Institute of International and European Affairs

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The Institute of International & European Affairs
200pcx
AbbreviationIIEA
PredecessorInstitute of European Affairs (IEA) 1991–2007
Formation1991
FounderBrendan Halligan
Founded atDublin, Ireland
TypeNGO
Registration no.RCN 20024819
Legal statusRegistered Irish Charity
FocusImpact of the EU on Ireland
Headquarters8 North Great Georges Street, Dublin 1, Ireland
Official language
English
Chairman
Ruairi Quinn
Director General
Barry Andrews
Revenue (2016)
€1,120,714
WebsiteIIEA

The Institute of International and European Affairs (IIEA) is an Irish policy think tank and EU advocacy group based in Dublin, Ireland. The IIEA is mostly funded by the Irish State and Irish State–owned entities, and its leadership, Chairperson and Director-General, have mostly come from Irish political or Irish State department backgrounds. It is known for its seminars and speaking events in Dublin which have attracted notable international figures.

History[edit]

A June 1996 Irish Times article notes that the Institute of European Affairs (IEA) was set up in 1989 by Brendan Halligan, the former General Secretary of the Irish Labour Party, and that the financial backing came from Irish semi–state bodies, and particular those on which Halligan was a Board member; the article also notes that the IEA rented a house on 8 North Great George's Street of which Halligan was a part owner.[1] A subsequent Irish Times article in January 2000 stated that the IEA was formally set up by Halligan in 1991,[2] and described Halligan as "a powerful European tobacco lobbyist", and that the IEA was associated with Halligan's political consulting and lobbying firm, Consultants in Public Affairs (CIPA).[2]

In December 2002, the Irish Times described the IEA as being a "lobby, advocacy and discussion group" when the former leader of Fine Gael, Alan Dukes was appointed as the Director-General of the IEA,[3] a post he held until December 2007.[4] In December 2007, the Irish Times recorded that the IEA described itself as a "policy research think-tank and forum," whose role includes providing members with "early warning of EU policy developments and in-depth analysis of their implications for Ireland and Europe".[4] In July 2007, the IEA changed its name to the Institute of International and European Affairs (IIEA),[5] There are references to researcher Jill Donoghue taking over from Alan Dukes as Director-General of the IIEA during January 2008 to June 2009, but no formal announcement seemed to have been made.[a][8]

In June 2009, the retired senior Irish Department of Foreign Affairs official, Daithí Ó Ceallaigh, was appointed Director-General. O'Ceallaigh had just retired as Irish ambassador to the UN (2007–2009), and was previously Irish ambassador to the United Kingdom (2001–2007).[9] In August 2013, Tom Arnold, the former Assistant Secretary of the Irish Department of Agriculture, was appointed Director-General of the IIEA.[10] In March 2017, former Irish Fianna Fáil Minister of State for Children, Barry Andrews, was appointed Director-General.[11] At the same time as the appointment of Barry Andews, Halligan, then 81 years of age, stepped down as Chairperson to become President of the IIEA (a role graded as staff on the IIEA website); former leader of the Labour Party, Ruairi Quinn, became the new Chairperson of the IIEA.[12]

Structure[edit]

Legal status[edit]

As of November 2018, the IIEA's most recent public accounts (Company Number 171807), for the 2016 financial year state that the IIEA is a "Company Limited by Guarantee which does not have share capital and is registered in Ireland".[13] In addition, the filed accounts also state that the members of the IIEA are liable to a maximum sum of €1.27 (old IEP £1) in the event of a winding up, and that none of the IIEA's reserves can be distributed to members by way of a dividend.[13] The IIEA pays no taxes as it is an Irish Registered Charity (RCN 20024889).[13]

Funding structure[edit]

As of November 2018, the IIEA's most recent filed accounts for the 2016 financial year state that the IIEA's Income of €1,120,714 million separates into four categories (see § Accounts):

  1. Subscriptions (56%). Annual membership fees, which were listed at €10,000 per annum. The IIEA's accounts show that such fees are paid by various Irish State Departments (e.g. Department of Defense, Department of Agriculture), Irish semi–state companies (e.g. ESB, Enterprise Ireland, the DAA), and Irish private companies (e.g. AIB, Bank of Ireland);
  2. Grants (16%). There are mostly Irish State grants, and possibly some EU grants,[b] for various research projects and IIEA initiatives;
  3. Other (12%). This item is not explained in any form of the IIEA § Accounts, but rose sharply from 2009 onwards;
  4. CE–Scheme (16%). This is the Irish "Community Employment Scheme" where the Irish State pays for the wages of low–income employees hired by the organisation.[14]

CE–Scheme and grants are Irish State sourced (32% of IIEA income); however, it is believed a material portion of the Subscription (and potentially Other category), are sourced from the Irish State (either directly from State departments, or via State–owned companies), and thus over 50% of IIEA income is funded by the Irish exchequer.

Governance[edit]

As of November 2018, the Director-General and IIEA staff are overseen by a Board of 17 Directors (in alphabetical order):[15]

(†) Chairperson (‡) Secretary (Δ) Treasurer

Honorary positions[edit]

As of November 2018, the IIEA also listed a number of Honorary Positions:[16]

Patron Michael D. Higgins President of Ireland
President Brendan Halligan Founder of the IIEA
Vice Presidents: Adrian Burke, Tom Haughey, Una O’Dwyer, Nora Owen

Activities[edit]

Research[edit]

The IIEA's filed public accounts for the 2016 financial year state that the principal activity of the IIEA is to: "promote the research of International and European political, economic, cultural, societal and legal institutions, proceedings and relations".[13] There are no known IIEA (or IEA) research papers in the databases of relevant peer–reviewed research journals; nor is there evidence of IIEA (or IEA) research being considered in the mainstream academic or research media (including major international newspapers).

Seminars[edit]

Rather than a research–led think tank, the IIEA was described by the Irish Times in 2007 as a "lobby, advocacy and discussion group",[4] with the most notable activities of the IIEA being the quantum of speaking events on mostly European issues, hosted over the years. In 2015, the IIEA hosted 120 seminars with speakers such as Jean Claude Trichet and Pierre Moscovici.[17] In 2014, the IIEA hosted 140 seminars with speakers such as Peter Sutherland and Martin Wolf.[18] In 2013, the year of Ireland's EU Presidency, the IIEA hosted 170 seminars with speakers such as Christine Lagarde.[19]

Criticism[edit]

Quango[edit]

From the foundation of the IEA, there were concerns that its funding was mainly from the Irish State (or Irish State–controlled companies).[1] The IIEA has been labelled a quango,[20] and has been the source of several members questions in Dail Eireann regarding the payments by Irish State departments to the IIEA.[21] Over the years diverse Irish State departments such as the Department of Defence,[22] and Irish State–owned companies such as the VHI, have been revealed as funders of the IIEA, despite no obvious relevance. As of November 2018, the IIEA does not provide a break–down on the proportion of its Revenues that are directly or indirectly Irish exchequer funded in its § Accounts. It is estimated that over 50% of the IIEA's income is directly or indirectly Irish State funded.[20]

Political[edit]

Since inception, the Chairperson has been a former leader of the Irish Labour political party. Most of the IIEA's Director-Generals have either been senior political figures or senior officials in Irish State departments; as are most of the Directors of the IIEA. In March 2017, when Barry Andrews was appointed Director-General of the IIEA, he had just resigned from the GOAL charity where an audit report found Andrews failed to act decisively to prevent a large–scale fraud which almost led to the collapse of the 40–year charity.[23][24][25] Despite this, and Andrews lack of any experience in International and European affairs,[c] he was described as having the "political and administrative skills" that would be of value to the IIEA.[26] In April 2018 Andrews was described as "part of Fianna Fáil royalty".[27]

Controversies[edit]

IIEA Offices[edit]

At the inception of the IIEA, there was concern over conflicts around Halligan's interest in the property occupied by the IIEA at 8 North Great George's Street (the "IIEA offices"; sometimes called "Europe House"), and Halligan being on the Board of State–owned companies that sponsored the IIEA.[1] The IIEA's accounts have an unusual valuation of the IIEA offices; for example, in 2011, during the Irish financial crisis, the 5,000 sq ft offices were advertised for sale at €1.3 million, when the IIEA § Accounts valued them at €468,030.[d][28] The IIEA's 2016 accounts state: "The major safety net that continues to be available to the IIEA is the substantial cash flow and surplus that could be accessed from the sale of Europe House, the property belonging to the IIEA which is free of charges and unencumbered".[13]

BREXIT Hub[edit]

In January 2018, the Irish Times reported that the IIEA had asked the Department of Foreign Affairs in 2017 for €250,000 per annum to set up a new "Brexit Hub" office in Merrion Square to "act as a forum for sharing well-informed discussion on Brexit strategies".[29][30] The grant would pay for new offices closer to Dail Eireann, the IIEA's main source of funding; a strategy the IIEA had disclosed in their 2016 public accounts.[13] The grant would also cover some of Barry Andrew's salary of €119,000, and a new Brexit Hub Director, Donal de Buitléir, former Assistant Secretary at the Revenue Commissioners.[31] Several IIEA Directors are former Department of Foreign Affairs officials, including former Director-General Daithi O'Ceallaigh, and the Department was already granting €750,000 to the IIEA.[21]

Accounts[edit]

IIEA published abridged accounts from 2009 to 2015 on their website.[32] The Irish Charities Regulator website holds copies of the full IIEA accounts that are filed with the Companies Registration Office ("CRO"), for 2014, 2015 and 2016, which contain additional detail, particularly around the CE–Scheme, and the IIEA offices at 8 North Great George's Street.[13]

Published accounts of the IIEA (2007–2016)
Euro Calendar 2016 2015 2014 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007
Profit and Loss Subscriptions[e] 624,518 505,008 477,232 506,059 484,870 548,755 544,592 568,384 605,401 591,451
Grants[f] 183,752 212,155 143,758 274,217 155,255 295,133 298,806 406,998 91,166 6,492
Other[g] 134,263 164,431 99,749 175,674 138,987 153,290 129,392 34,429 66,893 62,607
CE–Scheme[h] 178,181 187,537 197,810 179,404 ?[i] ?[i] ?[i] ?[i] ?[i] ?[i]
Total Income 1,120,714 1,069,131 918,549 1,135,354 779,112 997,178 972,790 1,009,811 763,460 660,550
Total Costs 1,101,834 1,073,676 1,073,578 1,136,412 799,842 993,697 972,390 1,033,779 837,958 661,973
Surplus/Deficit 18,880 –4,545 –155,029 –1,058 –20,730 3,481 400 –23,968 –74,498 –1,423
.
Balance Sheet Property[j] 422,108 420,845 436,439 451,996 460,435 468,030 478,654 502,265 520,743 525,014
Liabilities –166,137 –183,754 –194,802 –26,331 –29,501 –5,048 –6,976 –7,256 –5,850 69,061
Net Assets 255,971 237,091 241,637 425,665 430,934 462,982 471,678 495,009 514,893 594,075

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Jill Donoghue's husband is David Donoghue, a senior career diplomat in the Irish Department of Foreign Affairs and was the Irish ambassador to Germany.[6][7]
  2. ^ There is some confusion in the filed accounts as to whether the IIEA would receive an EU grant and it is not clear whether the grant ever happened.
  3. ^ Before entering political life, Andrews was a Dublin secondary school teacher; his political career was mostly spent in the Department of Health.
  4. ^ The valuation of the IIEA office at 8 North Great George's Street equates to less than €100 per square foot; the 2016 accounts state that the last open market valuation was carried out in July 1998.
  5. ^ Annual subscriptions from State departments, State–owned companies, and Private companies. The cost of membership rose from £IEP1,000 in the 1990s, to €6,000 in the 2000s, and is currently quoted on the IIEA website as being €10,000 per annum.
  6. ^ Grants from the Irish State for various projects. For example, in 2017 it was revealed that the Department of Foreign Affairs was funding a €125,000 per annum program with the IIEA.[21].
  7. ^ This line item is not explained in the IIEA accounts; it seems to have increased materially during and after the Irish financial crisis.
  8. ^ The "Community Employment Scheme" whereby the Irish State pays the wages of low–income employment in the IIEA (mostly catering staff for the IIEA functions); this source of Income is matched by the CE–Scheme expenditure (e.g. the wages of the staff), under Costs and is only broken out in the full CRO accounts as filed with the Charities Regulator. The CE Scheme is paid for by the Department of Social Welfate and Protection.[14]
  9. ^ a b c d e f The IIEA's filed accounts for years before 2013 are not freely available on the Charities Regulator website, it is therefore not possible to see the quantum of the CE–Scheme for earlier years.
  10. ^ 8 North Great Georges's Street held at its July 1998 valuation basis; it is not clear why this 465sqm (or 5,000 sq ft), property has not been revalued in the accounts, particularly as the office was considered for sale in 2011, during the Irish financial crisis, when it was openly marketed for over €1.3 million.[28]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c "Bord big financial support of IEA". Irish Times. 29 June 1996. Three other organisations have contributed the same amount as Bord na Mona - the ESB, Aer Rianta and the Irish Permanent, of which Mr Halligan is also a director. The institute, which rents a house on North Great George's Street that is part owned by Mr Halligan, was set up in 1989 to foster debate on European integration, according to Mr Stewart.
  2. ^ a b "Old habits die hard". Irish Times. 24 January 2000. he also teaches European Affairs and is a member of the prestigious Institute of European Affairs. Halligan has been chairman of the same institute - a body which prides itself on its independence from all political and social groups - since its foundation in 1991.
  3. ^ "EA appoints Dukes as its director general". Irish Times. 11 December 2002.
  4. ^ a b c "Dukes angered as think-tank ends his term". 20 December 2007. Based in Europe House on Dublin's North Great George's Street, the institute describes itself as "a policy research think-tank and forum," whose role includes providing members with "early warning of EU policy developments and in-depth analysis of their implications for Ireland and Europe".
  5. ^ "CRO Registration of Name Changes" (PDF). Companys Registration Office. July 2007. 18/07/2007: THE INSTITUTE OF EUROPEAN AFFAIRS Changed To THE INSTITUTE OF INTERNATIONAL AND EUROPEAN AFFAIRS
  6. ^ "David Donoghue Ireland's Permanent Representative to the United Nations". Carnagie Council. 22 June 2017.
  7. ^ "Treaty rejection sparked anti–Irish sentiment in Germany". Irish Independent. 1 June 2011. Jill Donoghue, whose husband David [Donoghue] was Ireland's Ambassador to Berlin at the time, made the comments in a meeting with US embassy staff four months after the June 2008 No vote. According to a leaked US embassy cable, Mrs Donoghue, research director at the International Institute of European Affairs, reported "that anti–Irish sentiment seems to be growing in Germany".
  8. ^ "Secretary-General Meets IIEA Chairman". United Nations. 7 July 2009. Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon (right), Brendan Halligan (left), Chairman of the Institute of International and European Affairs (IIEA), and Jill Donoghue, IIEA Director-General, pose for a group photo.
  9. ^ "'Disarmament and the UN', By Daithi O'Ceallaigh". Irish School of Ecumenics. 28 November 2011.
  10. ^ "Tom Arnold appointed chief of European affairs institute". Irish Times. 3 August 2013.
  11. ^ "Barry Andrews appointed director general to Dublin-based think tank". Irish Times. 7 March 2011.
  12. ^ "CHANGING OF THE GUARD". Photopol. 24 March 2017. Brendan Halligan was the founder of the Institute in 1991 and has been its Chairman ever since up to the beginning of 2017 when he handed over to Ruairí Quinn. So with the recent revamping of the Board and change in the positions of Chairman and Director General, a re-envigorated Institute is ready to face what may be its biggest challenge yet.
  13. ^ a b c d e f g "Institute Of International and European Affairs (IIEA) Registered Charity Number (RCN): 20024819". Charities Regulator. November 2018.
  14. ^ a b "CE Scheme". Institute of International and European Affairs. 2018. The Institute of International and European Affairs operates a Community Employment scheme, which is funded by the Department of Social Protection.
  15. ^ "The Board of the IIEA". Institute of International and European Affairs. November 2018.
  16. ^ "Governance Structure of the IIEA". Institute of International and European Affairs. November 2018.
  17. ^ "2015 Annual Report". IIEA. 2015.
  18. ^ "2014 Annual Report". IIEA. 2014.
  19. ^ "2013 Annual Report". IIEA. 2013.
  20. ^ a b "HALLIGAN'S QUANGO NETS €1M". The Irish Phoenix Review. 19 April 2017. The latest accounts for the Institute of International and European Affairs show that its income for 2015 rose by 22.3% to €881,593, and with a Community Employment Grant rose to over a million euros (€1,069,130), a rise of 16.4%. But the IIEA has continually refused to divulge the amount of taxpayers money it gets from Government departments and State-sponsored bodies.
  21. ^ a b c "Dail Debated: Tuesday, 7 November 2017: Questions from Micheál Martin regarding the IIEA". Dail Eireann. 7 November 2017. The Government is committed to greater engagement with the public on the Future of Europe and in this regard my Department is providing funding of €750,000 over 3 years for a Future of the EU27 project being carried out the Institute for International and European Affairs (IIEA). The first tranche of this funding, €125,000, is being provided this year to the IIEA.
  22. ^ "Dail Debated: Wednesday, 7 July 2010: Questions from John Deacy to the Minister of Defence regarding the IIEA". Dail Eireann. 7 July 2010. The only corporate membership held by the Department is to the Institute of International & European Affairs (IIEA). The IIEA is an independent, not–for–profit organisation with charitable status. Its extensive research programme aims to provide its members with high–level analysis and forecasts of the challenges on the global and EU policy agendas which impact on Ireland. The annual subscription for corporate membership is €6,000.
  23. ^ Michael O'Farrell (8 May 2016). "REVEALED Goal staff set up a private company to profit from aid business". Irish Mail on Sunday.
  24. ^ Michael O'Farrell (24 September 2017). "GOAL STAFF HID LINKS TO PROBED FIRM". Irish Mail on Sunday. The report, obtained by the MoS, presents forensically recovered mobile phone messages between Mr Cole and Mr Edgar showing how they discussed hiding their ownership of Noble House. These discussions took place after Goal’s then CEO Barry Andrews instructed the pair to relinquish their ownership of Noble House because of the conflict of interest it posed. Mr Andrews also ordered a year’s ‘cooling off’ period during which Goal would refrain from giving business to Noble House.
  25. ^ Shane Phelan (26 October 2017). "Aid charity Goal has €31m deficit after fraud probe". Goal's annual report for 2016, published yesterday, revealed expenditure was €194.6m, while its income was just €162.97m after "one of the most challenging years" in its 40–year history. The charity's new general manager Celine Fitzgerald told the Irish Independent the scale of the deficit was "unusual".
  26. ^ Ruadhán Mac Cormaic (7 March 2017). "Barry Andrews appointed director general to Dublin–based think tank". Irish Times.
  27. ^ "PROFILE: BARRY ANDREWS". The Irish Phoenix Review. 5 April 2018. IF Fianna Fáil has a royal family it is the extended Andrews clan and former minister Barry Andrews was once seen as its crown prince.
  28. ^ a b "Think tank to put offices on the market". Irish Independent. 30 March 2011. The Institute of International and European Affairs, headed by former Labour Party Senator Brendan Halligan, is selling its offices at 8 North Great Georges Street, Dublin 1, which has hosted visits by many famous international and European office holders and dignitaries. Its patron is Mary McAleese, President of Ireland while the IIEA president is Dr Garret FitzGerald. The building extends to 465sqm most of it in office use save for a top floor residential apartment. Ross Shorten of Lisney is marketing the building with full vacant possession and asking €1.3 million while being open to offers.
  29. ^ Cantillion (5 January 2018). "Department raised concerns about funding 'Brexit hub'". Irish Times. Documents released under the Freedom of Information Act showed the department raised concerns about whether the €250,000 a year sought in funding for three years for the hub was good value for the public given that government departments fulfilled part of the role proposed for the hub.
  30. ^ "CRYING HALT TO EUROMANIACS". The Irish Phoenix Review. 11 January 2018. THERE’S no better person than former Labour minister Ruairí Quinn when it comes to squeezing serious amounts of taxpayers’ money from government departments for his favourite hobby horse, the Institute of International and European Affairs (IIEA). However, Quinn’s latest demand for €750,000 (for starters) has been met with gasps.
  31. ^ Cantillion (13 January 2018). "High price for IIEA talking shop on Brexit". Irish Times. The proposed budget for the hub, earmarked for a building on Merrion Square to be nearer to Government Buildings, would require €250,000 a year in public funding. [...] The hub’s proposed director, Donal de Buitléir, a former public official [...] while almost €30,000 of the €119,000 remuneration paid to IIEA director-general, Barry Andrews would fall under the hub’s budget.
  32. ^ "IIEA Publications". Institute for International and European Affairs. October 2018.

External links[edit]