Institutes of National Importance

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Institute of National Importance (INI) is a status that may be conferred on a premier public higher education institution in India by an act of Parliament of India, an institution which "serves as a pivotal player in developing highly skilled personnel within the specified region of the country/state". Institutes of National Importance receive special recognition, higher autonomy and funding from the Government of India.

Common Acts[edit]

Architecture[edit]

Schools of Planning and Architecture (SPA) are declared as Institutes of National Importance through the 'School of Planning and Architecture Act, 2014' and its subsequent amendments.[1]

Design[edit]

  • [National Institutes of Design] (NID) are declared as Institution of National Importance through the 'National Institute of Design Act 2014' and its subsequent amendments.[2]
  • [Footwear Design and Development Institute](Noida)are declared as Institution of National Importance through the 'Footwear Design and Development Institute Act 2017'

"Footwear Design and Development Institute Act, 2017" (PDF). The Gazette of India. Government of India. 5 August 2017. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2 January 2021. Retrieved 24 May 2018.</ref>

Engineering and Technology[edit]

Food Technology[edit]

National Institute of Food Technology Entrepreneurship and Management (NIFTEM) and Indian Institute of Food Processing Technology (IIFPT) are declared Institutes of National Importance through the National Institutes of Food Technology, Entrepreneurship and Management Act, 2021.[8][9]

Management[edit]

Indian Institutes of Management (IIM) are declared as Institutes of National Importance through the Indian Institutes of Management Act, 2017 and its subsequent amendments.[10]

Medicine[edit]

All India Institutes of Medical Sciences (AIIMS) are declared as Institutes of National Importance through the 'All India Institute of Medical Sciences Act, 1956' and its subsequent amendments.[11]

Pharmacy[edit]

National Institutes of Pharmaceutical Education and Research (NIPER) are declared as Institutes of National Importance through the 'National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research Act, 1998' and its subsequent amendments.[12]

Science[edit]

Indian Institutes of Science Education and Research (IISER) are declared as Institutes of National Importance through the amendments in the National Institutes of Technology, Science Education and Research Act, 2007.[13]

Institutes of National Importance[edit]

Summary statistics[edit]

As of July 2021, there are 161 Institutes of National Importance under various Acts of Parliament. These INIs include: 23 IITs, 15 AIIMSs, 20 IIMs, 31 NITs, 25 IIITs, 7 IISERs, 7 NIPERs, 5 NIDs, 3 SPAs, 2 NIFTEMs, 5 Central universities, 4 Medical research institutes, and 14 other specialized institutes.

Location maps by institutes type[edit]

Location of 4 INIs for Agricultural Science (in green) and Food Technology (in blue)

Full list of institutes[edit]

Institutes of National Importance[14]
# Institute City State Founded Type Specialization
1 Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research Ghaziabad Uttar Pradesh 2010 Sciences[14]
2 All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Bathinda Bathinda Punjab 2019 AIIMS Medicine
3 All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Bhopal Bhopal Madhya Pradesh 2012 AIIMS Medicine
4 All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Bhubaneswar Bhubaneswar Odisha 2012 AIIMS Medicine
5 All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Bibinagar Bibinagar Telangana 2019 AIIMS Medicine
6 All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Deoghar Deoghar Jharkhand 2019 AIIMS Medicine
7 All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Gorakhpur Gorakhpur Uttar Pradesh 2019 AIIMS Medicine
8 All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Jodhpur Jodhpur Rajasthan 2012 AIIMS Medicine
9 All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Kalyani Kalyani West Bengal 2019 AIIMS Medicine
10 All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Mangalagiri Mangalagiri Andhra Pradesh 2018 AIIMS Medicine
11 All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Nagpur Nagpur Maharashtra 2018 AIIMS Medicine
12 All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi New Delhi Delhi 1956 AIIMS Medicine
13 All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Patna Patna Bihar 2012 AIIMS Medicine
14 All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Raebareli Raebareli Uttar Pradesh 2013 AIIMS Medicine
15 All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Raipur Raipur Chhattisgarh 2012 AIIMS Medicine
16 All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Rishikesh Rishikesh Uttarakhand 2012 AIIMS Medicine
17 Atal Bihari Vajpayee Indian Institute of Information Technology and Management, Gwalior Gwalior Madhya Pradesh 1997 IIIT Information Technology
18 Dakshina Bharat Hindi Prachar Sabha Chennai Tamil Nadu 1918 Language Studies[14]
19 Dr. B. R. Ambedkar National Institute of Technology, Jalandhar Jalandhar Punjab 1987 NIT Engineering
20 Dr. Rajendra Prasad Central Agriculture University Samastipur Bihar 1905 Agricultural Science[15]
21 Footwear Design and Development Institute Noida Uttar Pradesh 1986 Design[16]
22 Indian Institute of Engineering Science and Technology, Shibpur Shibpur West Bengal 1856 Engineering[17]
23 Indian Institute of Information Technology, Agartala Agartala Tripura 2018 IIIT Information Technology
24 Indian Institute of Information Technology, Allahabad Prayagraj Uttar Pradesh 1999 IIIT Information Technology
25 Indian Institute of Information Technology, Bhagalpur Bhagalpur Bihar 2017 IIIT Information Technology
26 Indian Institute of Information Technology, Bhopal Bhopal Madhya Pradesh 2017 IIIT Information Technology
27 Indian Institute of Information Technology, Design and Manufacturing, Jabalpur Jabalpur Madhya Pradesh 2005 IIIT Information Technology
28 Indian Institute of Information Technology, Design and Manufacturing, Kancheepuram Chennai Tamil Nadu 2007 IIIT Information Technology
29 Indian Institute of Information Technology, Design and Manufacturing, Kurnool Kurnool Andhra Pradesh 2015 IIIT Information Technology
30 Indian Institute of Information Technology, Dharwad Dharwad Karnataka 2015 IIIT Information Technology
31 Indian Institute of Information Technology, Guwahati Guwahati Assam 2013 IIIT Information Technology
32 Indian Institute of Information Technology, Kalyani Kalyani West Bengal 2014 IIIT Information Technology
33 Indian Institute of Information Technology, Kota Kota Rajasthan 2013 IIIT Information Technology
34 Indian Institute of Information Technology, Kottayam Kottayam Kerala 2015 IIIT Information Technology
35 Indian Institute of Information Technology, Lucknow Lucknow Uttar Pradesh 2015 IIIT Information Technology
36 Indian Institute of Information Technology, Manipur Imphal Manipur 2015 IIIT Information Technology
37 Indian Institute of Information Technology, Nagpur Nagpur Maharashtra 2016 IIIT Information Technology
38 Indian Institute of Information Technology, Pune Pune Maharashtra 2016 IIIT Information Technology
39 Indian Institute of Information Technology, Raichur Raichur Karnataka 2019 IIIT Information Technology
40 Indian Institute of Information Technology, Ranchi Ranchi Jharkhand 2016 IIIT Information Technology
41 Indian Institute of Information Technology, Sonepat Sonipat Haryana 2014 IIIT Information Technology
42 Indian Institute of Information Technology, Sri City Sri City Andhra Pradesh 2013 IIIT Information Technology
43 Indian Institute of Information Technology, Surat Surat Gujarat 2017 IIIT Information Technology
44 Indian Institute of Information Technology, Tiruchirappalli Tiruchirappalli Tamil Nadu 2013 IIIT Information Technology
45 Indian Institute of Information Technology, Una Una Himachal Pradesh 2014 IIIT Information Technology
46 Indian Institute of Information Technology, Vadodara Vadodara Gujarat 2013 IIIT Information Technology
47 Indian Institute of Management, Ahmedabad Ahmedabad Gujarat 1961 IIM Management
48 Indian Institute of Management, Amritsar Amritsar Punjab 2015 IIM Management
49 Indian Institute of Management, Bangalore Bangalore Karnataka 1973 IIM Management
50 Indian Institute of Management, Bodh Gaya Bodh Gaya Bihar 2015 IIM Management
51 Indian Institute of Management, Calcutta Kolkata West Bengal 1961 IIM Management
52 Indian Institute of Management, Indore Indore Madhya Pradesh 1996 IIM Management
53 Indian Institute of Management, Jammu Jammu Jammu and Kashmir 2016 IIM Management
54 Indian Institute of Management, Kashipur Kashipur Uttarakhand 2011 IIM Management
55 Indian Institute of Management, kozhikode Kozhikode Kerala 1996 IIM Management
56 Indian Institute of Management, Lucknow Lucknow Uttar Pradesh 1984 IIM Management
57 Indian Institute of Management, Nagpur Nagpur Maharashtra 2015 IIM Management
58 Indian Institute of Management, Raipur Raipur Chhattisgarh 2010 IIM Management
59 Indian Institute of Management, Ranchi Ranchi Jharkhand 2010 IIM Management
60 Indian Institute of Management, Rohtak Rohtak Haryana 2010 IIM Management
61 Indian Institute of Management, Sambalpur Sambalpur Odisha 2015 IIM Management
62 Indian Institute of Management, Shilliong Shillong Meghalaya 2007 IIM Management
63 Indian Institute of Management, Sirmaur Paonta Sahib Himachal Pradesh 2015 IIM Management
64 Indian Institute of Management, Tiruchirappalli Tiruchirappalli Tamil Nadu 2011 IIM Management
65 Indian Institute of Management, Udaipur Udaipur Rajasthan 2011 IIM Management
66 Indian Institute of Management, Visakhapatnam Visakhapatnam Andhra Pradesh 2015 IIM Management
67 Indian Institute of Petroleum and Energy Visakhapatnam Andhra Pradesh 2016 Petroleum Engineering[18]
68 Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Berhampur Berhampur Odisha 2016 IISER Sciences
69 Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Bhopal Bhopal Madhya Pradesh 2008 IISER Sciences
70 Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Kolkata Kolkata West Bengal 2006 IISER Sciences
71 Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Mohali Mohali Punjab 2007 IISER Sciences
72 Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Pune Pune Maharashtra 2006 IISER Sciences
73 Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Thiruvananthapuram Thiruvananthapuram Kerala 2008 IISER Sciences
74 Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Tirupati Tirupati Andhra Pradesh 2015 IISER Sciences
75 Indian Institute of Technology (BHU), Varanasi[N 1] Varanasi Uttar Pradesh 1919 IIT Engineering
76 Indian Institute of Technology (ISM), Dhanbad[N 1] Dhanbad Jharkhand 1926 IIT Engineering
77 Indian Institute of Technology, Bhilai Bhilai Chhattisgarh 2016 IIT Engineering
78 Indian Institute of Technology, Bhubaneswar Bhubaneswar Odisha 2008 IIT Engineering
79 Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay Mumbai Maharashtra 1958 IIT Engineering
80 Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi New Delhi Delhi 1963 IIT Engineering
81 Indian Institute of Technology, Dharwad Dharwad Karnataka 2016 IIT Engineering
82 Indian Institute of Technology, Gandhinagar Gandhinagar Gujarat 2008 IIT Engineering
83 Indian Institute of Technology, Goa Farmagudi Goa 2016 IIT Engineering
84 Indian Institute of Technology, Guwahati Guwahati Assam 1994 IIT Engineering
85 Indian Institute of Technology, Hyderabad Hyderabad Telangana 2008 IIT Engineering
86 Indian Institute of Technology, Indore Indore Madhya Pradesh 2009 IIT Engineering
87 Indian Institute of Technology, Jammu Jammu Jammu and Kashmir 2016 IIT Engineering
88 Indian Institute of Technology, Jodhpur Jodhpur Rajasthan 2008 IIT Engineering
89 Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur Kanpur Uttar Pradesh 1959 IIT Engineering
90 Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur Kharagpur West Bengal 1951 IIT Engineering
91 Indian Institute of Technology, Madras Chennai Tamil Nadu 1959 IIT Engineering
92 Indian Institute of Technology, Mandi Mandi Himachal Pradesh 2009 IIT Engineering
93 Indian Institute of Technology, Palakkad Palakkad Kerala 2015 IIT Engineering
94 Indian Institute of Technology, Patna Patna Bihar 2008 IIT Engineering
95 Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee[N 1] Roorkee Uttarakhand 1847 IIT Engineering
96 Indian Institute of Technology, Ropar Rupnagar Punjab 2008 IIT Engineering
97 Indian Institute of Technology, Tirupati Tirupati Andhra Pradesh 2015 IIT Engineering
98 Indian Statistical Institute Kolkata West Bengal 1931 Statistics[14]
99 Institute of Teaching and Research in Ayurveda Jamnagar Gujarat 2020 Ayurvedic Medicine[19]
100 Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research[N 2] Pondicherry Puducherry 1823 Medicine[14]
101 Kalakshetra Foundation Chennai Tamil Nadu 1936 Arts and Culture[20]
102 Malaviya National Institute of Technology, Jaipur Jaipur Rajasthan 1963 NIT Engineering
103 Maulana Azad National Institute of Technology, Bhopal Bhopal Madhya Pradesh 1960 NIT Engineering
104 Motilal Nehru National Institute of Technology, Allahabad Prayagraj Uttar Pradesh 1961 NIT Engineering
105 Nalanda University Rajgir Bihar 2010 Social Science[21]
106 National Forensic Sciences University Gandhinagar Gujarat 2020 Forensic Science[22]
107 National Institute of Design, Ahmedabad Ahmedabad Gujarat 1960 NID Design
108 National Institute of Design, Andhra Pradesh Vijayawada Andhra Pradesh 2015 NID Design
109 National Institute of Design, Assam Jorhat Assam 2019 NID Design
110 National Institute of Design, Haryana Kurukshetra Haryana 2016 NID Design
111 National Institute of Design, Madhya Pradesh Bhopal Madhya Pradesh 2019 NID Design
112 National Institute of Food Technology Entrepreneurship and Management, Sonepat Sonepat Haryana 2012 NIFTEM Food Technology
113 National Institute of Food Technology, Entrepreneurship and Management, Thanjavur Thanjavur Tamil Nadu 1967 NIFTEM Food Technology
114 National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences Bangalore Karnataka 1847 Medicine[23]
115 National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Ahmedabad Ahmedabad Gujarat 2007 NIPER Pharmaceutical Science
116 National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Guwahati Guwahati Assam 2008 NIPER Pharmaceutical Science
117 National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Hajipur Hajipur Bihar 2007 NIPER Pharmaceutical Science
118 National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Hyderabad Hyderabad Telangana 2007 NIPER Pharmaceutical Science
119 National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Kolkata Kolkata West Bengal 2007 NIPER Pharmaceutical Science
120 National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Mohali Mohali Punjab 1998 NIPER Pharmaceutical Science
121 National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Raebareli Raebareli Uttar Pradesh 2007 NIPER Pharmaceutical Science
122 National Institute of Technology, Agartala Agartala Tripura 1965 NIT Engineering
123 National Institute of Technology, Andhra Pradesh Tadepalligudem Andhra Pradesh 2015 NIT Engineering
124 National Institute of Technology, Arunachal Pradesh Yupia Arunachal Pradesh 2010 NIT Engineering
125 National Institute of Technology, Calicut Kozhikode Kerala 1961 NIT Engineering
126 National Institute of Technology, Delhi New Delhi Delhi 2010 NIT Engineering
127 National Institute of Technology, Durgapur Durgapur West Bengal 1960 NIT Engineering
128 National Institute of Technology, Goa Farmagudi Goa 2010 NIT Engineering
129 National Institute of Technology, Hamirpur Hamirpur Himachal Pradesh 1986 NIT Engineering
130 National Institute of Technology, Jamshedpur Jamshedpur Jharkhand 1960 NIT Engineering
131 National Institute of Technology, Karnataka Mangalore Karnataka 1960 NIT Engineering
132 National Institute of Technology, Kurukshetra Kurukshetra Haryana 1963 NIT Engineering
133 National Institute of Technology, Manipur Imphal Manipur 2010 NIT Engineering
134 National Institute of Technology, Meghalaya Shillong Meghalaya 2010 NIT Engineering
135 National Institute of Technology, Mizoram Aizawl Mizoram 2010 NIT Engineering
136 National Institute of Technology, Nagaland Chümoukedima Nagaland 2010 NIT Engineering
137 National Institute of Technology, Patna Patna Bihar 1886 NIT Engineering
138 National Institute of Technology, Puducherry Karaikal Puducherry 2010 NIT Engineering
139 National Institute of Technology, Raipur Raipur Chhattisgarh 1956 NIT Engineering
140 National Institute of Technology, Rourkela Rourkela Odisha 1961 NIT Engineering
141 National Institute of Technology, Sikkim Ravangla Sikkim 2010 NIT Engineering
142 National Institute of Technology, Silchar Silchar Assam 1967 NIT Engineering
143 National Institute of Technology, Srinagar Srinagar Jammu and Kashmir 1960 NIT Engineering
144 National Institute of Technology, Tiruchirappalli Tiruchirappalli Tamil Nadu 1964 NIT Engineering
145 National Institute of Technology, Uttarakhand Srinagar Uttarakhand 2010 NIT Engineering
146 National Institute of Technology, Warangal Warangal Telangana 1959 NIT Engineering
147 New Delhi International Arbitration Centre New Delhi Delhi 2020 International Arbitration[24]
148 Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research Chandigarh Chandigarh 1962 Medicine[14]
149 Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Petroleum Technology Jais Uttar Pradesh 2007 Petroleum Engineering[14]
150 Rajiv Gandhi National Institute of Youth Development Chennai Tamil Nadu 1993 Youth Affairs[14]
151 Rani Lakshmi Bai Central Agricultural University Jhansi Uttar Pradesh 2014 Agricultural Science[25]
152 Rashtriya Raksha University Gandhinagar Gujarat 2020 Defence Studies[26]
153 Regional Centre for Biotechnology Faridabad Haryana 2009 Biotechnology[27]
154 Sardar Vallabhbhai National Institute of Technology, Surat Surat Gujarat 1961 NIT Engineering
155 School of Planning and Architecture, Bhopal Bhopal Madhya Pradesh 2008 SPA Architecture
156 School of Planning and Architecture, New Delhi New Delhi Delhi 1941 SPA Architecture
157 School of Planning and Architecture, Vijayawada Vijayawada Andhra Pradesh 2008 SPA Architecture
158 Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology Thiruvananthapuram Kerala 1973 Medicine[14]
159 University of Allahabad Prayagraj Uttar Pradesh 1887 General[28]
160 Visva-Bharati University Santiniketan West Bengal 1921 General[29]
161 Visvesvaraya National Institute of Technology, Nagpur Nagpur Maharashtra 1960 NIT Engineering

Proposed Institutes of National Importance (INIs)[edit]

The following institutes have been proposed as INIs through a bill:

See also[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c IIT Roorkee was included in the IIT system in 2001; IIT-BHU Varanasi was included in the IIT system in 2012; IIT-ISM Dhanbad was included in the IIT system in 2016
  2. ^ Ecole de Médicine de Pondichéry was re-established as JIPMER in 1964

References[edit]

  1. ^ "SPA Act, 2014" (PDF).
  2. ^ "National Institute of Design – National Institute of Design Act". www.nid.edu. Archived from the original on 2 January 2021. Retrieved 25 October 2018.
  3. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 2 January 2021. Retrieved 14 June 2020.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  4. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 2 January 2021. Retrieved 14 June 2020.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  5. ^ "Indian Institutes of Information Technology Act, 2014". 8 December 2014. {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  6. ^ "The Indian Institutes of Information Technology (Public-Private Partnership) Act, 2017" (PDF). egazette.nic.in. 9 August 2017. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2 January 2021. Retrieved 11 August 2017.
  7. ^ "Pranab nod to BESU upgrade". 7 March 2014.
  8. ^ Parliament passes bill to declare 2 food tech institutes as institutes of national importance, Outlook, 26 July 2021.
  9. ^ "Parliament passes the National Institutes of Food Technology, Entrepreneurship and Management Bill, 2021". pib.gov.in. Retrieved 27 July 2021.
  10. ^ "Indian Institute of Management Act, 2017". 31 December 2017. {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  11. ^ "All India Institute of Medical Sciences (Amendment) Act, 2012" (PDF). The Gazette of India. Government of India. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2 January 2021. Retrieved 1 May 2018.
  12. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 2 January 2021. Retrieved 14 June 2020.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  13. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 2 January 2021. Retrieved 14 June 2020.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  14. ^ a b c d e f g h i "Institutions of National Importance". Ministry of Human Resource Development, Government of India. 30 January 2016. Archived from the original on 27 December 2017. Retrieved 30 January 2016.
  15. ^ "Dr. Rajendra Prasad Central Agricultural University Act, 2016". 28 May 2016. {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  16. ^ "Footwear Design and Development Institute Act, 2017" (PDF). The Gazette of India. Government of India. 5 August 2017. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2 January 2021. Retrieved 24 May 2018.
  17. ^ "The Gazette of India" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 2 January 2021. Retrieved 26 June 2020.
  18. ^ "Cabinet approves setting up of Indian Institute of Petroleum and Energy (IIPE) at Visakhapatnam in Andhra Pradesh". pib.nic.in.
  19. ^ "ITRA Act 2020" (PDF). egazette. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2 January 2021. Retrieved 8 October 2020.
  20. ^ "Act | Kalakshetra Foundation" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 2 January 2021. Retrieved 18 July 2018.
  21. ^ "Nalanda University Act, 2010". 21 September 2010. {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  22. ^ "NFSU Act 2020" (PDF). PRS India. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2 January 2021. Retrieved 7 October 2020.
  23. ^ "National Institute of Mental Health and Neuro-Sciences, Bangalore Act, 2012". 13 September 2012. {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  24. ^ "NDIAC Act 2019" (PDF). legalaffairs. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2 January 2021. Retrieved 8 October 2020.
  25. ^ "Rani Lakshmi Bai Central Agricultural University Act, 2014". 4 March 2014. {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  26. ^ "The Rashtriya Raksha University Act, 2020" (PDF). rsu.ac.in. 23 March 2020. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2 January 2021. Retrieved 8 October 2020.
  27. ^ "Regional Centre for Biotechnology Act, 2016". 29 July 2016. {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  28. ^ "Act | University of Allahabad" (PDF). www.legislative.gov.in. Retrieved 23 December 2018.
  29. ^ "Act | Visva Bharati University" (PDF). www.visvabharati.ac.in. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2 January 2021. Retrieved 23 December 2018.
  30. ^ "Act for proposal | NCERT" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 2 January 2021. Retrieved 18 July 2018.
  31. ^ "Act for proposal | INDU" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 2 January 2021. Retrieved 18 July 2018.
  32. ^ "Act for proposal | HBNI" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 2 January 2021. Retrieved 18 July 2018.
  33. ^ "Press Information Bureau". pib.gov.in. Retrieved 28 July 2021.
  34. ^ "Press Information Bureau". pib.gov.in. Retrieved 13 July 2022.

External links[edit]