Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics
The Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics or IBGE (Portuguese: Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística) is the agency responsible for official collection of statistical, geographic, cartographic, geodetic and environmental information in Brazil. IBGE performs a decennial national census; questionnaires account for information such as age, household income, literacy, education, occupation and hygiene levels.
IBGE is a public institute created in 1936 under the name National Institute of Statistics. Its founder and chief proponent was statistician Mário Augusto Teixeira de Freitas. The current name dates from 1938. Its headquarters are located in Rio de Janeiro, and its current president is Paulo Rabello de Castro. It was made a federal agency by Decree-Law No. 161 on February 13, 1967, and is subordinate to the Ministry of Planning, Budget, and Management.
IBGE has a network of national research and dissemination components, comprising:
- 27 state units (26 in state capitals and one in the Federal District);
- 27 centres for documentation and dissemination of information (26 in the capital and one in the Federal District);
- 27 units for the supervision of territorial mapping (26 in the capital and one in the Federal District);
- 585 data collection agencies in major cities.
- Headquarters in Rio de Janeiro (Rio de Janeiro was the capital of the Republic when the Office was established).
Also in Rio de Janeiro are five boards and a school: Executive Directors (ED), Directorate of Research (DPE), Department of Geosciences (DGC), Department of Informatics (DI), Center for Documentation and Information Dissemination (CDDI) and the National School of Statistical Sciences
The Directorate of Research is responsible for planning and coordinating the research of nature and processing of statistical data collected by the state units; the Department of Geosciences is responsible for basic cartography, the national geodetic system, with a survey of natural resources and environment and by survey and geographical studies.
The Center for Documentation and Information Dissemination is responsible for documentation and dissemination of information produced by the institute as well as coordinating the 27 CDDIs in the country, and the National School of Statistical Sciences, besides being responsible for training the institute's employees, is a federal institution of higher learning that offers the following courses: BA in Statistics; specialization in Environmental Analysis and Management Planning, and Masters in Population Studies and Social Research.
The IBGE also maintains the Roncador Ecological Reserve, situated 35 km south of Brasília.
System of national accounts
Gives an overview of the economy and describes the phenomena of economic life: production, consumption and wealth accumulation, providing a comprehensive and simplified representation of these data. The System of National Accounts IBGE follows the most recent UN recommendations expressed in the Handbook of National Accounts (System of National Accounts 1993 , SNA), including the calculation of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and the Input-output matrix.
Quarterly national accounts
Displays the current value and volume indices (1991 = 100) every quarter for the Gross Domestic Product at market prices, taxes on products, value added at basic prices, personal consumption, government consumption, Gross fixed capital formation, changes in inventories, exports and imports of goods and services. Two series of index numbers are calculated: the basis of the previous year and chained with reference to 1990 (1990 = 100). The series is seasonally adjusted using X-12-ARIMA, enabling calculation of the rates of change over the previous quarter.
The IBGE survey was started in 1988 and restructured after 1998, when their results were integrated into the current System of National Accounts. The annual weights are derived from this new system accounts.
IBGE maintains the following archives (non-exhaustive list):
- Municipal Agricultural Production (MAP)
- Municipal Livestock Survey (PPM)
- Extraction Plant and Forestry Research (PEVS)
- Annual Survey of Industry (full model) (PIA-C)
- Annual Survey of Industries (simplified form) (PIA-S)
- Annual Survey of Industries (product) (PIA-Prod)
- Annual Survey of Construction Industry (Paice)
- Annual Survey of Trade (simplified model) (PAC-S)
- Annual Survey of Trade (full model) (PAC-C)
- Annual Services Survey (PAS)
- National Sample Survey of Households (PNAD)
- Monthly Survey of Employment and Wages (PIMES)
- Monthly Industrial Survey of Physical Production (PIM -PF)
- Household Budget Survey (POF)
Requirement and confidentiality of information
The legislation, according to Federal Decree No. 73,177 of November 20, 1973 and Law No. 5534 of November 14, 1968, modified by Law No. 5878 of May 11, 1978, deals with the obligation and confidentiality of information collected by IBGE, which is intended exclusively for statistical purposes and has no legal value, not being usable as evidence or proof.
Failure to provide information within the specified deadlines, or providing false information is a crime subject to a fine, initially, of up to 10 times the highest minimum wage in the country, and up to twice this limit on later occasions.
Some economic indicators released by the IBGE
- National System of Consumer Price Indices
- National Index of Consumer Prices (INPC)
- Broad National Consumer Price Index (IPCA)
- National Index of Construction (INCC)
The IBGE performs various kinds of censuses, although the best known is the population census (statistics on the population of the country). In Brazil, the population censuses are conducted every 10 years solely by the IBGE, as this is the body established by law as responsible for their production.
The population count is made between the interval between two censuses, usually five years after the last five or before the next . Aims to update the data on the number of inhabitants, and is not always applied in all municipalities.
The first population count was conducted in 1996, not only to update population data, but also to get municipality level data after the emergence and redefinition of new municipalities after the 1500 Population Census of 1991.
After the census conducted in 2000, the IBGE population count conducted in 2007 which aimed to update the population estimates, but also incorporated the demographic changes occurring in the territory since the last survey of reference.
The population count is of great importance to Brazil's cities, because the annual grant of funds from the Municipalities Participation Fund is determined mainly by the estimates of population variation provided by IBGE, which directly influence the calculation of the coefficients used to transfer the fund to the municipalities.
The agricultural census collects information on agricultural establishments, forests and/or aquaculture of all municipalities of a country. The goal of this research is to update previous census data and to provide information about economic, social, and environmental farming. It usually occurs every 10 years.
The last agricultural census conducted by the IBGE in Brazil was in 1996. In 2007, a new agricultural census was undertaken, which refers to activities developed in the previous year. The next agricultural census is planned for 2017, after the 2016 one was cancelled due to insufficient funds.