Inorganic chromosome based in silicon
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Inorganic Chromosome based in Silicon (InChroSil) is an electronic circuit emulates the structure and connections of the organic DNA, without chemical reaction, using electronic components. With this minimal electronic unit (pair of nucleotides or Inchrosil, see Figure 1), it is possible create devices for storage and analysis of DNA sequences, also complex circuit to do DNA computing (see Figure 2). This device was developed using the standard technology Complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor (CMOS).
InChroSil and its systems were invented and patented in 2006 by three siblings, Silvia, Carlos and Jose Daniel Llopis at home with few economic resources. The first prototype was a single nucleotide pair and was the size of a paper sheet. It was later improved into an integrated circuit in a configuration commonly referred to as a hybrid integrated circuit.
Currently prototypes are being built in the clean room of Microsystems Technology Laboratories MTL of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.Threellop Nanotechnology Inc is the owner of the patent.
InChroSil permits the storage of genetic information in less space (88 percent savings), with higher performance  It can store the entire structure of the DNA (principal and secondary chains), meaning InChroSil can store and represent even incomplete chains including the existent holes within the DNA chain.
This device uses non‐volatile rewritable digital memory and is also able to store non‐genetic binary information in the nucleotides in a more compact form while retaining device, hardware and software compatibility.
Leonard Adleman's experiment computing a Hamiltonian path using DNA components, was rebuilt by the Llopis siblings with inorganic electronic components. This system was intended to be less perishable than the organic materials and chemical reactions in industrial environments.
Uses for Inchrosil
Inchrosil is used mostly for mass storage of DNA sequences, with potential uses being:
- Fingerprinting staff, with the storage of the genetic fingerprint. His invention is Dr. Alec Jeffreys at the University of Leicester in 1984.
- Genetic studies, with the tool where large sequences would be stored, which could be compared and manipulated digitally.
- Genebanks, which store large amounts of genetic information.
- Classification of species and animals.
- Tool medical studies (genetic).
- Javier Carazo (2009-08-26). "Pequeños gigantes: La revolución española en el ADN". Cinco dias.
- Silvia, Carlos and Jose Daniel, llopis. "Electronic System to Emulate the Chain of the "DNA" Structure of a Chromosome". PCT worldwide. WIPO. Retrieved 7 November 2012.
- Hirsch, Cliff (November 2007). "Inchrosil - Inorganic Chromosome Based in Silicion". Semiconductor Times.
- Ministry of justice (Israel) (2009). "ELECTRONIC SYSTEM FOR EMULATING THE CHAIN OF THE DNA STRUCTURE OF A CHROMOSOME". Israel state scientific records.
- de las heras (2009-09-27). "DNI genético, identificación segura". Las provincias.
- belt.es, El Portal de los Profesionales de la Seguridad. (September 2009). "Threellop Nanotechnology transformará el mundo de la salud, la seguridad y la defensa". Nuevas Tecnologías Aplicadas a la Seguridad.
- CDTI - Centro para el desarrollo tecnologico industrial (July 2009). "Threellop Nanotechnology obtiene un innovador sistema de almacenamiento genético electrónico" (PDF). Perspectiva. 31: 40–41.
- Leonard M. Adleman. "Molecular Computation of solutions to combinational problems". Science, New Series, Vol. 266, No 5187, (Nov 11, 1994), 1021-1024.
- NanoSapin.org, Spanish Nanotechnology Network; Phantoms foundations (2009). "Threellop: Inorganic Chromosome based in Silicion". Nanoscience and nanotechnology in Spain: 168.
- Llopis, Silvia; Llopis, Carlos; Llopis, José Daniel (18 October 2008). "Identification system by means of InChroSil (Inorganic Chromosome Based in Silicon)".
- Jeffreys A.J., Wilson V., Thein S.W. (1984). "Hypervariable 'minisatellite' regions in human DNA". Nature 314: 67–73. doi:10.1038/314067a0.
- ANTONIO GONZÁLEZ (11/06/2007). "Tarjetas de ADN para identificar soldados". El publico. Check date values in:
- Sanchis, Eva (2009-09-20). "Ya es posible comparar el ADN de forma masiva". La Razon - Innovación.
- Generalitat Valenciana, Government of Spain (2008). Capacidades en Biotecnología - VIT SALUD. Valencia: Generalitat Valenciana. p. 143.
- Patent (WO/2009/022024) ELECTRONIC SYSTEM FOR EMULATING THE CHAIN OF THE DNA STRUCTURE OF A CHROMOSOME
- European Patent (EP2180434A1) ELECTRONIC SYSTEM FOR EMULATING THE CHAIN OF THE DNA STRUCTURE OF A CHROMOSOME
- US Patent (US2010/0268520) ELECTRONIC SYSTEM FOR EMULATING THE CHAIN OF THE DNA STRUCTURE OF A CHROMOSOME