Institute of Economic Affairs

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Institute of Economic Affairs
Formation1955; 69 years ago (1955)
TypeFree market think tank
HeadquartersLondon, United Kingdom
Executive Director
Tom Clougherty
Fundingpartially disclosed, including Jersey Finance and the John Templeton Foundation, some minor funding from fossil fuel industry, gambling industry, and tobacco industry

The Institute of Economic Affairs (IEA) is a right-wing, free market think tank[7] registered as a UK charity.[8] Associated with the New Right,[5][6] the IEA describes itself as an "educational research institute"[9] and says that it seeks to "further the dissemination of free-market thinking" by "analysing and expounding the role of markets in solving economic and social problems".[9][10] The IEA is the oldest free market think-tank in the UK [11] and was established to promote free-market responses to economic challenges by targeting influential academics and journalists, as well as students, in order to propagate these ideas widely.[12] Adopting as its credo FA Hayek's view that "yesterday's dissent becomes today's consensus,"[13] the IEA says that it prioritises producing work with a focus on economic insights over partisan politics.[12]

The IEA subscribes to a neoliberal world view and advocates positions based on this ideology.[14] It published its first pamphlet in 1955 making the case for the free convertibility of the pound.[15] It published climate change denial material between 1994 and 2007,[16] and has advocated for more patient-centric universal healthcare through privatisation of elements of, and abolition of complete government control of, the National Health Service (NHS),[17] in favour of a healthcare system with market mechanisms.[18][4] It has also published research on alleviating the housing crisis.[19] It has received more than £70,000 from the tobacco industry[20][21] (although it does not reveal its funders),[22][23] and a former IEA officer was recorded offering a prospective supporter introductions to policy makers. The IEA is headquartered in Westminster, London, England.[24][16]

Founded by businessman and battery farming pioneer Antony Fisher in 1955,[25] the IEA was one of the first modern think tanks,[26] and promoted Thatcherite right-wing ideology, and free market and monetarist economic policies.[27] The IEA has been criticised for operating in a manner closer to that of a lobbying operation than as a genuine think tank.[28] The IEA publishes a journal (Economic Affairs), a student magazine (EA), books and discussion papers, and holds regular lectures.[29]


In 1945, Antony Fisher read an article in Reader's Digest that was a summary of The Road to Serfdom by Friedrich Hayek.[30][26] Later that year, Fisher visited Hayek at the London School of Economics. Hayek dissuaded Fisher from embarking on a political and parliamentary career to try to prevent the spread of socialism and central planning.[30] Instead, Hayek suggested the establishment of a body which could engage in research and reach the intellectuals with reasoned argument.[30] The IEA's first location was a cramped, £3-a-week room with one table and chair at Oliver Smedley's General Management Services, which housed various free-trade organisations at 4 Austin Friars, a few dozen yards from the Stock Exchange in the heart of the City of London.[12]

In June 1955, The Free Convertibility of Sterling by George Winder was published, with Fisher signing the foreword as Director of the IEA.[30] In November 1955, the IEA's Original Trust Deed was signed by Fisher, John Harding and Oliver Smedley. Ralph Harris (later Lord Harris) began work as part-time General Director in January 1957.[30] He was joined in 1958 by Arthur Seldon who was initially appointed Editorial Advisor and became the editorial director in 1959.[30] Smedley wrote to Fisher that it was

"imperative that we should give no indication in our literature that we are working to educate the public along certain lines which might be interpreted as having a political bias. ... That is why the first draft [of the IEA's aims] is written in rather cagey terms".[26]

The Social Affairs Unit was established in December 1980 as an offshoot of the Institute of Economic Affairs to carry the IEA's economic ideas onto the battleground of sociology.[31] "Within a few years the Social Affairs Unit became independent from the IEA, acquiring its own premises."[31] In 1986, the IEA created a Health and Welfare Unit to focus on these aspects of social policy.[30][31] Discussing the IEA's increasing influence under the Conservative government in the 1980s in relation to the "advent of Thatcherism" and the privatisation of public services, Dieter Plehwe, a Research Fellow at the WZB Berlin Social Science Center, has written that

The arguably most influential think tank in British history... benefited from the close alignment of IEA's neoliberal agenda with corporate interests and the priorities of the Thatcher government.[32]

During the 1990's the IEA began to focus its research on the effects of regulation[5] and began a student outreach programme.[5] Free market publications, however, continued to be the core activity of the IEA.[5]

In 2007, British journalist Andrew Marr called the IEA "undoubtedly the most influential think tank in modern British history".[33] Damien Cahill, a professor of Political Economy at the University of Sydney, has characterised the IEA as, "Britain's oldest and leading neoliberal think tank".[14] Sir Oliver Letwin once said: "...without the IEA and its clones, no Thatcher and quite possibly no Reagan; without Reagan, no Star Wars; without Star Wars, no economic collapse of the Soviet Union. Quite a chain of consequences for a chicken farmer!"[34]

In October 2009, the IEA appointed Mark Littlewood as its Director General, with effect from 1 December 2009.[35]

In September 2022, an associated think tank, the Free Market Forum was founded.[36]

In December 2023, Mark Littlewood stood down as the IEA's Director General and was replaced by Tom Clougherty under the title of Executive Director.[37]

Purpose and aims[edit]

In 2018 the IEA's then director Mark Littlewood said "We want to totally reframe the debate about the proper role of the state and civil society in our country ... Our true mission is to change the climate of opinion."[38] While there is no corporate view, and while the IEA has a tradition of welcoming discussion, debate, and papers from those on the left, the IEA promotes the market and has two prominent themes in its publications: first, a belief in limited government and, second, "the technical (and moral) superiority of markets and competitive pricing in the allocation of scarce resources."[5]

The IEA is described as a "university without students"[according to whom?] because its primarily target is not politicians but "the gatekeepers of ideas", namely the intellectuals, academics, and journalists.[39] The IEA believe that a change in the intellectual climate is a pre-condition for any ideological shift within political parties or government institutions.[40]

The IEA has written policy papers arguing against government funding for pressure groups and charities involved in political campaigning.[41] The IEA does not receive government funding.[42][non-primary source needed] As a registered charity, the IEA must abide by Charity Commission rules, that state that "an organisation will not be charitable if its purposes are political". In July 2018 the Charity Commission announced that it was to investigate whether the IEA had broken its rules.[38]

The investigation concluded that one of the IEA's reports on Brexit was too political. The regulator thus asked the IEA to remove the report from its website in early November 2018, and issued an official warning in February 2019. It required trustees to provide written assurances that the IEA would not engage in campaigning or political activity contravening legal or regulatory requirements.[43] The IEA removed the report on 19 November and said it complied with the commission's other guidance by 23 November. IEA trustees were also required to set up a system whereby research reports and launch plans are signed off by trustees.[44]

Following the IEA's compliance, the Charity Commission withdrew the official warning in June 2019. A compliance case into the IEA remained open, examining concerns about the trustees' management and oversight of the charity's activities.[44]

According to George Monbiot, the IEA supports privatising the National Health Service (NHS); campaigns against controls on junk food; attacks trades unions; and defends zero-hour contracts, unpaid internships and tax havens.[38] IEA staff are frequently invited by the BBC and other news media to appear on broadcasts.[45][46][47]

The IEA published, between 1994 and 2007, "at least four books, as well as multiple articles and papers, ... suggesting manmade climate change may be uncertain or exaggerated [and that] climate change is either not significantly driven by human activity or will be positive", according to an October 2019 Guardian article.[16] Specifically, in 2003, the IEA published the book Climate Alarmism Reconsidered which concluded that government intervention in the name of sustainability is the major threat to energy sustainability and the provision of affordable, reliable energy to growing economies worldwide.[48] It further advocated that free-market structures and the wealth generated by markets help communities to best adapt to climate change.[48]

Concerns about political independence; investigation[edit]

The Observer reported on 29 July 2018 that the director of the IEA was secretly recorded in May and June. He was recorded telling an undercover reporter that funders could get to know ministers on first-name terms and that his organisation was in "the Brexit influencing game". While seeking funding, Littlewood said that the IEA allowed donors to affect the "salience" of reports and to shape "substantial content". The recording was to be given to the Charity Commission on 30 July.[49]

The Charity Commission, considering that the allegations raised by the recordings were "of a serious nature", on 20 July 2018 opened a regulatory compliance case into the IEA due to concerns about its political independence. Previously, it had become known that the IEA offered potential US donors access to ministers while raising funds for research to promote free-trade deals favoured by proponents of a "hard Brexit". The commission has powers to examine IEA financial records, legally compel it to provide information, and to disqualify trustees. The IEA denies it has breached charity law.[50]

It was also revealed that, after the IEA published a report recommending more casinos, the casino industry donated £8,000 to the IEA.[50]

Jon Trickett, the shadow Cabinet Office minister, welcoming the investigation into the IEA, said "on the road to Brexit, a small group of establishment figures, funded to the tune of millions, are covertly pursuing a political campaign in favour of extreme free trade, acting in effect as lobbyists for secretive corporate interests...there are serious questions that high-ranking Conservative ministers must now answer about their dealings with the IEA."[51]

It was also revealed that Jersey Finance, representing financial interests in Jersey, paid for an IEA report saying that tax havens (such as Jersey) benefited the wider economy, and did not diminish tax revenues in other countries. The report recommended that their status be protected. The IEA did not disclose the funding from Jersey Finance. A similar IEA report about neighbouring Guernsey was funded by the financial services industry there. Following this, the IEA said that funding they received never influenced the conclusions of reports, and that their output was independent and free from conflict of interest.[52]

Separately, the register of lobbyists concluded in 2019 that the IEA had not participated in consultant lobbying for E Foundation.[53]

Freer launch[edit]

In March 2018[54] the IEA offshoot Freer was founded to promote a positive message of liberal, supply-side Conservative renewal.[55][56][failed verification] Freer held two meetings at the 2018 Conservative conference (with none in any other political parties' conferences),[57] and remains entirely within the IEA's structural and organisational control.[58]

Cabinet ministers and MPs (including Michael Gove and Liz Truss) spoke at the organisation's launch. Truss called for a neoliberal "Tory revolution" spearheaded by "Uber-riding, Airbnb-ing, Deliveroo-eating freedom-fighters",[56] comments which were criticised by the Morning Star for failing to take into consideration the quality of employment within the companies mentioned.[58] Conservative blogger Paul Staines said that the launch "piqued the interest of senior ministers including Michael Gove, Dom Raab and Brexit brain Shanker Singham".[58] The organisation has[when?] 24 parliamentary supporters – including prominent figures such as Liz Truss, Chris Skidmore, Priti Patel, Ben Bradley and Kemi Badenoch – all of whom are Conservative MPs. Freer also holds events and publishes pamphlets for Conservative MPs, and has been referred to the Charity Commission by Private Eye for political bias.[57]


The IEA is a registered educational and research charity.[59] The organisation states that it is funded by "voluntary donations from individuals, companies and foundations who want to support its work, plus income from book sales and conferences",[60] and says that it is "independent of any political party or group".[60] The Charity Commission listed total income of £2.34 million and expenditure of £2.33 million for the financial year ending 31 March 2021.[59]

The IEA policy is to allow donors to choose whether or not to disclose their funding.[61] Some publish their grants to the IEA;[62] others do not. It has been criticised by health charities and by George Monbiot in The Guardian[38] for receiving minor funding (less than 5% of revenue) from major tobacco companies whilst campaigning on tobacco industry issues.[63] British American Tobacco (BAT) confirmed it had donated £40,000 to the IEA in 2013,[20] £20,000 in 2012 and £10,000 in 2011, and Philip Morris International and Japan Tobacco International also confirmed they provide financial support to the IEA.[21] In 2002, a leaked letter revealed that a prominent IEA member, the right-wing writer Roger Scruton, had authored an IEA pamphlet attacking the World Health Organisation's campaign on tobacco, whilst failing to disclose that he was receiving £54,000 a year from Japan Tobacco International.[64][65] In response, the IEA said it would introduce an author declaration policy.[65] The IEA also says that it "accepts no tied funding".[66]

An organisation called 'American Friends of the IEA' had received US$215,000 as of 2010 from the U.S.-based Donors Trust and Donors Capital Fund, donor-advised funds which support right-wing causes.[67]

The think tank Transparify, which is funded by the Open Society Foundations, in 2015 ranked the IEA as one of the top three least transparent think tanks in the UK in relation to funding.[68][69] The IEA responded by saying "it is a matter for individual donors whether they wish their donation to be public or private – we leave that entirely to their discretion", and that it has not "earmarked money for commissioned research work from any company".[68]

Funding to the IEA from the alcohol industry, food industry, and sugar industry has also been documented.[70] IEA Research Fellow Christopher Snowdon disclosed alcohol industry funding in a response to a British Medical Journal article in 2014.[70]

In October 2018, an investigation by Greenpeace found that the IEA was also receiving funding from the oil giant BP, which was "[using] this access to press ministers on issues ranging from environmental and safety standards to British tax rates."[71] In May 2019, the British Medical Journal revealed that British American Tobacco was continuing to fund the IEA.[72][73]

In November 2022, the funding transparency website Who Funds You? rated the institute as E, the lowest transparency rating (rating goes from A to E). This was updated to a D rating in December 2023.[74]


In early 2019, on national radio station LBC, James O'Brien called the IEA a politically motivated lobbying organisation funded by "dark money", of "questionable provenance, with dubious ideas and validity", staffed by people who are not proper experts on their topic. The IEA complained to UK media regulator Ofcom that those remarks were inaccurate and unfair. In August 2021, Ofcom rejected the complaint.[75][76]


Arthur Seldon proposed a series of Papers for economists to explore the neoliberal approach to the issues of the day.[30] Eventually, these emerged as the Hobart Papers; 154 had been published by August 2006. In addition, 32 Hobart Paperbacks had been released along with 139 Occasional Papers, 61 Readings and 61 Research Monographs.[30] They published The Denationalization of Money by F. A. Hayek in 1977.


According to the IEA, although not an academic body, the institute's research activities are aided by an international Academic Advisory Council and a panel of Honorary Fellows. The IEA's work is generally more theoretical than political, and has a refereeing process for all its publications.[39] They note that their papers are subjected to the same refereeing process used by academic journals,[66] and that the views expressed in IEA papers are those of the authors and not of the IEA, its trustees, directors, or advisors.

The IEA has also published research in areas including business ethics, economic development, education, pensions, regulation, taxation, and transport.

Notable people[edit]

Honorary Fellows[edit]

Personnel and Fellows[edit]

As of 2024, the IEA had full and part time 26 employees, 9 trustees (unpaid volunteers) and 3 former chairmen who serve as life vice presidents;[77] additionally, the IEA has an Academic Advisory Council with dozens of professors and other academics.[78]


Chairmen of the Board of Trustees[edit]

Members of the Board of Trustees (current and former)[edit]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Pegg, David; Lawrence, Felicity; Evans, Rob (5 February 2019). "Rightwing thinktank breached charity law by campaigning for hard Brexit". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 15 October 2020.
  2. ^ "'Brexit': IEA offers prize for UK exit plan from EU". BBC News. 15 July 2013. Retrieved 3 August 2023.
  3. ^ Cowburn, Ashley; Baynes, Chris (5 February 2019). "Right-wing think tank Institute of Economic Affairs issued with formal warning after Brexit report 'breached charity law'". The Independent. London. Archived from the original on 3 June 2019. The [Charity Commission]'s warning said the IEA 'was not sufficiently balanced and neutral, as required by law from charities with educational purposes', and also criticised the free-market think thank for only inviting speakers 'who held a particular set of views'
  4. ^ a b Courea, Eleni (10 February 2021). "Matt Hancock took cash from chairman of 'anti-NHS' Institute of Economic Affairs". The Times.
  5. ^ a b c d e f Denham, Andrew (1996). Think-Tanks of the New Right. Aldershot/Brookfield: Dartmouth. pp. 1–7 et passim. ISBN 9781855218680.
  6. ^ a b Stone, Diane (1997). Capturing the Political Imagination: Think Tanks and the Policy Process (First ed.). London: Routledge. p. 22. ISBN 9780714647166. Retrieved 15 October 2020.
  7. ^ [1][2][3][4][5][6]
  8. ^ The Institute of Economic Affairs Ltd (Report). Charity Commission for England and Wales.
  9. ^ a b "About Us". Institute of Economic Affairs. Retrieved 20 September 2020.
  10. ^ "What We Do". Institute of Economic Affairs. Retrieved 20 February 2019.
  11. ^ Q. House, S. Alkire, A. Ophi, E. House, and M. College, “OPHI WORKING PAPER SERIES Oxford Poverty & Human Development Initiative, OPHI Department of International Development Winning Ideas: Lessons from free-market economics,” 2007. Available:
  12. ^ a b c Frost, Gerald (2002). Antony Fisher: Champion of Liberty (1st ed.). Profile Books. pp. 59–90, Chapter 5, Making the Case for the Market. ISBN 1-86197-505-8.
  13. ^ Hayek, F. A. (Spring 1949). "The Intellectuals and Socialism". The University of Chicago Law Review. 16 (3): 417–433. doi:10.2307/1597903. JSTOR 1597903 – via The University of Chicago Law School.
  14. ^ a b The End of Laissez-Faire?: On the Durability of Embedded Neoliberalism Damien Cahill, Edward Elgar Pub, 2014, p. 12
  15. ^ Winder, George (1955). The Free Convertibility of Sterling. Batchworth Press for the Institute of Economic Affairs.
  16. ^ a b c Pegg, David; Evans, Rob (10 October 2019). "Revealed: top UK thinktank spent decades undermining climate science". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 10 October 2019.
  17. ^ Niemietz, Kristian Peter (2016). "Universal Healthcare Without the NHS: Towards a Patient-Centred Health System". SSRN Electronic Journal. doi:10.2139/ssrn.3852868. ISSN 1556-5068.
  18. ^ Kristian Niemietz (14 December 2016). "Universal healthcare without the NHS". Institute of Economic Affairs.
  19. ^ Niemietz, Kristian Peter (2016). "Universal Healthcare Without the NHS: Towards a Patient-Centred Health System". SSRN Electronic Journal. doi:10.2139/ssrn.3852868. ISSN 1556-5068.
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  21. ^ a b Doward, Jamie (1 June 2013). "Health groups dismayed by news 'big tobacco' funded rightwing thinktanks". The Guardian.
  22. ^ Siddique, Haroon (9 February 2021). "Thinktank critical of NHS Covid response has links to Hancock". The Guardian.
  23. ^ Matthews-King, Alex (12 July 2018). "Anti-NHS think-tank with links to new health secretary under investigation by charity commission". The Independent.
  24. ^ "Desmog Institute of Economic Affairs".
  25. ^ Ahmed, Nafeez (10 October 2022). "'The Dark Heart of Trussonomics: The Mainstreaming of Libertarian Theories of Social Darwinism and Apartheid'". Byline Times. Retrieved 12 October 2022. A year later, the Institute of Economic Affairs (IEA) – founded in 1955, originally based in Westminster's Tufton Street, a driving force of Thatcherism
  26. ^ a b c Curtis, Adam (13 September 2011). "The Curse of Tina". BBC. London: British Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 18 July 2018.
  27. ^ Hafer, R.W. (April 1992). "Monetarist Economics [Review]". Southern Economic Journal. 58 (4). Wiley-Blackwell: 1131. doi:10.2307/1060253. JSTOR 1060253.
  28. ^ Cadwalladr, Carole (11 November 2018). "TaxPayers' Alliance concedes it launched smears against Brexit whistleblower". The Observer.
  29. ^ "What we do". IEA. Retrieved 14 December 2018.
  30. ^ a b c d e f g h i "IEA: Chronology" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 9 June 2011. Retrieved 20 January 2011.
  31. ^ a b c Muller, Christopher (1996). "The Institute of Economic Affairs: Undermining the Post-War Consensus". Contemporary British History. 10 (1): 88–110 [p. 102]. doi:10.1080/13619469608581370.
  32. ^ Academic Identities – Academic Challenges? American and European Experience of the Transformation of Higher Education and Research, Dieter Plehwe, Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2011, pp. 172–3
  33. ^ "New Britannia". Andrew Marr's History of Modern Britain. Episode 5. BBC One. 19 June 2007.
  34. ^ Obituaries, Telegraph (20 December 2021). "Linda Whetstone, evangelist for the free market who also helped to raise standards in British dressage – obituary". The Telegraph. ISSN 0307-1235. Retrieved 6 August 2023.
  35. ^ Robert Walmsley, Interview: Mark Littlewood, Cherwell, 26 January 2014
  36. ^ "Revealed: rightwing 'slash and burn' ideas that could be blueprint for Truss". the Guardian. 6 October 2022. Retrieved 7 October 2022.
  37. ^ "Tom Clougherty".
  38. ^ a b c d Monbiot, George (18 July 2018). "Dark money lurks at the heart of our political crisis". The Guardian. London. Archived from the original on 31 March 2019. Retrieved 15 July 2020.
  39. ^ a b Tesseyman, Andrew James (1999). "The new right think tanks and policy change in the UK" (PDF). [publisher of doctoral theses]. Archived from the original on 8 August 2013. Retrieved 6 August 2023.
  40. ^ Blundell, John (February 1987). "How To Move a Nation, Could a chicken farmer and two economists change British history?". Reason Magazine: 31–35.
  41. ^ Snowden, Christopher. "Sock Puppets: How the government lobbies itself and why". IEA Discussion Paper 39. Retrieved 17 March 2015.
  42. ^ "Who funds you? FAQ" (PDF). IEA. Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 December 2018. Retrieved 14 December 2018.
  43. ^ Ricketts, Andy (5 February 2019). "Regulator issues warning to Institute of Economic Affairs over Brexit report". ThirdSector.
  44. ^ a b Weakley, Kirsty (28 June 2019). "Official warning to Institute of Economic Affairs is withdrawn by Charity Commission". CIVILSOCIETY news.
  45. ^ Funnell, Joshua (4 November 2018). "A thinktank is finally challenged over its funding on Question Time. But why was it ever given a platform? - The Canary". The Canary. Question Time's David Dimbleby finally asked the IEA's associate director, Kate Andrews, about its funding...why are IEA representatives invited on the BBC in the first place?
  46. ^ Waterson, Jim (9 August 2021). "LBC's James O'Brien wins Ofcom battle with Institute of Economic Affairs". The Guardian. Retrieved 25 October 2021. [Ofcom] also noted that O'Brien had indeed invited the [IEA] on air
  47. ^ Booth, Robert (30 July 2018). "Rightwing UK thinktank 'offered ministerial access' to potential US donors". The Guardian. [The IEA's] Littlewood told BBC Radio 4 Today's programme ...
  48. ^ a b Bradley, Robert L. (2003). Climate Alarmism Reconsidered (1st ed.). London, UK: The Institute of Economic Affairs. p. 144. ISBN 0-255-36541-1.
  49. ^ Robert Booth (29 July 2018). "Rightwing UK thinktank 'offered ministerial access' to potential US donors". The Observer.
  50. ^ a b Robert Booth; Rajeev Syal (30 July 2018). "Thinktank faces double investigation after 'cash for access' claims". The Guardian.
  51. ^ Jon Trickett (31 July 2018). "This thinktank scandal is another sign that our democracy is under attack". The Guardian.
  52. ^ Robert Booth and David Pegg (31 July 2018). "Jersey Finance paid for IEA report rubbishing 'hotbeds of tax evasion' claims". The Guardian.
  53. ^ "Investigation case summary – Institute of Economic Affairs activities for E Foundation". registrarofconsultantlobbyists. 10 June 2019. Retrieved 10 October 2022.
  54. ^ Steerpike (20 March 2018). "Liz Truss speaks freely: we need to be Tories with attitude". Coffee House. The Spectator. Retrieved 1 March 2019.
  55. ^ Steerpike (29 May 2018). "Tory think tank wars: Bright Blue have the last laugh". Coffee House. The Spectator. Retrieved 1 March 2019.
  56. ^ a b Bennett, Owen (24 May 2018). "Meet The New Conservative Think-Tanks Hoping To Reboot The Tories". The Huffington Post. Retrieved 1 March 2019.
  57. ^ a b "Stink tanks". Private Eye. No. 1490. February–March 2019.
  58. ^ a b c Hughes, Solomon (5 April 2018). "Making the IEA 'Freer' to espouse Tory ideology". Morning Star. Retrieved 1 March 2019.
  59. ^ a b "The Institute of Economic Affairs Limited, registered charity no. 235351". Charity Commission for England and Wales.
  60. ^ a b "about the IEA". Institute of Economic Affairs. Retrieved 29 October 2009.
  61. ^ "FAQs". Institute of Economic Affairs. Retrieved 23 January 2024.
  62. ^ "Encouraging independence and enterprise for a healthy old age". John Templeton Foundation. Retrieved 23 January 2024.
  63. ^ George Monbiot (15 July 2013). "Cigarette packaging: the corporate smokescreen". The Guardian.
  64. ^ Kevin Maguire; Julian Borger (24 January 2002). "Scruton in media plot to promote smoking". The Guardian.
  65. ^ a b Zosia Kmietowicz; Annabel Ferriman (2 February 2002). "Pro-tobacco writer admits he should have declared an interest". British Medical Journal. 324 (7332): 257. doi:10.1136/bmj.324.7332.257. PMC 65291. PMID 11823350.
  66. ^ a b "Peer Review Protocol". IEA. Archived from the original on 1 February 2016. Retrieved 23 August 2018.
  67. ^ George Monbiot (18 February 2013). "The educational charities that do PR for the rightwing ultra-rich". The Guardian.
  68. ^ a b Neville, Sarah. "British think-tanks 'less transparent about sources of funding'". Financial Times. Retrieved 19 March 2015.
  69. ^ "How Transparent are Think Tanks about Who Funds Them 2015?" (PDF). Transparify. Retrieved 19 March 2015.
  70. ^ a b Miller, David; Harkins, Claire; Schlögl, Matthias; Montague, Brendan (2017). Impact of Market Forces on Addictive Substances and Behaviours: The web of influence of addictive industries. Oxford University Press. pp. 102–108. ISBN 9780198753261.
  71. ^ Carter, Lawrence; Ross, Alice (30 July 2018). "BP and gambling interests fund secretive free market think tank the IEA". Unearthed. Greenpeace. Retrieved 9 June 2019.
  72. ^ Gornall, Jonathan (15 May 2019). "Big tobacco, the new politics, and the threat to public health". British Medical Journal. 365: l2164. doi:10.1136/bmj.l2164. ISSN 0959-8138. PMID 31092403. S2CID 155102371.
  73. ^ Matthews-King, Alex (16 May 2019). "Big tobacco secretly bankrolling anti-NHS think tank whose bosses donate thousands to Tory leadership contenders, investigation reveals". The Independent. Retrieved 16 May 2019.
  74. ^ "Who Funds You? Institute for Economic Affairs".
  75. ^ Waterson, Jim (9 August 2021). "LBC's James O'Brien wins Ofcom battle with Institute of Economic Affairs". The Guardian.
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  77. ^ "Staff". Institute of Economic Affairs. Retrieved 6 August 2023.
  78. ^ "Academic Advisory Council". Institute of Economic Affairs. Retrieved 6 August 2023.

Further reading[edit]

  • Bosanquet, Nick (1983). Economics: After the New Right. Boston: Kluwer-Nijhoff. pp. 79–87. ISBN 0-89838-135-5.
  • Cockett, Richard (1995). Thinking the unthinkable: think-tanks and the economic counter-revolution, 1931–1983. Fontana Press. ISBN 0-00-637586-3.

External links[edit]