|Inocybe (Fiber caps)|
(Fr.) Fr. (1863)
(Fr.) Quél. (1888)
Inocybe is a large genus of mushroom-forming fungi. Members of Inocybe are mycorrhizal, and some evidence shows that the high degree of speciation in the genus is due to adaptation to different trees and perhaps even local environments.
Typical mushrooms of the genus are any of various shades of brown, although some lilac or purplish species exist. Caps are small and conical, though flattening somewhat in age, generally with a pronounced raised central knob or umbo. The cap often appears fibrous or frayed, giving the genus its common name of "fiber caps". Many species have a distinctive odor, various described as musty or spermatic.
Inocybe species are not considered suitable for consumption, although in some underdeveloped countries certain species of Inocybe mushrooms are eaten. Many species contain large doses of muscarine, and no easy method of distinguishing them from potentially edible species exists. In fact, Inocybe is the most commonly encountered mushroom genus for which microscopic characteristics are the only means of certain identification to the species level. While the vast majority of Inocybes are toxic, seven rare species of Inocybe are hallucinogenic, having been found to contain psilocybin, including Inocybe aeruginascens which also contains aeruginascine (N, N, N-trimethyl-4-phosphoryloxytryptamine).
Two supersections are informally recognized: Cortinate supersection: The stipe are no pruinose, only in the apex or the upper half. The stipe base is (generally) not bulbous and a remnant of a cortina is present in the margin of the young caps. Marginate supersection: The stipe are entirely pruinose and has a bulbose base as general.
Also, several subgenera/sections are recognized:
This subgenera has pleurocystidia, usually thick-walled and in the apex has crystals. The basidiospores are smooth or angular-nodulose. The basidia is not necropigmented (basidia that become ochraceous and collapse). The hilar appendice is conspicuous. This subgenera is cosmopolitan and frequent in temperate ecosystems.
This subgenera has not pleurocystidia and has necropigmented basidia. The spores are smooth and the hilar appendix is inconspicuous. Large cheilocystidia (>50 um). This is known from tropical Africa, Tropical, India and temperate Australia.
The sporomes of this subgenera usually has a distinct odor (fruity, honey-like, fishy). The pileus is radially rimose or can be squamulose to squarrose. The lamella has not pleurocystidia, but has cheilocystidia. Basidia necropigmented or not. The spores are smooth. In temperate areas. Wide distribution.
The cap is usually woolly-squamulose, the cap surface is conspicuously darkening with alkali. The lamella broadly adnate to subdecurrent. The stipe is shorter and has not pleurocystidia. The basidia are necropigmented and has cheilocystidia as terminal elements. Spores smooth. Wide distribution
The lamellae has not pleurocystidia but has cheilocystidia. Spores smooth. Known from tropical India.
Fruitbodies has indistinct, spermatic or green corn odor. The pileus is radially rimose or rimulose, never squarrulose and rarely squamulose. The pleurocystidia are absent and the cheilocystida present. Spores smooth. Wide distribution.
Small sporomes with tubarioid or omphalinoid habit. Decurrent lamella and cheilocystiida present. Spores smooth. Known from mediterranean and tropical Africa.
Sections based in morphology
The genus of the Inocybe is very species-rich. The genus is divided according to Bon (2005) into three subgenera with sections:
- Subgenus: Inosperma - without crystal-bearing cystide
- Subgenus: Inocibium - with thick-walled, crystal-bearing pleurocystidia.
- Subgenus: Clypeus - spores tuberculate or star-shaped
There are hundreds of species of Inocybe. Representatives of the genus include:
- Inocybe aeruginascens (psychoactive)
- Inocybe coelestium (psychoactive)
- Inocybe corydalina var. corydalina Quél. (psychoactive)
- Inocybe corydalina var. erinaceomorpha (psychoactive)
- Inocybe erubescens (= I. patouillardii) red-staining inocybe
- Inocybe geophylla (toxic)
- Inocybe haemacta (psychoactive)
- Inocybe hystrix
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- Bandini, Ditte; Oertel, Bernd; Ploch, Sebastian; Ali, Tahir; Vauras, Jukka; Schneider, Anja; Scholler, Markus; Eberhardt, Ursula; Thines, Marco (2019-02-01). "Revision of some central European species of Inocybe (Fr.: Fr.) Fr. subgenus Inocybe, with the description of five new species". Mycological Progress. 18 (1): 247–294. doi:10.1007/s11557-018-1439-9. ISSN 1861-8952.
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- Stuntz, D. E. (1978). Interim skeleton key to some common species of Inocybe in the Pacific Northwest. Notes and species descriptions by Gibson, I. (2004).