Injectable filler

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

Injectable filler (injectable cosmetic filler, injectable facial filler) is a soft tissue filler injected into the skin to help fill in facial wrinkles, restoring a smoother appearance. Most of these wrinkle fillers are temporary because they are eventually absorbed by the body. Some people may need more than one injection to achieve the wrinkle-smoothing effect. The effect lasts for about six months or longer. Successful results depend on health of the skin, skill of the health care provider, type of filler used.[1]

In the US, fillers are approved as medical devices by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the injection is prescribed and performed by a health care provider. In Europe and the UK, fillers are non-prescription medical devices that can be injected by anyone licensed to do so by the respective medical authorities. They require a CE mark, which regulates adherence to production standards, but does not require any demonstration of medical efficacy. As a result, there are over 140 injectable fillers in the UK/European market and only six approved for use in the US.[2]

Materials used[edit]

Fillers are made of sugar molecules or composed of hyaluronic acids,[3] collagens, which may come from pigs, cows, cadavers, or may be generated in a laboratory,[4], the person's own transplanted fat, and biosynthetic polymers. Examples of the latter include calcium hydroxylapatite, polycaprolactone, polymethylmethacrylate, and polylactic acid.[citation needed]

How it works[edit]

Dermal fillers, also known as "injectables" or "soft-tissue fillers," do just what their name suggests: they fill in the area under the skin. Some fillers are natural and some are synthetic, but they all work to improve the appearance of aging skin in the following ways:[5]

  • filling in wrinkles, fine lines and deep creases
  • improving other imperfections like scars
  • filling out thin or wrinkled lips
  • plumping up cheeks
  • contouring the jaw line and other areas of the face

Risks[edit]

Risks of an improperly performed dermal filler procedure commonly include bruising, redness, pain or itching. Less commonly, there may be infections or allergic reactions, which may cause scarring and lumps that may require surgical correction.[6] More rarely, serious adverse effect such as blindness due to retrograde embolization into the opthalmic and retinal arteries can occur.[7] Delayed skin necrosis can also occur as a complication of embolization.[8] Embolic complications are more frequently seen when autologous fat is used as a filler, followed by hyaluronic acid. Though rare, when vision loss does occur, it is usually permanent.[9]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://www.fda.gov/ForConsumers/ConsumerUpdates/ucm049349.htm
  2. ^ Bray, Dominic; Hopkins, Claire; Roberts, David N. (2010). "A review of dermal fillers in facial plastic surgery". Current Opinion in Otolaryngology & Head and Neck Surgery. 18 (4): 295–302. ISSN 1531-6998. PMID 20543696. doi:10.1097/MOO.0b013e32833b5162. 
  3. ^ "Use of hyaluronic acid fillers for the treatment of the aging face". 2007. 
  4. ^ Bray, Dominic; Hopkins, Claire; Roberts, David N. (2010). "A review of dermal fillers in facial plastic surgery". Current Opinion in Otolaryngology & Head and Neck Surgery. 18 (4): 295–302. ISSN 1531-6998. PMID 20543696. doi:10.1097/MOO.0b013e32833b5162. 
  5. ^ Discovery Health. "How Dermal Fillers Work". 
  6. ^ Health, Center for Devices and Radiological. "Dermal Fillers" (WebContent). Retrieved 2015-03-07. 
  7. ^ Ferneini, EM; Ferneini, AM (August 2016). "An Overview of Vascular Adverse Events Associated With Facial Soft Tissue Fillers: Recognition, Prevention, and Treatment.". Journal of oral and maxillofacial surgery : official journal of the American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. 74 (8): 1630–6. PMID 27067061. 
  8. ^ Souza Felix Bravo, B; Klotz De Almeida Balassiano, L; Roos Mariano Da Rocha, C; Barbosa De Sousa Padilha, C; Martinezt Torrado, C; Teixeira Da Silva, R; Carlos Regazzi Avelleira, J (December 2015). "Delayed-type Necrosis after Soft-tissue Augmentation with Hyaluronic Acid.". The Journal of clinical and aesthetic dermatology. 8 (12): 42–7. PMID 26705447. 
  9. ^ Beleznay, K; Carruthers, JD; Humphrey, S; Jones, D (October 2015). "Avoiding and Treating Blindness From Fillers: A Review of the World Literature.". Dermatologic surgery : official publication for American Society for Dermatologic Surgery [et al.] 41 (10): 1097–117. PMID 26356847. 

External links[edit]