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It is most common for branches of two trees of the same species to grow together, though inosculation may be noted across related species. The branches first grow separately in proximity to each other until they touch. At this point, the bark on the touching surfaces is gradually abraded away as the trees move in the wind. Once the cambium of two trees touches, they sometimes self-graft and grow together as they expand in diameter. Inosculation customarily results when tree limbs are braided or pleached.
The term "inosculation" is also used in the context of plastic surgery, as one of the three mechanisms by which skin grafts take at the host site. Blood vessels from the recipient site are believed to connect with those of the graft in order to restore vascularity.
Inosculation is most common among the following species of tree due to their thin bark.
Two trees may grow to their mature size adjacent to each other and seemingly grow together or conjoin, demonstrating the process of inosculation. These may be of the same species or even trees of two different genera or families, depending on whether the two trees have become truly grafted together (once the cambium of two trees touches, they self-graft and grow together) or not. Usually grafting is only between two trees of the same or closely related species or genera, but the appearance of grafting can be given by two trees that are physically touching, rubbing, intertwined, or entangled. Both conifers and deciduous trees can become conjoined. Beech trees in particular are frequent conjoiners, as is blackthorn (Prunus spinosa).
Such trees are often colloquially referred to as "husband and wife" trees, or "marriage trees". The straightforward application of the term comes from the obvious unification of two separate individual trees, although a more humorous use of the term relates to the suggestive appearance of some natural examples. A degree of religious intent may also exist, as some cults are organized around beliefs that trees contain a hidden or sacred power to cure or to enhance fertility, or that they contain the souls of ancestors or of the unborn.
On his Tour of Scotland, published in 1800, T. Garnett notes a tree near Inveraray that the locals called the Marriage tree, formed from a lime tree with two trunks that have been joined together by a branch in the manner of a person putting their arm around another (see illustration) as would a married couple.
On the way to the Heavenly Lake near Urumqi in China are a pair of trees that local people have called the Husband and Wife trees because they are connected together by a living branch. The Tatajia Husband and Wife trees are in Taiwan and in Yakushima, Kagoshima-ken, Japan, are a pair of Husband and Wife trees formed from conjoined cedars. The Marriage Tree on Wassaw Island, Georgia, was named by the family who vacationed there and consists of a Bay and a Palm fused at the root.
Conjoined sycamore maples
Inosculation of willow (Salix sp.)
Fused chestnut trees (Castanea sativa)
Fused ash trees (Fraxinus excelsior)
Fused ash trees, side view (Fraxinus excelsior)
Fused sycamore trees (Platanus occidentalis)
- Garnett, T. (1800). Observations on a Tour of the Highlands and part of the Western Isles of Scotland. London : Cadell & Davies.
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