal. JetQuay provides private check-in, baggage handling, and immigration clearance services. It is the second luxury airport terminal in world to open after the Lufthansa First Class Terminal in Frankfurt Airport. However, unlike the Lufthansa First Class Terminal, JetQuay is an elite, dedicated CIP (Commercially Important People) terminal that can be used by any passenger travelling in any class, on any airline, through any terminal (T1, T2, T3, or T4).[citation needed]

Terminal 3[edit]

Transit area of Terminal 3.
The Butterfly Garden in Terminal 3.
Shops line along the transit area in Terminal 3.

Terminal 3, the airport's fourth passenger terminal, became operational on 9 January 2008,[31] increasing the airport's annual passenger capacity by 22 million. The test flight out of Terminal 3 was a Singapore Airlines flight from Singapore to Perth. The flight departed T3 at 5:30 pm local time, landing in Perth International Airport at approximately 11:30 pm.[citation needed] The terminal has 28 aerobridge gates, with eight capable of handling the Airbus A380. While the other two terminals use separate waiting areas for different gates, Terminal 3 has common waiting areas for some of the gates.

Designed by CPG Corporation,[32] with Skidmore, Owings and Merrill designing the roof feature[33] and interior design by Woodhead,[34][35] Terminal 3 departs from the largely utilitarian architecture in the first two terminals. Like other new airports in the region, it has a structure mainly made of glass, with big transparent spaces inside the terminal. However, unlike these newer airports, it incorporates "natural" features and "warm" tone extensively to balance the sterile feel of glass and steel. For example, the column is given a wood-like cladding and the floor of the terminal is mostly cream/ beige colour. The roof has been designed to allow natural light to enter the building, with 919 skylights. A 5 m (16 ft)-high "Green Wall" with hanging creepers and waterfall was incorporated to enhance the tropical feel. The Green Wall, designed by Singapore-based Landscape Design firm Tierra Design, also helps to regulate the internal temperature of the terminal with the occasional misting. The interior architecture of Terminal 3 recently won the Honour Award from ASLA.[36]

Singapore Airlines operated the first flights into Terminal 3 on 9 January 2008, with flight SQ001 from San Francisco via Hong Kong arriving at 1150 hours to a welcome ceremony by Minister for Transport and Second Minister for Foreign Affairs, Lim Siang Keat Raymond and the chairman of CAG, Liew Mun Leong. The first departure flight, SQ318, took off at 1250 hours bound for London-Heathrow.[citation needed] Since then, its regional and long-haul flights bound for Africa, Americas, Europe, Middle East, North Asia, India and South West Pacific will depart from T3 while all other destinations depart from T2, becoming the first and only airline to operate from multiple terminals in Changi Airport.

China Eastern Airlines, Jet Airways, Qatar Airways and United Airlines also moved operations to the terminal on 1 January 2008,[37][38] while Kingfisher Airlines launched services to Singapore using T3 in 2009. Garuda Indonesia, Saudi Arabian Airlines, Vietnam Airlines and Sri Lankan Airlines have also moved operations to T3 in 2011.[39] In 2013, Asiana Airlines and Lion Air have also moved operations to T3.[40] Ethiopian Airlines and Spring Airlines used to operate from Terminal 3. On 2 July 2015, China Airlines and EVA Air shifted its operations to T3.

Terminal 4[edit]

Terminal 4

Singapore Changi Airport Terminal 4 is the fifth passenger terminal at Singapore Changi Airport and opened on 31 October 2017. It sits on the former Singapore Changi Airport Budget Terminal and cost S$985 million and took about 2 years to construct.

The construction of the new Terminal 4 commenced in early 2014 and was completed on 16 December 2016.[41] It officially opened on 31 October 2017. Under a new concept of "Fast And Seamless Travel at Changi" (FAST@Changi), it will see options such as self-service check-in; and automated bag drop, immigration clearance and boarding being rolled out extensively in the new building. Terminal 4 is a two-storey, 25-metre-high building with a gross floor area of 225,000 square metres.[42] 17 stands are available for narrow body aircraft, 4 stands for wide body aircraft. A bridge across Airport Boulevard was constructed to enable buses and other airside vehicles to move from T4 to the aircraft stands. A new dedicated 68-metre-high Ramp Control Tower was also built to "enhance air traffic controllers' management of aircraft movements in the apron and taxiways around the terminal".[41] It is connected to the other terminals by complimentary shuttle bus services.[43]

Local cultural and heritage items are used to decorate the terminal's interior. The retail space at the 'Heritage Zone' will feature traditional Peranakan shop front facades. Changi Airport Group (CAG) has given out all its 80+ concession contracts to various retail and food and beverage outlets including but not limited to Charles & Keith, Coach & Furla, Gassan Watches, Michael Kors, London Fat Duck, Old Street Bak Kut Teh and Sushi Goshin by Akashi.[44]

Concurrent with the development of Terminal 4, major airfield works were undertaken to increase the number of aircraft parking stands to support the needs of all airlines operating at Changi. A 38-hectare land plot south of Terminal 3, housing the airport nursery as well as a reservoir, was converted into an aircraft parking area to house 17 narrow-body and nine wide-body aircraft stands. An overhead vehicular bridge across Airport Boulevard was also constructed to enable buses and other airside vehicles to move from T4 to these aircraft stands.

There are a total of 21 contact gates and 8 bus gates in Terminal 4, numbered Gates G1 to G21 and Gates H1 to H8. Gates G1 to G17 can only be used by single-aisle aircraft such as the Airbus A320 & Boeing 737, while Gates G18 to G21 can be used by both single-aisle & wide-bodied aircraft. Single-aisle aircraft can also utilise the Multiple Aircraft Receiving Stands (MARS) at Gates G18 to G21, which are designated as Gates G18L to G21R. Bus Gates H1 to H8 are located on the ground floor in an annexe next to the Heritage Zone, and serve planes that are parked at remote stands.[citation needed]

Cathay Pacific and Korean Air were the first two airlines to move to T4 on 31 October 2017. They were followed by Cebu Pacific and Spring Airlines on 2 November 2017, together with the AirAsia Group and Vietnam Airlines on 7 November 2017.[45] On 6 March 2018, VietJet Air moved its operations from T3 to T4.[46][47]

New airlines to Changi Airport included JC International Airlines and Lanmei Airlines which began operations out of T4 from 25 January 2018 and 22 April 2018 respectively. Both airlines had since ceased its Singapore service.[48] GX Airlines and Juneyao Airlines commenced Singapore operations on 12 December 2018[49] and 1 February 2019 respectively.

On 15 May 2018, West Air moved its operations from T1 to T4.[50] On 28 October 2018, Regent Airways moved its operations from T1 to T4.

On 30 November 2018, Hainan Airlines resumed operations to Singapore.[51]

Terminal 5[edit]

A fifth terminal, Terminal 5, will be ready in the next decade as announced by the then Transport Minister, Lui Tuck Yew on 7 May 2013. Terminal 5 will be built on 1,080 hectares of reclaimed land in Changi East, making it one of the largest terminals in the world. The terminal could handle a capacity of 50 million passengers annually. With the addition of the fifth terminal, Changi Airport will be able to cater to more than 135 million passengers every year. With the national carrier at Terminal 5, each alliance of airlines such as SkyTeam and Oneworld could also operate out of dedicated terminals. Terminal 5 is also expected to have more self-service facilities and bigger lounges.[2][3] Terminal 5 will be linked to the other terminals at Changi Airport. This will allow the expanded Changi Airport to be operated as a single, integrated airport for ease of transfer between different terminals, maximum passenger convenience and airfield operational efficiency.

In order to create a contiguous and integrated airfield, the former Changi Coast Road and the park connector beside it was replaced with a new at-grade road and park connector further east, along the eastern coastline, the present Tanah Merah Coast Road. The terminal will be connected by an extension to the Thomson-East Coast MRT Line, which will also extend to the existing Changi Airport branch. Provisions will also be made on the Cross Island MRT Line for a possible extension towards the airport.[52][53] More details will be released after engineering studies are completed. The adequacy of bus services to the airport will also be reviewed. These plans will ensure that all airport users and staff are able to travel to the airport easily and conveniently.[54]

Part the newly increased airport levy will be used to fund the terminal and other projects.[55]

Services[edit]

Changi Airport is a top airport in terms of customer service and security and has won over 500 awards and accolades as best airport since its opening in 1981,[56] from organisations such as Skytrax and Business Traveller.[57][58]

Passenger services[edit]

Flight Information Display System (FIDS) displays in the departure area of Changi Airport T3 driven by Intersystems RapidFIDS.
Extensive foliage in Terminal 2 provides relaxation for passengers in the transit area.

The airport has over 70,000 m2 (753,500 sq ft) of space spread between its three main terminals for shopping and eating outlets, with Terminal 3 having the largest amount of retail space at 20,000 m2 (215,300 sq ft).[59]

From two different lounges with 24-hour napping areas, showers and spa facilities, to hotel and pool amenities, this airport also includes Singapore Tours (created for those in transit for more than 5 hours who are granted a special pass to leave the airport on one of two city tour options[60]), Nature Trail (with six themed garden reserves) and comprehensive dining and entertainment options.[61]

In terms of sales, the airport outstrips other shopping malls in Singapore, including those in top tourist spot Orchard Road. The Changi Airport Group derives 55% of its total annual revenue from non-aeronautical sources,[62] such as office and warehouse rental. The airport derives the majority of its commercial revenue from the duty-free shopping, with the most popular items being liquor and tobacco, perfume and cosmetics, and luxury goods.

In addition to a wide array of shopping and dining outlets, Changi Airport has ten garden areas spread across all four terminals that are all located in the transit areas. Changi Airport also has a curated collection of artworks by local and international artists across the public areas of the airport's terminals.

Gardens in Changi Airport
Terminal Gardens
1 Cactus Garden[63]
Piazza Garden[64]
Sculptural Tree Garden[65]
Water Lily Garden[66]
2 Enchanted Garden[67]
Orchid Garden[68]
Sunflower Garden[69]
3 Butterfly Garden[70]
Crystal Garden[71]
4 Steel in Bloom[72]

Changi Airport has numerous business centres located around the airport. Within the international transit area of the interconnected Terminals 1,2 and 3,[73] internet and games facilities, prayer rooms, showers, spas, gym, swimming pool and a hotel are provided. Various lounge areas are provided, some including children's play areas or televisions showing news, movie and sport channels. The Qantas Singapore Lounge draws on Qantas’ flagship lounges in Sydney and Melbourne including a live cooking station and communal dining areas designed by Hurley Palmer Flatt.

Passengers at Changi Airport will soon be able to board their flights faster, with the introduction of self-boarding gates. The Changi Airport Group (CAG) has been conducting trials of the self-boarding gates at a common gatehold room in Terminal 2 since May with Lufthansa. The self-boarding gates are just one component of a fast and seamless travel (FAST) initiative which CAG will be rolling out across terminals at the airport. Since April 2014, the gates have been progressively introduced in common gatehold rooms in all three terminals.[citation needed]

The ongoing trial of a number of self-service functions – check-in, bag tagging and bag drop – will run for about three months until August 2014. It will enable CAG to assess improvements and adjustments needed for the hardware and software of the various systems.

Two self bag-drop units and four self check-in kiosks have been fitted alongside the Jetstar check-in counters in Terminal 1. Passengers on selected Jetstar flights are invited to use these self-service options. At the self check-in kiosk, passengers print their boarding pass as well as baggage tag after checking in. After tagging their baggage, they can drop it off at the self bag-drop counter. A receipt is provided for checked-in baggage. Instructional videos and signs are available to guide passengers, and on-ground staff are also present to provide assistance. Since the trial started in early May, about 1,000 passengers have used the FAST facilities.[citation needed]

Aviation services[edit]

Ground handling[edit]

An Emirates Boeing 777-300 and Cathay Pacific Boeing 747-400 being serviced at Terminal 1

Ground handling services are handled by two companies: Singapore Airport Terminal Services (SATS) and Dnata. SATS is the dominant player with close to 70% of the market in the airport. Dnata Singapore, formerly Changi International Airport Services (CIAS), was formed in 1977 by the Port of Singapore Authority and five airlines (Air France, China Airlines, Garuda Indonesia, Koninklijke Luchtvaart Maatschappij N.V. (KLM; Royal Dutch Airlines) and Lufthansa). It handles the remaining market share.

In the early 2000s, the government decided to introduce competition into the market by offering an additional licence. Swissair's Swissport won the 10-year licence and commenced operations on 2 March 2005.[74]

As Swissair folded and was subsequently taken over by Swiss International Air Lines, the latter became the company's first customer. Adam Air chose Swissport as its ground handler in 2005, while Tiger Airways followed suit in 2006. Other customers of Swissport include Swiss World Cargo, AirAsia, and Cardig Air. Former customers of Swissport include Australian Airlines. Swissport ceased operation on 31 March 2009 due to massive losses.

In 2009, a wholly owned subsidiary of SATS, Asia Pacific Star (APS) began operating.[75] It concentrates mainly on budget carriers by providing point-to-point ground handling services such as passenger, ramp and baggage handling, and aircraft interior cleaning with short turnaround times. Some of the airlines APS handles include the AirAsia Group, Cebu Pacific and Spring Airlines.

CIAS underwent restructuring when its shareholding was bought over by Dubai's Dnata in 2004, being relaunched in August 2011 with a new branding.[76] Its security services were amalgamated into the new Temasek-owned Aetos Security Management.[77]

Aircraft maintenance[edit]

Six aircraft hangars, capable of full aircraft maintenance, repair and overhaul is operated and managed by SIA Engineering Company at Changi Airfreight Centre and five aircraft hangars by SASCO/ST Aerospace. It includes a 20,000 m2 (215,300 sq ft) column-free hangar at SIA Engineering Company, Hangar 1, which was the world's largest when opened in 1981.[78]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Facts and statistics". Changiairport.com. Archived from the original on 25 November 2011.
  2. ^ a b "Singapore's 5th airport terminal to be ready in next decade". Channel NewsAsia. 7 May 2013. Archived from the original on 25 July 2013.
  3. ^ a b "New Terminal 5 likely to be Changi Airport's biggest terminal". Channel NewsAsia. 8 May 2013. Archived from the original on 17 June 2013.
  4. ^ a b "Jewel Changi Airport at a glance" (PDF). Changi Airport. Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 June 2017. Retrieved 5 December 2014.
  5. ^ "Work on Changi Airport's Project Jewel begins". Channel NewsAsia. 5 December 2014. Archived from the original on 6 December 2014.
  6. ^ a b c "Aerodrome Geographical and Administrative Data" (PDF). Caas.gov.sg. Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 September 2015.
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