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Makkal Pavalar Inkulab
மக்கள் பாவலர் இன்குலாப்
Born Shahul Hameed
c. 1944
Chennai, India
Died (aged 72)
Occupation Author
Notable works Avvai

Makkal Pavalar Inkulab (also spelt Inquilab, Inkulab or Ingulab) (Tamil: மக்கள் பாவலர் இன்குலாப்; c. 1944 – 1 December 2016) was an Indian rationalist Tamil poet/writer, activist, and Communist with Marxist Leninist inclination.[1] He retired as a professor of Tamil at The New College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu. His birth name is Shahul Hameed[1][2] and a known follower of Periyar.[3]

His poems espousing rationality have been critically acclaimed.[1] Kanmani Rajam, his most famous poem, criticizes the moral bankruptcy of politicians.

His song/poem Naanga Manushangada (We are human beings) is a famous dalit-freedom song that is still played in many dalit gatherings. Avvai, his drama is considered to be the first modern Tamil drama,[1] and a prescribed textbook for many colleges. In this revisionist account, the historical/mythic poet Avvai, contrary to the prevalent image of her as an old, wise, celibate woman, is rendered as a young, sensuous, creative, 'free' person, a wandering bard.[1] The play also challenges the patriarchal view which has marginalized the female voice.[4]

His other famous literary works include modern versions of Manimekalai [5] and Kurinji Paatu.[6]

He was also involved in vocal expression of discontent of removal of statue of a Tamil legendary icon Kannaki in 2002 by the then All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (AIADMK) government of Tamil Nadu.[7] He died at the age of 72 on 1 December 2016.[8] He has been selected posthumously for the Sahitya Akademi award for 2017. But his family has declined the award, saying he did not write expecting awards and felicitations.[9]


  1. ^ a b c d e Padma, V. (September 2000). "Re-presenting protest and resistance on stage: Avvai". Indian Journal of Gender Studies. Sage. 7 (2): 217–230. doi:10.1177/097152150000700205.
  2. ^ "மக்கள் பாவலர் இன்குலாப்". Retrieved 5 December 2016.
  3. ^ "'Makkal Kavignar' Inquilab passes away". Retrieved 5 December 2016.
  4. ^ MSSRF | Voicing Silence | Video Catalogue Archived 2007-08-14 at the Wayback Machine.
  5. ^ "Manimegalai", Giving traditional performers a platform while highlighting women's issues and concerns is not easy But, writes Kausalya Santhanam, `Mouna Kural' (Voicing Silence), a Chennai-based group, shows how the two can be combined effectively Theatre from a woman's perspective a scene from (30 January 2002). "For, of and by women". p. 08. Retrieved 5 December 2016 – via The Hindu (old).
  6. ^ Santhanam, Kausalya (29 December 2005). "Ode to the Parambu hills". p. 04. Retrieved 5 December 2016 – via The Hindu (old).
  7. ^ Controversy over a statue Archived 2005-03-26 at the Wayback Machine.
  8. ^ Kolappan, B. (2 December 2016). "Poet Inquilab is no more". The Hindu.
  9. ^ Kolappan, B. (22 December 2017). "Inquilab gets Sahitya Akademi award". The Hindu.