Inositol phosphate

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Phosphate group

Inositol phosphates are a group of mono- to hexaphosphorylated inositols. They play crucial roles in diverse cellular functions, such as cell growth, apoptosis, cell migration, endocytosis, and cell differentiation. The group comprises:


Inositol triphosphate[edit]

Inositol trisphosphates act on the inositol triphosphate receptor to release calcium into the cytoplasm. Further reading: Function of calcium in humans


Inositol tetra-, penta-, and hexa-phosphates have been implicated in gene expression.[1][2]

Inositol hexaphosphate[edit]

Inositol hexaphosphate facilitates the formation of the six-helix bundle and assembly of the immature HIV-1 Gag lattice. IP6 makes ionic contacts with two rings of lysine residues at the centre of the Gag hexamer. Proteolytic cleavage then unmasks an alternative binding site, where IP6 interaction promotes the assembly of the mature capsid lattice. These studies identify IP6 as a naturally occurring small molecule that promotes both assembly and maturation of HIV-1.[3]


  1. ^ Shen, X; Xiao, H; Ranallo, R; Wu, WH; Wu, C (2003). "Modulation of ATP-dependent chromatin-remodeling complexes by inositol polyphosphates". Science. 299 (5603): 112–4. doi:10.1126/science.1078068. PMID 12434013. S2CID 8381889.
  2. ^ Steger, DJ; Haswell, ES; Miller, AL; Wente, SR; O'Shea, EK (2003). "Regulation of chromatin remodeling by inositol polyphosphates". Science. 299 (5603): 114–6. doi:10.1126/science.1078062. PMC 1458531. PMID 12434012.
  3. ^ Dick, Robert A.; Zadrozny, Kaneil K.; Xu, Chaoyi; Schur, Florian K. M.; Lyddon, Terri D.; Ricana, Clifton L.; Wagner, Jonathan M.; Perilla, Juan R.; Ganser-Pornillos, Barbie K.; Johnson, Marc C.; Pornillos, Owen; Vogt, Volker M. (1 August 2018). "Inositol phosphates are assembly co-factors for HIV-1". Nature. 560 (7716): 509–512. Bibcode:2018Natur.560..509D. doi:10.1038/s41586-018-0396-4. PMC 6242333. PMID 30069050.

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