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Two Ingelred swords as depicted by Wegeli (1904). Above: 10th-century sword found in Isac river, near Nantes, with an inscription read as INGELRED FIT by Wegeli; below: sword found near Uppsala, Sweden, with inscription INGEL.AH.

The Ingelrii group consists of about 20 known[1] medieval swords from the 10th to 12th century with a damascening blade inscription INGELRII, appearing with several slight spelling variations such as INGELRD and INGELRILT.[2] It is comparable to the older, much better documented Ulfberht group (9th to 11th century, about 170 known examples).

By 1951, Ewart Oakeshott had originally identified thirteen such swords of this inscription, and had suggested that another, at Wisbech Museum, found in the river bed of the Old Nene in 1895, is also an Ingelrii; supported by Davidson as a possible fourteenth.[2]

Other variations of the inscription have also been found: INGRLRIIMEFECIT on a sword found by Sigridsholm,[2][3] Sweden, and INGELRIH FECIT on a sword found in Flemma, Norway.[2]

Known Ingelrii swords[edit]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Oakeshott, Ewart R. (1960). The Archaeology of Weapons: Arms and Armour from Prehistory to the Age of Chivalry. Woodbridge: Boydell Press. p. 145. ISBN 9781566195966.
  2. ^ a b c d Davidson, Hilda Ellis (1962). The Sword in Anglo-Saxon England: Its Archaeology and Literature. Woodbridge: The Boydell Press. pp. 47–48. ISBN 9780851157160.
  3. ^ ‹See Tfd›(in Swedish) Historiskt-geografiskt och statistiskt Lexikon öfver Sverige, Volume 6, p. 70. Probably Ling, north of Stockholm. At Google Books. Retrieved 27 September 2013.
  4. ^ Peirce, Ian, G. (2002) Swords of the Viking Age, p. 80. Boydell Press.
  5. ^ a b Davidson, Hilda Ellis (1998) The Sword in Anglo-Saxon England: Its Archaeology and Literature, p. xviii–xx. Boydell & Brewer Ltd. (Full text via Google Books.). Retrieved 27 September 2013.
  6. ^ a b Oakeshott, Ewart (2012) The Sword in the Age of Chivalry, p. 82. Boydell Press.
  7. ^ Jahresbericht Schweizerisches Landesmuseum Zürich 19 (1910).
  8. ^ Bonhams Auction 21639 (26 November 2014) Lot 218
  9. ^ Bonhams Auction 20801 Lot 188
  • Alfred Geibig, Beiträge zur Morphologischen Entwicklung des Schwertes im Mittelalter, 1991, p. 124
  • Lech Marek, Early Medieval Swords from Central and Eastern Europe, 2005, pp. 49-54, plates 6c and 25c