Bergman during production
of Wild Strawberries (1957)
Ernst Ingmar Bergman|
14 July 1918
30 July 2007 (aged 89)|
|Other names||Buntel Eriksson|
|Occupation||Film director, producer, screenwriter|
Ernst Ingmar Bergman[a] (14 July 1918 – 30 July 2007) was a Swedish director, writer, and producer who worked in film, television, theatre and radio. Considered to be among the most accomplished and influential filmmakers of all time, Bergman's renowned works include Smiles of a Summer Night (1955), The Seventh Seal (1957), Wild Strawberries (1957), The Silence (1963), Persona (1966), Cries and Whispers (1972), Scenes from a Marriage (1973), and Fanny and Alexander (1982).
Bergman directed over sixty films and documentaries for cinematic release and for television, most of which he also wrote. He also directed over 170 plays. From 1953, he forged a powerful creative partnership with his full-time cinematographer Sven Nykvist. Among his company of actors were Harriet and Bibi Andersson, Liv Ullmann, Gunnar Björnstrand, Erland Josephson, Ingrid Thulin and Max von Sydow. Most of his films were set in Sweden, and numerous films from Through a Glass Darkly (1961) onward were filmed on the island of Fårö. His work often deals with death, illness, faith, betrayal, bleakness and insanity.
Philip French referred to Bergman as "one of the greatest artists of the 20th century [...] he found in literature and the performing arts a way of both recreating and questioning the human condition." Mick LaSalle argued, "Like Virginia Woolf and James Joyce in literature, Ingmar Bergman strove to capture and illuminate the mystery, ecstasy and fullness of life, by concentrating on individual consciousness and essential moments."
- 1 Biography
- 2 Style of working
- 3 Marriages and children
- 4 Legacy and accolades
- 5 Awards
- 6 Exhibitions
- 7 Filmography
- 8 See also
- 9 Notes
- 10 References
- 11 Bibliography
- 12 External links
Ingmar Bergman was born in Uppsala, Sweden, the son of Erik Bergman, a Lutheran minister and later chaplain to the King of Sweden, and Karin (née Åkerblom), a nurse who also had Walloon ancestors. He grew up with his older brother Dag and sister Margareta surrounded by religious imagery and discussion. His father was a conservative parish minister with strict ideas of parenting. Ingmar was locked up in dark closets for "infractions", such as wetting the bed. "While father preached away in the pulpit and the congregation prayed, sang, or listened", Ingmar wrote in his autobiography Laterna Magica,
I devoted my interest to the church's mysterious world of low arches, thick walls, the smell of eternity, the coloured sunlight quivering above the strangest vegetation of medieval paintings and carved figures on ceilings and walls. There was everything that one's imagination could desire—angels, saints, dragons, prophets, devils, humans ... .
Although raised in a devout Lutheran household, Bergman later stated that he lost his faith when aged eight, and only came to terms with this fact while making Winter Light in 1962. His interest in theatre and film began early: "At the age of nine, he traded a set of tin soldiers for a magic lantern, a possession that altered the course of his life. Within a year, he had created, by playing with this toy, a private world in which he felt completely at home, he recalled. He fashioned his own scenery, marionettes, and lighting effects and gave puppet productions of Strindberg plays in which he spoke all the parts."
Bergman attended Palmgren's School as a teenager. His school years were unhappy, and he remembered them unfavourably in later years. In a 1944 letter concerning the film Torment (sometimes known as Frenzy), which sparked debate on the condition of Swedish high schools (and which Bergman had written), the school's principal Henning Håkanson wrote, among other things, that Bergman had been a "problem child". Bergman wrote in a response that he had strongly disliked the emphasis on homework and testing in his formal schooling.
In 1934, aged 16, he was sent to Germany to spend the summer holidays with family friends. He attended a Nazi rally in Weimar at which he saw Adolf Hitler. He later wrote in Laterna Magica (The Magic Lantern) about the visit to Germany, describing how the German family had put a portrait of Hitler on the wall by his bed, and that "for many years, I was on Hitler's side, delighted by his success and saddened by his defeats". Bergman commented that "Hitler was unbelievably charismatic. He electrified the crowd. ... The Nazism I had seen seemed fun and youthful". Bergman did two five-month stretches in Sweden of mandatory military service.
He entered Stockholm University College (later renamed Stockholm University) in 1937, to study art and literature. He spent most of his time involved in student theatre and became a "genuine movie addict". At the same time, a romantic involvement led to a pugilistic confrontation with his father which resulted in a break which lasted for years. Although he did not graduate, he wrote a number of plays and an opera, and became an assistant director at a theatre. In 1942, he was given the opportunity to direct one of his own scripts, Caspar’s Death. The play was seen by members of Svensk Filmindustri, which then offered Bergman a position working on scripts. He married Else Fisher in 1943.
Early film career
Bergman’s film career began in 1941 with his work rewriting scripts, but his first major accomplishment was in 1944 when he wrote the screenplay for Torment (a.k.a. Frenzy) (Hets), a film directed by Alf Sjöberg. Along with writing the screenplay, he was also appointed assistant director of the film. In his second autobiographical book, Images: My Life in Film, Bergman describes the filming of the exteriors as his actual film directorial debut. The film sparked debate on Swedish formal education. When Henning Håkanson (the principal of the high school Bergman had attended) wrote a letter following the film's release, Bergman, according to scholar Frank Gado, disparaged in a response what he viewed as Håkanson's implication that students "who did not fit some arbitrary prescription of worthiness deserved the system's cruel neglect". Bergman also stated in the letter that he "hated school as a principle, as a system and as an institution. And as such I have definitely not wanted to criticize my own school, but all schools." The international success of this film led to Bergman’s first opportunity to direct a year later. During the next ten years he wrote and directed more than a dozen films, including Prison (Fängelse) in 1949, as well as Sawdust and Tinsel (Gycklarnas afton) and Summer with Monika (Sommaren med Monika), both from 1953.
Bergman first achieved worldwide success with Smiles of a Summer Night (Sommarnattens leende) (1955), which won for "Best poetic humour" and was nominated for the Palme d’Or at Cannes the following year. This was followed by The Seventh Seal (Det sjunde inseglet) and Wild Strawberries (Smultronstället), released in Sweden ten months apart in 1957. The Seventh Seal won a special jury prize and was nominated for the Palme d'Or at Cannes, and Wild Strawberries won numerous awards for Bergman and its star, Victor Sjöström. Bergman continued to be productive for the next two decades. From the early 1960s, he spent much of his life on the island of Fårö, where he made several films.
In the early 1960s he directed three films that explored the theme of faith and doubt in God, Through a Glass Darkly (Såsom i en Spegel, 1961), Winter Light (Nattvardsgästerna, 1962), and The Silence (Tystnaden, 1963). Critics created the notion that the common themes in these three films made them a trilogy or cinematic triptych. Bergman initially responded that he did not plan these three films as a trilogy and that he could not see any common motifs in them, but he later seemed to adopt the notion, with some equivocation. He made a parody of Fellini in 1964, All These Women (För att inte tala om alla dessa kvinnor).
In 1966, he directed Persona, a film that he himself considered one of his most important works. While the highly experimental film won few awards, many consider it his masterpiece. Other notable films of the period include The Virgin Spring (Jungfrukällan, 1960), Hour of the Wolf (Vargtimmen, 1968), Shame (Skammen, 1968) and The Passion of Anna (En Passion, 1969). He and his cinematographer Sven Nykvist made oft-noted use of a crimson color scheme for Cries and Whispers (1972), which is among Bergman's most acclaimed films. He also produced extensively for Swedish television at this time. Two works of note were Scenes from a Marriage (Scener ur ett äktenskap, 1973) and The Magic Flute (Trollflöjten, 1975).
Tax evasion charges in 1976
On 30 January 1976, while rehearsing August Strindberg’s The Dance of Death at the Royal Dramatic Theatre in Stockholm, he was arrested by two plainclothes police officers and charged with income tax evasion. The impact of the event on Bergman was devastating. He suffered a nervous breakdown as a result of the humiliation, and was hospitalised in a state of deep depression.
The investigation was focused on an alleged 1970 transaction of 500,000 Swedish kronor (SEK) between Bergman’s Swedish company Cinematograf and its Swiss subsidiary Persona, an entity that was mainly used for the paying of salaries to foreign actors. Bergman dissolved Persona in 1974 after having been notified by the Swedish Central Bank and subsequently reported the income. On 23 March 1976, the special prosecutor Anders Nordenadler dropped the charges against Bergman, saying that the alleged crime had no legal basis, saying it would be like bringing "charges against a person who has stolen his own car, thinking it was someone else’s". Director General Gösta Ekman, chief of the Swedish Internal Revenue Service, defended the failed investigation, saying that the investigation was dealing with important legal material and that Bergman was treated just like any other suspect. He expressed regret that Bergman had left the country, hoping that Bergman was a "stronger" person now when the investigation had shown that he had not done any wrong.
Even though the charges were dropped, Bergman became disconsolate, fearing he would never again return to directing. Despite pleas by the Swedish prime minister Olof Palme, high public figures, and leaders of the film industry, he vowed never to work in Sweden again. He closed down his studio on the island of Fårö, suspended two announced film projects, and went into self-imposed exile in Munich, Germany. Harry Schein, director of the Swedish Film Institute, estimated the immediate damage as ten million SEK (kronor) and hundreds of jobs lost.
Aftermath following arrest
Bergman then briefly considered the possibility of working in America; his next film, The Serpent’s Egg (1977) was a German-U.S. production and his second English-language film (the first being 1971’s The Touch). This was followed by a British-Norwegian co-production, Autumn Sonata (Höstsonaten, 1978) starring Ingrid Bergman, and From the Life of the Marionettes (Aus dem Leben der Marionetten, 1980) which was a British-German co-production.
He temporarily returned to his homeland in 1982, to direct Fanny and Alexander (Fanny och Alexander). Bergman stated that the film would be his last, and that afterwards he would focus on directing theatre. After that he wrote several film scripts and directed a number of television specials. As with previous work for TV, some of these productions were later released in theatres. The last such work was Saraband (2003), a sequel to Scenes from a Marriage and directed by Bergman when he was 84 years old.
Although he continued to operate from Munich, by mid-1978 Bergman had overcome some of his bitterness toward the government of Sweden. In July of that year he visited Sweden, celebrating his sixtieth birthday on the island of Fårö, and partly resumed his work as a director at Royal Dramatic Theatre. To honour his return, the Swedish Film Institute launched a new Ingmar Bergman Prize to be awarded annually for excellence in filmmaking. Still, he remained in Munich until 1984. In one of the last major interviews with Bergman, conducted in 2005 on the island of Fårö, Bergman said that despite being active during the exile, he had effectively lost eight years of his professional life.
Retirement and death
Bergman retired from filmmaking in December 2003. He had a hip surgery in October 2006 and was making a difficult recovery. He died in his sleep at age 89; his body was found at his home on the island of Fårö, on 30 July 2007. (It was the same day another renowned existentialist film director, Michelangelo Antonioni, also died.) The interment was private, at the Fårö Church on 18 August 2007. A place in the Fårö churchyard was prepared for him under heavy secrecy. Although he was buried on the island of Fårö, his name and date of birth were inscribed under his wife’s name on a tomb at Roslagsbro churchyard, Norrtälje Municipality, several years before his death.
Style of working
Bergman developed a personal "repertory company" of Swedish actors whom he repeatedly cast in his films, including Max von Sydow, Bibi Andersson, Harriet Andersson, Erland Josephson, Ingrid Thulin, Gunnel Lindblom, Bengt Ekerot, Anders Ek, and Gunnar Björnstrand, each of whom appeared in at least five Bergman features. Norwegian actress Liv Ullmann, who appeared in nine of Bergman’s films and one televisual film (Saraband), was the last to join this group (in the film Persona), and ultimately became the most closely associated with Bergman, both artistically and personally. They had a daughter together, Linn Ullmann (born 1966).
Bergman began working with Sven Nykvist, his cinematographer, in 1953. The two developed and maintained a working relationship of sufficient rapport to allow Bergman not to worry about the composition of a shot until the day before it was filmed. On the morning of the shoot, he would briefly speak to Nykvist about the mood and composition he hoped for, and then leave Nykvist to work, lacking interruption or comment until post-production discussion of the next day’s work.
By Bergman’s own account, he never had a problem with funding. He cited two reasons for this: one, that he did not live in the United States, which he viewed as obsessed with box-office earnings; and two, that his films tended to be low-budget affairs. (Cries and Whispers, for instance, was finished for about $450,000, while Scenes from a Marriage, a six-episode television feature, cost only $200,000.)
Bergman usually wrote his films' screenplays, thinking about them for months or years before starting the actual process of writing, which he viewed as somewhat tedious. His earlier films are carefully constructed and are either based on his plays or written in collaboration with other authors. Bergman stated that in his later works, when on occasion his actors would want to do things differently from his own intention, he would let them, noting that the results were often "disastrous" when he did not do so. As his career progressed, Bergman increasingly let his actors improvise their dialogue. In his latest films, he wrote just the ideas informing the scene and allowed his actors to determine the exact dialogue. When viewing daily rushes, Bergman stressed the importance of being critical but unemotive, claiming that he asked himself not if the work was great or terrible, but rather if it was sufficient or needed to be reshot.
Bergman’s films usually deal with existential questions of mortality, loneliness, and religious faith. In addition to these cerebral topics, however, sexual desire features in the foreground of most of his films, whether the central event is a medieval plague (The Seventh Seal), upper-class family activity in early twentieth century Uppsala (Fanny and Alexander), or contemporary alienation (The Silence). His female characters are usually more in touch with their sexuality than the men, and unafraid to proclaim it, sometimes with breathtaking overtness (e.g., Cries and Whispers) as would define the work of "the conjurer," as Bergman called himself in a 1960 TIME cover story. In an interview with Playboy in 1964, he said: "The manifestation of sex is very important, and particularly to me, for above all, I don’t want to make merely intellectual films. I want audiences to feel, to sense my films. This to me is much more important than their understanding them." Film, Bergman said, was his demanding mistress. While he was a social democrat, Bergman stated that "as an artist I'm not politically involved […] I don't make propaganda for either one attitude or the other."
Bergman’s views on his career
When asked in the series of interviews later titled "Ingmar Bergman - 3 dokumentärer om film, teater, Fårö och livet" conducted by Marie Nyreröd for Swedish TV and released in 2004, Bergman said that of his works, he held Winter Light, Persona, and Cries and Whispers in the highest regard. There he also states that he managed to push the envelope of film making in the films "Persona" and "Cries and Whispers." Bergman stated on numerous occasions (for example in the interview book Bergman on Bergman) that The Silence meant the end of the era in which religious questions were a major concern of his films. Bergman said that he would get "depressed" by his own films and could not watch them anymore. In the same interview he also states: "If there is one thing I miss about working with films, it is working with Sven" (Nykvist), the third camera man he had worked together with.
Although Bergman was universally famous for his contribution to cinema, he was also an active and productive stage director all his life. During his studies at Stockholm University, he became active in its student theatre, where he made a name for himself early on. His first work after graduation was as a trainee-director at a Stockholm theatre. At twenty-six years, he became the youngest theatrical manager in Europe at the Helsingborg City Theatre. He stayed at Helsingborg for three years and then became the director at Gothenburg city theatre from 1946 to 1949.
He became director of the Malmö city theatre in 1953, and remained for seven years. Many of his star actors were people with whom he began working on stage, and a number of people in the "Bergman troupe" of his 1960s films came from Malmö’s city theatre (Max von Sydow, for example). He was the director of the Royal Dramatic Theatre in Stockholm from 1960 to 1966, and manager from 1963 to 1966, where he began a long-time collaboration with choreographer Donya Feuer.
After Bergman left Sweden because of the tax evasion incident, he became director of the Residenz Theatre of Munich, Germany (1977–84). He remained active in theatre throughout the 1990s and made his final production on stage with Henrik Ibsen’s The Wild Duck at the Royal Dramatic Theatre in 2002. A complete list of Bergman’s work in theatre can be found under "Stage Productions and Radio Theatre Credits" at Ingmar Bergman filmography.
Marriages and children
Bergman was married five times:
- 25 March 1943 – 1945, to Else Fisher (1 March 1918 – 3 March 2006), choreographer and dancer (divorced). Children:
- Lena Bergman, actress, born 1943.
- 22 July 1945 – 1950, to Ellen Lundström (23 April 1919 – 6 March 2007), choreographer and film director (divorced). Children:
- 1951 – 1959, to Gun Grut, journalist (divorced). Children:
- Ingmar Bergman Jr., airline captain, born 1951.
- 1959 – 1969, to Käbi Laretei (14 July 1922 – 31 October 2014), concert pianist (divorced). Children:
- Daniel Bergman, film director, born 1962.
- 11 November 1971 – 20 May 1995, to Ingrid von Rosen (maiden name Karlebo). Children:
- Maria von Rosen, author, born 1959.
The first four marriages ended in divorce, while the last ended when his wife Ingrid died of stomach cancer in 1995, aged 65. Aside from his marriages, Bergman had romantic relationships with actresses Harriet Andersson (1952–55), Bibi Andersson (1955–59), and Liv Ullmann (1965–70). He was the father of writer Linn Ullmann with Liv Ullmann. In all, Bergman had nine children, one of whom predeceased him. Bergman was eventually married to all of the mothers except Liv Ullmann, but his daughter with his last wife, Ingrid von Rosen, was born twelve years before their marriage.
Legacy and accolades
After Bergman died, a large archive of notes was donated to the Swedish Film Institute. Among the notes are several unpublished and unfinished scripts both for stage and films, and many more ideas for works in different stages of development. A never performed play has the title Kärlek utan älskare ("Love without lovers"), and has the note "Complete disaster!" written on the envelope; the play is about a director who disappears and an editor who tries to complete a work he has left unfinished. Other canceled projects include the script for a pornographic film which Bergman abandoned since he did not think it was alive enough, a play about a cannibal, some loose scenes set inside a womb, a film about the life of Jesus, a film about The Merry Widow, and a play with the title Från sperm till spöke ("From sperm to spook"). The Swedish director Marcus Lindeen went through the material, and inspired by Kärlek utan älskare he took samples from many of the works and turned them into a play, titled Arkivet för orealiserbara drömmar och visioner ("The archive for unrealisable dreams and visions"). Lindeen’s play premiered on 28 May 2012 at the Stockholm City Theatre.
Terrence Rafferty of The New York Times wrote that throughout the 1960s, when Bergman "was considered pretty much the last word in cinematic profundity, his every tic was scrupulously pored over, analyzed, elaborated in ingenious arguments about identity, the nature of film, the fate of the artist in the modern world and so on." Many filmmakers have praised Bergman and some have also cited his work as an influence on their own.
|2012||The Image Maker||Ingmar Bergman|
|2012||The Man Who Asked Hard Questions||Ingmar Bergman|
- Rothstein, Mervyn (30 July 2007). "Ingmar Bergman, Famed Director, Dies at 89". New York Times. Retrieved 31 July 2007.
Ingmar Bergman, the ‘poet with the camera’ who is considered one of the greatest directors in motion picture history, died today on the small island of Faro where he lived on the Baltic coast of Sweden, Astrid Soderbergh Widding, president of The Ingmar Bergman Foundation, said. Bergman was 89.
- Rothstein, Mervyn (2007-07-30). "Ingmar Bergman, Master Filmmaker, Dies at 89". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2016-02-04.
- Tuohy, Andy (2015-09-03). A-Z Great Film Directors. Octopus. ISBN 9781844038558.
- Gallagher, John (1989-01-01). Film Directors on Directing. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 9780275932725.
- French, Philip (August 5, 2007). "Twin visionaries of a darker art". The Observer. Retrieved May 15, 2017.
- LaSalle, Mick (July 30, 2007). "Ingmar Bergman, director who captured life's emotion, dead at 89". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved May 15, 2017.
- Gado 1986, p. 374.
- In a book published in 2011, Bergman's niece Veronica Ralston suggested that the director was not identical to the child born to Erik and Karin Bergman in July 1918. Ralston's claim was that this child would have died and been substituted for another child allegedly born to Erik Bergman in an extramarital relationship. (See Who was the mother of Ingmar Bergman? Dagens Nyheter, 26 May 2011, accessed 28 May 2011.) The DNA evidence was weakened after the laboratory consulted by Ralston clarified that it had only been possible to extract DNA from one out of two stamps submitted for testing, and the child supposedly substituted for the newborn child of Karin Bergman was later identified as having emigrated to the US in 1923 with his adopted parents and lived there until his death in 1982 (Clas Barkman, "Nya turer i mysteriet kring Bergman", Dagens Nyheter, 4 June 2011, accessed 8 June 2011).
- Kalin, Jesse (2003). The Films of Ingmar Bergman. p. 193.
- Rothstein, Mervyn (31 July 2007). "Ingmar Bergman, Master Filmmaker, Dies at 89". The New York Times.
- For an extended discussion of the profound influence that August Strindberg’s work played in Bergman’s life and career, see: Ottiliana Rolandsson, Pure Artistry: Ingmar Bergman, the Face as Portal and the Performance of the Soul, Ph.D. dissertation, University of California, Santa Barbara, 2010, especially chapter 3, "Bergman, Strindberg and the Territories of Imagination".
- Steene 2005, p. 33.
- Gado 1986, p. 59.
- Macnab, Geoffrey (2009). Ingmar Bergman: The Life and Films of the Last Great European Director. I.B. Tauris. ISBN 0857713574.
- Vermilye, Jerry (2001). Ingmar Bergman: His Life and Films. p. 6.; see also Bergman's autobiography, Laterna Magica.
- Ingmar Bergman, The Magic Lantern (transl. from Swedish: Laterna Magica), Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2007; ISBN 978-0-226-04382-1.
- "Bergman admits Nazi past". BBC News. 7 September 1999.
- Peter Ohlin. (2009.) "Bergman's Nazi Past", Scandinavian Studies, 81(4):437-74.
- Vermilye, Jerry (2001). Ingmar Bergman: His Life and Films. p. 6.
- Ingmar Bergman, Images : my life in film (translated from the Swedish by Marianne Ruuth), London: Bloomsbury, 1994. ISBN 0-7475-1670-7.
- Bergman, Ingmar. in the Aftonbladet (9 October 1944) (translated from Swedish)
- Fristoe, Roger. "Torment (1944)". Turner Classic Movies, Inc. Retrieved March 28, 2017.
- Stated in Marie Nyreröd’s interview series (the first part named Bergman och filmen) aired on Sveriges Television Easter 2004.
- In contrast, in 1964 Bergman had the three scripts published in a single volume: "These three films deal with reduction. Through a Glass Darkly – conquered certainty. Winter Light – penetrated certainty. The Silence – God’s silence — the negative imprint. Therefore, they constitute a trilogy." The Criterion Collection groups the films as a trilogy in a boxed set. In the 1963 documentary Ingmar Bergman Makes a Movie, about the making of Winter Light, supports the idea that Bergman did not plan a trilogy. In the interview with Bergman about writing the script of Winter Light, and the interviews made during the shooting of it, he hardly mentions Through a Glass Darkly. Instead, he discusses the themes of Winter Light, in particular the religious issues, in relation to The Virgin Spring.
- Theall, Donald F. (1995). Beyond the Word: reconstructing sense in the Joyce era of technology, culture, and communication. p. 35.
- Åtal mot Bergman läggs ned [Charges against Bergman dropped]. Rapport (in Swedish). Sveriges Television. 23 March 1976. Archived from the original (News report) on 21 November 2011.
- Generaldirektör om Bergmans flykt [The Director General about Bergman's escape]. Rapport (in Swedish). Sveriges Television. 22 April 1976. Archived from the original (News report) on 4 September 2011.
- Harry Schein om Bergmans flykt [Harry Schein about Bergman's escape]. Rapport (in Swedish). Sveriges Television. 22 April 1976. Archived from the original (News report) on 20 November 2011.
- Ephraim Katz, The Film Encyclopedia, New York: HarperCollins, 5th ed., 1998.
- Ingmar Bergman: Samtal på Fårö [Ingmar Bergman: Talks on Fårö] (in Swedish), Sveriges Radio, 28 March 2005
- "Bergman buried in quiet ceremony". BBC News. London. 18 August 2007. Retrieved 5 January 2010.
- "Film Great Ingmar Bergman Dies at 89". 30 July 2007.
- American Film Institute seminar, 1975, on The Criterion Collection’s 2006 DVD of The Virgin Spring.
- "THE SCREEN: I Am A Conjurer". Time Magazine. 14 March 1960. Retrieved 16 November 2009.
- Koskinen, Maaret (2010-04-01). Ingmar Bergman's The Silence: Pictures in the Typewriter, Writings on the Screen. University of Washington Press. ISBN 9780295801957.
- Bergman on Bergman: Interviews with Ingmar Bergman. By Stig Björkman, Torsten Manns, and Jonas Sima; translated by Paul Britten Austin. Simon & Schuster, New York. p. 176-178. Swedish edition copyright 1970; English translation 1973.
- "Winter Light". 2005.
- Steene 2005.
- "Bergman 'depressed' by own films". BBC News. London. 10 April 2004. Retrieved 5 January 2010.
- Jacobsson, Cecilia (28 May 2012). "Ingmar Bergmans ratade texter blev ny pjäs" [Ingmar Bergman's rejected texts became new play]. Dagens Nyheter (in Swedish). Retrieved 28 May 2012.
- Rafferty, Terrence (February 8, 2004). "FILM; On the Essential Strangeness of Bergman". The New York Times. Retrieved February 19, 2017.
- Bergman on Bergman: Interviews with Ingmar Bergman. By Stig Björkman, Torsten Manns, and Jonas Sima; translated by Paul Britten Austin. Simon & Schuster, New York. Swedish edition copyright 1970; English translation 1973.
- Filmmakers on filmmaking: the American Film Institute seminars on motion pictures and television (edited by Joseph McBride). Boston, Houghton Mifflin Co., 1983.
- Images: my life in film, Ingmar Bergman. Translated by Marianne Ruuth. New York, Arcade Pub., 1994, ISBN 1-55970-186-2
- Steene, Birgitta (2005-01-01). Ingmar Bergman: A Reference Guide. Amsterdam University Press. ISBN 9789053564066.
- The Magic Lantern, Ingmar Bergman. Translated by Joan Tate New York, Viking Press, 1988, ISBN 0-670-81911-5
- The Demons of Modernity: Ingmar Bergman and European Cinema, John Orr, Berghahn Books, 2014.
- Gado, Frank (1986). The Passion of Ingmar Bergman. Duke University Press. ISBN 0822305860.
Quotations related to Ingmar Bergman at Wikiquote
Media related to Ingmar Bergman at Wikimedia Commons
- Ingmar Bergman at Encyclopædia Britannica
- Ingmar Bergman on IMDb
- Ingmar Bergman at the Swedish Film Database
- Ingmar Bergman at the TCM Movie Database
- Ingmar Bergman Face to Face
- The Ingmar Bergman Foundation
- Ingmar Bergman all posters
- Bergmanorama: The magic works of Ingmar Bergman
- The Guardian/NFT interview with Liv Ullmann by Shane Danielson, 23 January 2001
- Xan Brooks reports on Bergman’s interview for Reuters, The Guardian, 12 December 2001
- Bergman Week
- DVD Beaver’s Director’s Chair on Bergman, with links to DVD and Blu-ray comparisons of his major films
- Ingmar Bergman Bibliography (via UC Berkeley)
- Ingmar Bergman Site
- Collection of interviews with Bergman