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In the foreground, a woman in labour screams as the head of an alien child emerges from between her legs. In the background, two men in spacesuits shine flashlights onto the newborn, aghast. Text at the top of the image reads "Somewhere in the Depths of Space ... A Horrific Nightmare is About to Become a Reality". Lower down, the title of the film, "Inseminoid", is rendered in large text. Under the title, the earlier text concludes "... A Far from Human Birth!" and leads into the production credits that line the bottom of the image.
Film poster
Directed byNorman J. Warren
Produced byRichard Gordon
David Speechley
Written byNick and Gloria Maley
StarringJudy Geeson
Robin Clarke
Jennifer Ashley
Stephanie Beacham
Music byJohn Scott
CinematographyJohn Metcalfe
Edited byPeter Boyle
Jupiter Film Productions
Distributed byButcher's Film Service
Release date
  • 22 March 1981 (1981-03-22)
Running time
93 minutes
CountryUnited Kingdom
Hong Kong[1]
Budget£1 million

Inseminoid (titled Horror Planet in the United States) is a 1981 British-Hong Kong independent science-fiction horror film. Director Norman J. Warren's eighth film, the plot of Inseminoid concerns a group of future scientists excavating the ruins of an ancient civilisation on a distant planet. When a monstrous alien creature attacks and inseminates one of the women in the team, chaos ensues as the unbalanced victim, possessing unnatural strength, murders her colleagues one after another in a psychotic bid to protect her unborn twin hybrid offspring. It stars Judy Geeson, Robin Clarke, and Stephanie Beacham. Victoria Tennant makes an early film appearance.

Filmed between May and June 1980, Inseminoid is based on a script written by Nick and Gloria Maley, a couple who had contributed to the special effects of Warren's films starting with Satan's Slave (1976). A low budget of £1 million, half of which was contributed by the Hong Kong Shaw Brothers, funded location filming in both the Chislehurst Caves in Kent and on the island of Gozo in Malta. Composer John Scott perfected the electronic score of Inseminoid in multiple hours-long studio sessions following the completion of shooting.

Although initial box office reception was positive both in the United Kingdom and overseas, Inseminoid has since failed to impress a majority of critics, who have faulted Warren's film for perceived poor acting, special effects and set design. Despite praise for actress Judy Geeson's depiction of the lead character, Sandy, approval of the film in general has been tarnished due to its concept of an extraterrestrial insemination, which has been viewed negatively in comparison to the premise of Alien (1979). Both Warren and Alien distributors 20th Century Fox have rejected claims that the script of Inseminoid was influenced by that of the earlier film.

Academic criticism of Inseminoid has concentrated on the film's treatment of the female sex and female sexualities in the context of corruption by an alien source. In addition to its depiction of the abject Sandy, who is rendered a distorted Other in the aftermath of her unnatural impregnation, the film has been seen to incorporate a clash between the patriarchal and the maternal towards its climax, as the new mother kills her former friends one by one. Complementing the film's successful VHS run, a novelisation of Inseminoid was written by Larry Miller.


On a freezing planet, a team of 12 Xeno project archaeologists and scientists are excavating the ruins of an ancient civilisation. A network of caves is found to contain wall markings and crystals of unknown origin. While investigating the caves, Dean White is caught in a mysterious explosion and left incapacitated. Deciphering the wall markings, xenolinguist Mitch theorises that the alien civilisation was based on a concept of dualism: the planet orbits a binary star and seems to have ruled by twins. Medical assistant Sharon discovers that the crystals are surrounded by energy field and deduces that a form "chemical intelligence" controlled life on the planet.

Ricky Williams is compelled to re-enter the caves when a crystal sample begins to pulsate and the intelligence takes control of him through a wound on his arm. In his madness, he throws Gail into a pile of twisted metal, damaging her environmental suit and trapping her foot. Desperate to free herself, Gail removes her helmet and tries to amputate her foot with a chainsaw, but instead freezes to death. Documentation officer Kate Carson shoots Ricky with a harpoon gun before he opens both airlock doors and renders the air inside the base unbreathable.

After the burial of Ricky and Gail, Mitch and Sandy return to the caves to collect more crystals. A monstrous creature appears and dismembers Mitch before raping Sandy. Sandy is retrieved from the caves and treated by the team's doctor, Karl, who discovers that the rape has triggered an accelerated pregnancy. When further explosions block off the caves, the survivors are left with nothing to do but wait for the arrival of a rescue shuttle.

The intelligence takes control of Sandy. She stabs Barbra to death with a pair of scissors and then mutilates Dean and the remains of Mitch, drinking their blood. The rest of the team take refuge in the control room as Sandy uses explosives to destroy the base's transmitter. When her mental imbalance appears to correct itself, Karl, Sharon and Commander Holly McKay attempt to sedate her. However, Sandy's madness returns and Holly and Karl are killed in an accident with heat-sealing machines, whereupon Sandy disembowels the corpses.

Mark radios Sandy, his romantic interest, from the control room to distract her while Kate and Gary leave to arm themselves with chainsaws from a storage room. The ruse is uncovered and Sandy harpoons Gary outside the airlock, breathing the planet's toxic atmosphere to no ill effect as she devours his flesh. While preparing for a final confrontation, Mark stumbles across Sandy's newborn hybrid twins. He leaves them with Sharon as Sandy uses more explosives to blast through the control room door and proceeds to destroy all the equipment inside. Sandy injures Kate with another explosive charge and kills her. In a last stand, Mark strangles Sandy with a piece of cable. He returns to Sharon to find her dead, one of the twins biting at her gashed neck, before its sibling launches itself at him.

Twenty-eight days later, a Xeno shuttle lands on the planet to investigate the loss of contact with the team. With the base in ruins and all members of the team either dead or missing, commandos Corin and Roy abandon the search for survivors and shuttle pilot Jeff radios Xeno control to request clearance to return. The final shots reveal that Sandy's twins have stowed away inside a storage compartment on board the shuttle.



Following the releases of Satan's Slave (1976), Prey (1978) and Terror (1979), Norman J. Warren had at first been attached to direct a film titled Gargoyles.[2] When this production collapsed at the scripting stage, Warren and his producer, Richard Gordon, accepted a plot proposal from the husband-and-wife team of Nick and Gloria Maley, who had worked on Satan's Slave as members of the special effects department besides Star Wars (1977) and Superman (1978).[3] The Maleys drafted their concept as a composite of their favourite science-fiction ideas[3] and an opportunity to exhibit their best effects work,[4] although the suggested title, Doomseeds, had to be changed to avoid confusion with the 1977 film Demon Seed.[2] The script for the new Inseminoid, which indicates that the film is set two decades in the future in a militaristic universe,[5] required amendments prior to filming, although the premise received Warren and Gordon's approval.[2]


Producer Richard Gordon cast American actors Clarke and Ashley while on business in Hollywood.[4] Prior to Inseminoid, Ashley had starred in minor films of such independent studios as Crown International Pictures, while Clarke had just completed filming on the 1980 film The Formula.[2] Warren recalls that although Ashley "was not the greatest actress, she was very enthusiastic and very easy to work with."[2] The professional relationship between Warren and Clarke broke down during the filming of sequences such as Dean's incapacitation inside the caves, when the director and actor disagreed about the extent to which Clarke needed to respond to the script when his character raises his voice to a shout.[2] Warren asserts that Clarke's "high opinion of himself" made the actor "a nightmare to work with", and adds that he "could be extremely difficult, making every scene with him an uphill struggle."[2]

Rapports between the director and other cast members proved to be positive: in particular, Geeson is credited as "an absolute dream to work with"[2] and praised for her acting of the maddened expectant mother, which Warren argues avoids descending into unintentional humour.[2] Gordon also offers a positive assessment, stating that Geeson accepted the demands of her part with enthusiasm and did not complain that it demeaned her as an actress.[4]

Warren retains fond memories of Beacham's "very professional"[6] performance, and remarks that, "with tongue firmly in cheek, she would often wind me up by asking what her motivation was for a particular action, just as I about to call 'Action!', knowing full well that my answer would be, 'Because it's in the script'."[6] Beacham, a mother of two infant children, agreed to appear in the film to support her family: "I had to choose between a play that I really, really wanted to do, which would have paid me £65 a week, and this script for a film called Inseminoid. Hey! No choice. Two pink babies asleep upstairs! No choice!"[7]


A monstrous alien creature with blood dripping from its mouth looks towards the camera. Beneath it is the body of a woman, her throat gashed.
Nick Maley's special effects work included the alien twin props.[2] In this shot, one of the twins is shown to have killed Sharon (Heather Wright).

Agreeing to fund half of the proposed £1 million budget, the Hong Kong Shaw Brothers became partners in the film's production.[4] Elder brother Sir Run Run Shaw is credited as the presenter of Inseminoid in the opening titles. With a production staff of 75, principal photography commenced on 12 May 1980.[2] John Metcalfe, camera operator for Satan's Slave and Terror, assumed the role of cinematographer.[2] His former role fell to the less experienced Dick Pope.[2] Three weeks of location filming at the Chislehurst Caves in Kent preceded a one-week indoor session at Lee International Studios at Wembley Park in London.[2] The second unit completed special effects and linking shots in a fifth week, based at Film House in Wardour Street. To simulate the desolate landscape of the alien planet in long shots, the production team departed for the island of Gozo, Malta for a final shoot of two days, capitalising on the strong Mediterranean sun to produce good lighting.[2]

A photograph of a canyon between two cliffs.
Gozo island, where the production spent two days filming, doubles as the planet's surface.[2]

Opting to shoot using Mitchell cameras incorporating 35 mm Eastman Kodak film and anamorphic lenses, Warren recalls that the produced footage boasted "an incredibly sharp image and what I would term as the 'American' look."[2] He remembers that the setting of the Chislehurst Caves rendered the subterranean complex more realistic than a potential in-studio alternative given the modest budget of Inseminoid.[2] However, the cold, damp, airless conditions, combined with the uneven surface of the cave floors, complicated the filming sessions and necessitated frequent repairs of equipment.[4]

Shooting often ran for 12 hours at a time and led to frequent minor injuries among the cast and production staff,[4] while some developed intense feelings of claustrophobia in the confined space.[4] Gordon suggests that the uncomfortable working conditions made the performances of the cast more realistic, but concedes that although, "I think all this paid off in terms of what we got on the screen for the budget, but the circumstances were very difficult."[4] In the absence of suitable facilities inside the caves, the personnel established administrative, dressing and make-up rooms in a car park some distance from the filming area.[2] Co-writer Nick Maley reprised his role as a special effects technician to produce the infant twin props that appear in the climax of the film.[3]

The filming of Inseminoid wrapped two days behind schedule.[2] Warren remembers making a major cut to scenes of Ricky's rampage to help the shooting finish on time: "I had to put the "blue pencil" through part of the scene, which involved a chase through various tunnels. Three pages of script, which I had to condense into one shot. Having to make such an enormous compromise was not a happy choice for me, but it was the only way of getting us back on schedule."[2] On his contribution to Inseminoid, Warren stated that Peter Boyle proved to be "a pleasure to work with, because he had a natural feel for the material and managed to create just the right pace and rhythm throughout the film."[2] During the post-production process, the editing staff increased the brightness of the original print, concerned that a dim appearance would damage the chances of sales to television broadcasters,[2] and removed the most graphic shots of the birth of the mutant children to ensure that the film would be certified by the British Board of Film Classification (BBFC).[8] The opening title visuals, consisting of vibrant oil frames, are a contribution of Oxford Scientific Films.[9]


Determining that the low budget precluded an orchestral soundtrack, Warren and his long-serving composer, John Scott, agreed that all the music should be electronic.[2] Produced after hours of studio multi-tracking and overdubbing, Warren considers the final score an "amazing achievement"[2] and praises Scott's realisation of a soundtrack incorporating the "experimental"[2] electronic brand of music. The score received an LP release in 1982.[10]

Soundtrack album by
Track list[10]
1."Main Title"2:35
2."The Chrysalis"3:34
4."Death in Space"4:01
5."The Creature Strikes"3:20
6."The Insemination"2:10
7."Sandy's Metamorphosis"4:02
8."Sandy's Warning"1:21
9."Sandy Kills"2:25
10."Birth of the Twins"2:42
11."Death of Sandy"2:27


In the UK, Inseminoid premiered on 22 March 1981 in the Midlands.[2] It later opened at 65 cinemas in the region, and reached London in October.[2] Overseas, German cinemas had begun to exhibit the film in January under the title Samen des Bösen (English: Seeds of Evil).[2] To the dislike of Warren,[8] distributors Almi released the film under the title Horror Planet in the United States and Canada,[4] but later restored the name to the original Inseminoid.[8]

Original pre-release advertising included a regional "mail drop" of circulars presenting screenshots of a screaming Geeson and the tagline "Warning! An Horrific Alien Birth! A Violent Nightmare in Blood! Inseminoid at a Cinema Near You Soon!"[2] Warren, who regrets the decision to publicise the film in such a graphic manner, comments, "The problem with mail-drops is that you have no way of knowing who lives in the house, or who will see it first. It could be a pregnant woman, and old lady, or even worse, a young child. So it was not such a good idea."[2]

Certified X (and later 18) in the UK,[3][11] Inseminoid was rated R in the United States for "profanity, nudity, violence, rape and gore".[12] In 2005, the BBFC revised its certification of Inseminoid, re-rating the film 15 for "strong, bloody violence".[11] Inseminoid became one of the first films to be released on VHS soon after its appearance in cinemas, and reached seventh position in British video sales charts in November 1981.[2] Renewed editions became available in 1992 and 1998.[2]

Critical response[edit]

This is one knock-off that doesn't take its time with anything—at just 12 minutes in, there's action in those outer space mine shafts, with the first victim in this sci-fi horror tale kick-starting every cliché and already-stolen Alien plot point in the book ... What follows is simply a stage for gloriously awful dialogue spouted out of amateur actors, whose deaths are more a result of pure idiocy in their dumb-as-nails characters than any kind of suspenseful horror plotting.

– Jeremy Wheeler, AllRovi[13]

Inseminoid attracted positive critical reception on its original release.[2][8] In terms of box office performance, it reached a high of fifth position in the 1981 British charts.[2][8] At one point it ranked seventh at the box office in France, while in the United States it proceeded to enter the Los Angeles Times list of top ten films.[2] American director Roger Corman congratulated Warren on the film and considered commissioning him for further productions.[3] However, a private screening had failed to impress members of the British Academy of Film and Television Arts, who dismissed Inseminoid as "'Commercial rubbish! ... Not the sort of thing the Academy should be showing ... And certainly not the kind of film the British film industry should be making!'"[2]

In 1982, Inseminoid received a minor accolade at the Italian Fantafestival (winning the Best Special Effects prize) and a nomination at the Fantasporto convention in Portugal (for the Best Film award).[14] Recalling how the depiction the female sex in Inseminoid displeased women's circles, Warren states, "It seems it is quite common for pregnant women to have nightmares about giving birth to some kind of monster. Of course, all their complaints and their letters which were printed in the local papers only helped to increase the queue at the box office."[2]

Examining the acting in a review published in Starlog magazine, Alan Jones expressed a preference for the British members of the cast, crediting Geeson as "absolutely first-rate"[3] and criticising "the weak performances from the token Americans, Robin Clarke and Jennifer Ashley".[3] Praising the production values for cost-effectiveness, he discerned signs of Warren's "particular trademark"[3] in such murder scenes as that of Barbra (through repeated scissor-stabbing) and Holly (through heat-searing). He professed his opinion that Inseminoid "is not faultless by any means",[3] citing a predictable and often "ridiculous"[3] plot as factors detracting from his pleasure in viewing the film. Nevertheless, he asserted that Inseminoid meets audience demands for a B movie of its genre, progressing "at such a pace that you nearly almost forget that you've seen it all before",[3] and declared it to be "far less routine and far more enjoyable than I had expected."[3]

Critical response in the United States proved to be less favourable. In a review published in Virginia in January 1983, Edward Jones of The Free-Lance Star offered praise for the "novel touch"[15] of casting a would-be-mother as the principal villain, commenting, "In what has to be a new low, even for extraterrestrial-horror films, all the men end up punching this pregnant woman in the stomach. What a time to have twins!"[15] Nevertheless, Inseminoid is discarded as "no more than a mix of everything-you've-ever-seen-in-a-horror-movie-and-didn't-particularly-want-to-see-again."[15] In a November 1983 edition of the Florida newspaper Boca Raton News, Skip Sheffield branded the film "horrible"[12] and "cheapo",[12] suggesting that his readers "Imagine Alien without the fantastic sets, convincing special effects and literate dialogue, and you have a picture of Horror Planet."[12] He added his opinion that brutal violence does not guarantee narrative suspense, punning on the name Run Run Shaw in his downbeat conclusion that "Horror Planet is a film to run, run away from—fast."[12]

In 2004, Douglas Pratt argued that Inseminoid consists of "some gooey gore shots but few other thrills"[16] and denounced the quality of the acting and props used. He still conceded that Inseminoid "goes through the motions properly, however, so fans will probably find it worth passing the time."[16] The film is award one star out of five on the AllRovi website, where reviewer Cavett Binion rules that it is a "fairly standard rip-off"[17] of Alien in spite of the originality of its core premise, with a "rabid, eye-popping performance"[17] from Geeson that is "more than a bit uncomfortable to watch."[17] The rape sequence is seen as a "surreal and truly disgusting flashback"[17] and the title of the film itself deemed "sleazy".[17]

Warren rejects the label "video nasty", which has been applied to Inseminoid on the incorrect assumption that its violent content made it impossible to release uncut on home video formats in the UK.[8] In response to the idea that the film has attained cult status, he remarks, "if Inseminoid has become some form of cult movie, then I am very pleased and, indeed, very flattered."[2] On his private response to his work, he answers that "I don't think you could ever be one hundred percent satisfied with any film you make",[2] and that, if he were to re-make Inseminoid, he would darken the lighting of certain scenes to heighten the tension and demand a longer filming schedule.[2]


In both [Alien and Inseminoid], conventional sexuality is restored. In Alien, Ripley undresses at the end and displays herself as pleasurable to the audience; similarly, Inseminoid asserts the durability of established gender roles, despite the survival of the twins. However, unlike Alien, Inseminoid retains its power to disturb, as Sandy's words to Mark resound long after the final frame ... The generative mother has spoken, reinforced her eternal presence, and departed to haunt the dreams of men.

– Peter Wright[9]

Inseminoid has been criticised as a perceived imitation,[13][18] "knock-off"[19] or "rip-off"[12][16][17] of the 1979 science-fiction horror film Alien. Peter Wright, a film historian and lecturer at the University of Liverpool, interprets both the "atmospheric" scenes set in the underground tomb network, and the mess hall sequence preceding Rick's madness, as potential derivations from Ridley Scott's film: while the first recalls the setting of the remote planetoid, LV-426, the second resonates with the "chestburster" horror scene.[9] Wright asserts that the connection of Inseminoid to Alien could appear to be "exploitative",[20] while Barry Langford of the University of London views Inseminoid as representative of the dependence of British cinema on its American counterpart.[21]

Alan Jones of Starlog magazine suggests that "any similarity between Inseminoid and Alien is totally intentional. Except here is the basic idea contained in Alien taken to its sleaziest extreme."[3] He interprets one such parallel in the character of Kate who, it is argued, emulates the appearance of Sigourney Weaver in the role of Ellen Ripley. However, he also cites Contamination (1980) and Scared to Death (1981) as less effective imitations of Scott.[3] Besides Alien, Edward Jones of the newspaper The Free Lance–Star discerns elements of the novel Dracula (1897), the TV series The Bionic Woman (1976–78), and the films The Thing from Another World (1951) and Night of the Living Dead (1968) in the plot of Inseminoid.[15]

Warren denies claims of an imitation, noting the discrepancies between the production schedules: when Inseminoid entered the shooting stage, Alien, which had been filmed in closed studios, had been released months before.[2] While the director accepts the often "uncanny" similarities between the two films, he states that Alien distributors 20th Century Fox discounted the possibility of derivation after watching the final cut of Inseminoid: "... in fact, the head of Fox sent us a very nice letter saying how much he enjoyed the film and wished us luck with the release ... I find it flattering that anyone can compare Alien, which cost in the region of $30 million, with Inseminoid which cost less than £1 million. We must have done something right."[2]

Wright interprets the transformation of Sandy from innocent female to a murderous mother-to-be of human-alien hybrid twins as a "direct manifestation of masculine anxiety regarding female reproductive capacity". He comments that the origin of the horror of Inseminoid is internalised as the seed of a violent alien life form, which renders Sandy "woman-as-other", or "abject Other". This opposes the transferring of "fear of woman onto the alien other" as demonstrated in the extraterrestrial villain of Alien. Inseminoid is also judged to be reminiscent of the 1977 film Demon Seed, which casts an advanced computer as the source of a rape resulting in insemination: "in both films, women are framed as 'Other' by their sexual congress with more conventional iconic others: the machine and the alien." Pregnancies are depicted as sources of horror, an attitude apparent in the "uterine and cervical" opening credits of Inseminoid, which are suggestive of the viewer "entering the realm of the monstrous womb ... the titling reveals a microscopic insect resident in the body of a larger organism."[9]

In the upper image, a naked woman lying on a table stares upwards with a terrified expression on her face. A hypodermic needle injects fluid into her left arm. In the lower image, a giant, transparent phallus is shown pumping alien semen into the woman, impregnating her.
Sandy (Judy Geeson) is impregnated. Wright argues that this sequence reflects conflicting attitudes to childbirth: while the alien phallus (bottom) promotes reproduction, Karl injecting Sandy's arm with a hypodermic needle (top) suppresses it.[9]

Wright argues that Warren's inspiration of terror through a distorted representation of the uterus strikes a chord with the 1979 film The Brood, in which a woman produces deformed children through asexual reproduction. Commenting further, he examines the rape sequence itself, in which Sandy witnesses Karl injecting her with an unknown substance prior to the alien insemination, and makes a connection to dialogue from other scenes indicating that the female Xeno scientists are regularly administered intravenous injections for contraceptive purposes. The impregnation of Sandy through perverted intercourse, conflicting with the suppression of childbirth that is manifested through Karl's use of a hypodermic and (phallic) needle, reveals "coherent sexism" in so far as Inseminoid "attacks the very notion of female sexual freedom, while suggesting, paradoxically, that contraception is the responsibility of women." That Sandy reproduces at an accelerated pace and regresses into an animalistic state are factors adding to her depiction as an abject Other, or object of "male paranoia".[9]

During the final struggle, which pits the patriarchal social structure of the Xeno team against Sandy's maternal element, it is not until Gary has half-suffocated in the toxic atmosphere that he is murdered. Wright argues that the sequence is reassuring from a male perspective despite its graphic content, since it implies that no woman, even one with superhuman strength, possesses the power to kill a man in cold blood. A murderer of colleagues of both sexes, that Sandy dies at the hands of Mark ultimately renders her an aid to the re-empowerment of the male sex, although the twin offspring are quick to avenge her.[9] Comparing the plot of Inseminoid to Biblical scriptures, Christopher Partridge of Lancaster University turns his attention to the nature of the twins, referring to them as "essentially space Nephilim, technological demons with appetites and habits reminiscent of the mythic forebears."[22]

Maternal images endure as far as the epilogue, featuring the arrival of Jeff, Corin and Roy at the Xeno base. In an allusion to the human menstrual cycle, it is said that 28 days have elapsed since the communications break-down. The destruction of the installation and the deaths of its personnel are attributed to an "internal disturbance of some kind", forming "an ironic phrase which encapsulates the film's vision of pregnancy as an irruption of Otherness from within." Focusing on Larry Miller's 1981 novelisation, described as "imaginative and misogynistic", Wright refers to sequences that are absent from the film and inspire repulsion on the part of the reader at the distortion of the female form. New transformations that afflict Sandy include oozing sores (which Wright construes as an aberration of natal oil secretion) and pus emanating from the nipples (argued to mirror colostrum). Sandy accepts such unnatural metamorphoses, which culminate in the onset of labour, with fascination.[9]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "Inseminoid (1980)". British Film Institute. Archived from the original on 5 May 2018. Retrieved 21 December 2015.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq Meadows, Tony (21 November 2009). "The Making of Inseminoid: Interview with Norman J. Warren". Archived from the original on 2 August 2007. Retrieved 15 August 2010.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Jones, Alan. "Inseminoid Review". Starlog. 3 (10). ISSN 0191-4626. OCLC 44807314. Archived from the original on 10 November 2007. Retrieved 16 August 2010.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i Weaver, Tom (2006) [1988]. Interviews with B Science Fiction and Horror Movie Makers: Writers, Producers, Directors, Actors, Moguls and Makeup. Brunas, John; Brunas, Michael (2nd ed.). Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland. pp. 193–94. ISBN 978-0-7864-2858-8.
  5. ^ Thompson, Ruth (4 January 1981). "TV Star Scene: Discovery Just Like a Movie Script". The Modesto Bee. Modesto, California: The McClatchy Company. p. 66. OCLC 28464207.
  6. ^ a b Genier, Steve (April 2005). "Satan's Terror: An Exclusive Interview with Norman J. Warren". Archived from the original on 21 April 2008. Retrieved 15 August 2010.
  7. ^ McLean, Gareth (18 June 2003). "Living in the Pink". The Guardian. London, UK: Guardian Media Group. ISSN 0261-3077. OCLC 60623878. Archived from the original on 20 April 2013.
  8. ^ a b c d e f Sipos, Thomas M. (13 November 2004). "British Horror Director Norman J. Warren Returns on DVD". Archived from the original on 21 February 2008. Retrieved 16 August 2010.
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h Wright, Peter (2002) [1999]. "The British Post-Alien Intrusion Film". In Hunter, I. Q (ed.). British Science Fiction Cinema. British Popular Cinema (2nd ed.). London, UK: Routledge. pp. 138–42. ISBN 978-0-203-00977-2.
  10. ^ a b c "Inseminoid Soundtrack Listing". Archived from the original on 14 October 2012. Retrieved 16 August 2010.
  11. ^ a b "BBFC Certifications". British Board of Film Classification. Archived from the original on 20 March 2012. Retrieved 18 August 2010.
  12. ^ a b c d e f Sheffield, Skip (17 November 1983). "Inseminoid Review". Boca Raton News. Boca Raton, Florida: South Florida Media Company. p. 15. OCLC 232117398.
  13. ^ a b Wheeler, Jeremy. "AllRovi Review". AllRovi. Archived from the original on 21 March 2009. Retrieved 16 August 2010.
  14. ^ Presenter: Paul McCarthy. Director, Producer, Cinematographer, Editor: Darren Perry (1999). Evil Heritage: Independent Film-Making & the Films of Norman J. Warren (DVD). Distributor: Starlite Video.
  15. ^ a b c d Jones, Edward (18 January 1983). "For a New Low in Terror, Horror Planet Delivers". The Free Lance–Star. Fredericksburg, Virginia: The Free-Lance Star Publishing Company. p. 10. OCLC 232119194.
  16. ^ a b c Pratt, Douglas (2004). Doug Pratt's DVD: Movies, Television, Music, Art, Adult and More. 1. UNET 2 Corporation. p. 607. ISBN 978-1-932916-00-3.
  17. ^ a b c d e f Binion, Cavett. "AllRovi Review". AllRovi. Archived from the original on 15 January 2011. Retrieved 16 August 2010.
  18. ^ Tudor, Andrew (1989). Monsters and Mad Scientists: A Cultural History of the Horror Movie. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell. p. 73. ISBN 978-0-631-16992-5.
  19. ^ Marriott, James; Newman, Kim (2008) [2006]. Russell, Lorna (ed.). Horror: The Definitive Guide to the Cinema of Fear (2nd ed.). London, UK: André Deutsch. p. 158. ISBN 978-0-233-00201-9.
  20. ^ Wright, Peter (2009). "Film and Television, 1960–1980". In Bould, Mark (ed.). The Routledge Companion to Science Fiction. Butler, Andrew M.; Roberts, Adam; Vint, Sheryl. Oxford, UK: Routledge. p. 97. ISBN 978-0-415-45378-3.
  21. ^ Langford, Barry (2006) [2005]. Film Genre: Hollywood and Beyond (2nd ed.). Edinburgh, UK: Edinburgh University Press. p. 200. ISBN 978-0-7486-1903-0.
  22. ^ Partridge, Christopher (July 2004). "Alien Demonology: The Christian roots of the Malevolent Extraterrestrial in UFO Religions and Abduction Spiritualities" (PDF). Religion. 34 (3): 163–89. CiteSeerX doi:10.1016/j.religion.2004.04.014. Archived (PDF) from the original on 13 July 2011. Retrieved 16 August 2010.

External links[edit]