Instituto Nacional de Industria
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Instituto Nacional de Industria (INI, National Institute of Industry) was a Spanish state-owned financing and industrial holding company established in Francoist Spain following the Spanish state model of state-owned industry for economic an social control of the population. It was succeeded by the Sociedad Estatal de Participaciones Industriales (SEPI) in 1995.
The INI was established on 25 September 1941 with a starting capital of fifty million pesetas. It aimed to promote under a secure and active way the development of Spanish industry and the self-sufficiency of the Spanish economy. It aimed to overturn the effects of the setback due to the Spanish Civil War by carrying in Spain the model of the Istituto per la Ricostruzione Industriale (IRI), the state-owned industrial holding company which had been founded eight years earlier in Italy.
Despite its inefficiencies, INI was instrumental in moving the underdeveloped primary-sector-based closed Spain of the 1940s to the booming Spain of the 1960s and early 1970s, the so-called Spanish miracle. To achieve its goal, INI either financed on its own or directed private funds to the creation of the country's fundamental industries under the spirit of the national interest and autarky. Although its first acts ended up in failure (e.g., Adaro), INI soon turned itself into the biggest industrial conglomerate of Spain.
INI included a broad range of companies, from heavy and basic industries to "soft" services, most of them with E.N., standing for Empresa Nacional (National Corporation), in their names. Among them were: Ensidesa (Empresa Nacional Siderúrgica S.A.)–Aceralia (steel), Enasa (Empresa Nacional de Autocamiones S.A.)–Pegaso (trucks), SEAT (Sociedad Española de Automóviles de Turismo) (cars), INH (Instituto Nacional de Hidrocarburos)–Repsol (Refinería de Petróleos de Escombreras Oil) (oil and gas), ENCE (Empresa Nacional de Celulosas de España) (cellulose, biofuels), ENDASA (Empresa Nacional de Aluminio S.A.) (aluminium), Endesa (Empresa Nacional de Electricidad S.A.) (power), ENFERSA (Empresa Nacional de Fertilizantes S.A.) (fertilizers), E.N. Calvo Sotelo (petrochemicals), E.N. Bazán–ASTANO (Astilleros y Talleres del Noroeste)–Navantia (military shipyards), Aesa (non-military shipyards), E.N. Santa Bárbara (weapons), E.N. Elcano (merchant shipping line), ATESA (Autotransporte Turístico Español S.A.) (tour operator), ENTURSA (Empresa Nacional de Turismo S.A.) (tourism) and others.
INI also integrated other private enterprises or industries, like Iberia (Iberia Líneas Aéreas de España S.A.), CASA (Construcciones Aeronáuticas S.A.) and Aviaco (Aviación y Comercio)]]. It and absorbed failed companies in order to service debt, among other purposes. In the mid-to late 1970s, HUNOSA (Hulleras del Norte S.A.), a large Asturian coal mining conglomerate, and Compañía Transatlántica Española (CTE) were among the non-functional companies that were integrated into the Instituto Nacional de Industria.
However, there were other Spanish official state monopolies—such as Campsa (Compañía Arrendataria del Monopolio de Petróleos S.A.) (gas stations), RENFE (Red Nacional de los Ferrocarriles Españoles)]] (railways), Tabacalera (tobacco), or Telefónica (Compañía Telefónica Nacional de España) (telecommunications) - which were never projects part of INI's administration.
In the 1980s, when Spanish economy fully opened to international trade and joined the European Economic Community, INI lost its reason to exist. Most of its companies were privatized in the 1980s and early 1990s. In this process, ENSIDESA was taken over by Arcelor, SEAT by Volkswagen Group, ENASA by Iveco, Calvo Sotelo by Repsol, and so on. Others, including ENDESA and Iberia, have kept their independence.
In 1992 INI was entitled to create a new holding company (Sociedad Anónima) over which it would pass all shares owned in every company's capital it had still participated. The new company named TENEO, which was founded on July 4 of the same year, is now called Sociedad Estatal de Participaciones Industriales (SEPI) and has practically disposed the totality of its owned shares with the exception of HUNOSA and a few other industries.
The chairmen of the INI are as follows:
- Juan Antonio Suanzes (1941–1963)
- José Sirvent (1963–1969)
- Julio Calleja (1969–1970)
- Claudio Boada (1970–1974)
- Francisco Fernández Ordóñez (1974)
- Juan Carlos Guerra Zunzunegui (1974–1975)
- José Miguel Antoñanzas (1975–1977)
- Francisco Giménez Torres (1977–1978)
- José Miguel de la Rica (1978–1981)
- Carlos Bustelo (1981–1982)
- Enrique Moya (1982–1984)
- Luis Carlos Croissier (1984–1986)
- Claudio Aranzadi (1986–1988)
- Jordi Mercader (1988–1990)
- Javier Salas (1990–1995)
- "History:Grupo INI". SEPI. Retrieved 17 September 2013.
- Grupo Empresarial ENCE - Empresa Nacional de Celulosa España
- Compañía Transatlántica Española - History