# Instructions per second

Instructions per second (IPS) is a measure of a computer's processor speed. For complex instruction set computers (CISCs), different instructions take different amounts of time, so the value measured depends on the instruction mix; even for comparing processors in the same family the IPS measurement can be problematic. Many reported IPS values have represented "peak" execution rates on artificial instruction sequences with few branches and no cache contention, whereas realistic workloads typically lead to significantly lower IPS values. Memory hierarchy also greatly affects processor performance, an issue barely considered in IPS calculations. Because of these problems, synthetic benchmarks such as Dhrystone are now generally used to estimate computer performance in commonly used applications, and raw IPS has fallen into disuse.

The term is commonly used in association with a metric prefix (k, M, G, T, P, or E) to form kilo instructions per second (kIPS), mega instructions per second (MIPS), giga instructions per second (GIPS) and so on. Formerly TIPS was used occasionally for "thousand IPS".

## Computing

IPS can be calculated using this equation:[1]

${\displaystyle {\text{IPS}}={\text{sockets}}\times {\frac {\text{cores}}{\text{socket}}}\times {\text{clock}}\times {\frac {\text{Is}}{\text{cycle}}}}$

However, the instructions/cycle measurement depends on the instruction sequence, the data and external factors.

## Thousand instructions per second (TIPS/kIPS)

Before standard benchmarks were available, average speed rating of computers was based on calculations for a mix of instructions with the results given in kilo instructions per second (kIPS). The most famous was the Gibson Mix,[2] produced by Jack Clark Gibson of IBM for scientific applications in 1959. Other ratings, such as the ADP mix which does not include floating point operations, were produced for commercial applications. The thousand instructions per second (kIPS) unit is rarely used today, as most current microprocessors can execute at least a million instructions per second.

### The Gibson Mix

Gibson divided computer instructions into 12 classes, based on the IBM 704 architecture, adding a 13th class to account for indexing time. Weights were primarily based on analysis of seven scientific programs run on the 704, with a small contribution from some IBM 650 programs. The overall score was then the weighted sum of the average execution speed for instructions in each class.[3]

## Millions of instructions per second (MIPS)

The speed of a given CPU depends on many factors, such as the type of instructions being executed, the execution order and the presence of branch instructions (problematic in CPU pipelines). CPU instruction rates are different from clock frequencies, usually reported in Hz, as each instruction may require several clock cycles to complete or the processor may be capable of executing multiple independent instructions simultaneously. MIPS can be useful when comparing performance between processors made with similar architecture (e.g. Microchip branded microcontrollers), but they are difficult to compare between differing CPU architectures.[4] This led to the term "Meaningless Indicator of Processor Speed,"[5] or less commonly, "Meaningless Indices of Performance," [6] being popular amongst technical people by the mid-1980s.

For this reason, MIPS has become not a measure of instruction execution speed, but task performance speed compared to a reference. In the late 1970s, minicomputer performance was compared using VAX MIPS, where computers were measured on a task and their performance rated against the VAX-11/780 that was marketed as a 1 MIPS machine. (The measure was also known as the VAX Unit of Performance or VUP.) This was chosen because the 11/780 was roughly equivalent in performance to an IBM System/370 model 158–3, which was commonly accepted in the computing industry as running at 1 MIPS.

Many minicomputer performance claims were based on the Fortran version of the Whetstone benchmark, giving Millions of Whetstone Instructions Per Second (MWIPS). The VAX 11/780 with FPA (1977) runs at 1.02 MWIPS.

Effective MIPS speeds are highly dependent on the programming language used. The Whetstone Report has a table showing MWIPS speeds of PCs via early interpreters and compilers up to modern languages. The first PC compiler was for BASIC (1982) when a 4.8 MHz 8088/87 CPU obtained 0.01 MWIPS. Results on a 2.4 GHz Intel Core 2 Duo (1 CPU 2007) vary from 9.7 MWIPS using BASIC Interpreter, 59 MWIPS via BASIC Compiler, 347 MWIPS using 1987 Fortran, 1,534 MWIPS through HTML/Java to 2,403 MWIPS using a modern C/C++ compiler.

For the most early 8-bit and 16-bit microprocessors, performance was measured in thousand instructions per second (1000 kIPS = 1 MIPS).

zMIPS refers to the MIPS measure used internally by IBM to rate its mainframe servers (zSeries, IBM System z9, and IBM System z10).

Weighted million operations per second (WMOPS) is a similar measurement, used for audio codecs.

## Timeline of instructions per second

Processor / System Dhrystone MIPS or MIPS, and frequency D instructions per clock cycle D instructions per clock cycle per core Year Source
UNIVAC I 0.002 MIPS at 2.25 MHz 0.0008 0.0008 1951
IBM 7030 ("Stretch") 1.200 MIPS at 3.30 MHz 0.364 0.364 1961 [8][9]
CDC 6600 10.00 MIPS at 10.00 MHz 1 1 1965 [10][11]
Intel 4004 0.092 MIPS at 0.740 MHz
(Not Dhrystone)
0.124 0.124 1971 [12]
IBM System/370 Model 158 0.640 MIPS at 8.696 MHz 0.0736 0.0736 1972 [13]
Intel 8080 0.290 MIPS at 2.000 MHz
(Not Dhrystone)
0.145 0.145 1974 [14]
Cray 1 160.0 MIPS at 80.00 MHz 2 2 1975 [15]
MOS Technology 6502 0.430 MIPS at 1.000 MHz 0.43 0.43 1975 [16]
Intel 8080A 0.435 MIPS at 3.000 MHz
(Not Dhrystone)
0.145 0.145 1976 [14]
Zilog Z80 0.580 MIPS at 4.000 MHz
(Not Dhrystone)
0.145 0.145 1976 [16]
Motorola 6802 0.500 MIPS at 1.000 MHz 0.5 0.5 1977 [17]
IBM System/370 Model 158-3 0.730 MIPS at 8.696 MHz 0.0839 0.0839 1977 [13]
VAX-11/780 1.000 MIPS at 5.000 MHz 0.2 0.2 1977 [13]
Motorola 6809 0.420 MIPS at 1.000 MHz 0.42 0.42 1978 [16]
Intel 8086 0.330 MIPS at 5.000 MHz 0.066 0.066 1978 [14]
Fujitsu MB8843 2.000 MIPS at 2.000 MHz
(Not Dhrystone)
1 1 1978 [18]
Intel 8088 0.750 MIPS at 10.00 MHz 0.075 0.075 1979 [14]
Motorola 68000 1.400 MIPS at 8.000 MHz 0.175 0.175 1979 [16]
Zilog Z8001/Z8002 1.5 MIPS at 6 MHz 0.25 0.25 1979 [19]
Intel 8035/8039/8048 6 MIPS at 6 MHz
(Not Dhrystone)
1 1 1980 [20]
Fujitsu MB8843/MB8844 6 MIPS at 6 MHz
(Not Dhrystone)
1 1 1980 [18]
Zilog Z80/Z80H 1.16 MIPS at 8 MHz
(Not Dhrystone)
0.145 0.145 1981 [16][21]
Motorola 6802 1.79 MIPS at 3.58 MHz 0.5 0.5 1981 [17][22]
Zilog Z8001/Z8002B 2.5 MIPS at 10 MHz 0.25 0.25 1981 [19]
MOS Technology 6502 2.522 MIPS at 5.865 MHz 0.43 0.43 1981 [16][22]
Intel 80286 1.28 MIPS at 12 MHz 0.107 0.107 1982 [13]
Motorola 68000 2.188 MIPS at 12.5 MHz 0.175 0.175 1982 [16]
Motorola 68010 2.407 MIPS at 12.5 MHz 0.193 0.193 1982 [23]
NEC V20 4 MIPS at 8 MHz
(Not Dhrystone)
0.5 0.5 1982 [24]
LINKS-1 Computer Graphics System (257-processor) 642.5 MIPS at 10 MHz 2.5 0.25 1982 [25]
Texas Instruments TMS32010 5 MIPS at 20 MHz 0.25 0.25 1983 [26]
NEC V30 5 MIPS at 10 MHz
(Not Dhrystone)
0.5 0.5 1983 [24]
Motorola 68010 3.209 MIPS at 16.67 MHz 0.193 0.193 1984 [23]
Motorola 68020 4.848 MIPS at 16 MHz 0.303 0.303 1984 [27]
Hitachi HD63705 2 MIPS at 2 MHz 1 1 1985 [28][29]
Intel i386DX 2.15 MIPS at 16 MHz 0.134 0.134 1985 [13]
Hitachi-Motorola 68HC000 3.5 MIPS at 20 MHz 0.175 0.175 1985 [16]
Intel 8751 1 MIPS at 12 MHz 0.083 0.083 1985 [30]
Sega System 16 (4-processor) 16.33 MIPS at 10 MHz 4.083 1.020 1985 [31]
ARM2 4 MIPS at 8 MHz 0.5 0.5 1986 [32]
Texas Instruments TMS34010 6 MIPS at 50 MHz 0.12 0.12 1986 [33]
NEC V70 6.6 MIPS at 20 MHz 0.33 0.33 1987 [34]
Motorola 68030 9 MIPS at 25 MHz 0.36 0.36 1987 [35][36]
Gmicro/200 10 MIPS at 20 MHz 0.5 0.5 1987 [37]
Texas Instruments TMS320C20 12.5 MIPS at 25 MHz 0.5 0.5 1987 [38]
Analog Devices ADSP-2100 12.5 MIPS at 12.5 MHz 1 1 1987 [39]
Texas Instruments TMS320C25 25 MIPS at 50 MHz 0.5 0.5 1987 [38]
Motorola 68020 10 MIPS at 33 MHz 0.303 0.303 1988 [27]
Motorola 68030 18 MIPS at 50 MHz 0.36 0.36 1988 [36]
Namco System 21 (10-processor) 73.927 MIPS at 25 MHz 2.957 0.296 1988 [40]
Intel i386DX 4.3 MIPS at 33 MHz 0.13 0.13 1989 [13]
Intel i486DX 8.7 MIPS at 25 MHz 0.348 0.348 1989 [13]
NEC V80 16.5 MIPS at 33 MHz 0.5 0.5 1989 [34]
Intel i860 25 MIPS at 25 MHz 1 1 1989 [41]
Atari Hard Drivin' (7-processor) 33.573 MIPS at 50 MHz 0.671 0.0959 1989 [42]
NEC SX-3 (4-processor) 680 MIPS at 400 MHz 1.7 0.425 1989 [43]
ARM3 12 MIPS at 25 MHz 0.5 0.5 1989 [44]
Motorola 68040 44 MIPS at 40 MHz 1.1 1.1 1990 [45]
Namco System 21 (Galaxian³) (96-processor) 1,660.386 MIPS at 40 MHz 41.51 0.432 1990 [46]
AMD Am386 9 MIPS at 40 MHz 0.225 0.225 1991 [47]
Intel i486DX 11.1 MIPS at 33 MHz 0.336 0.336 1991 [13]
Intel i860 50 MIPS at 50 MHz 1 1 1991 [41]
Intel i486DX2 25.6 MIPS at 66 MHz 0.388 0.388 1992 [13]
Alpha 21064 (EV4) 86 MIPS at 150 MHz 0.573 0.573 1992 [13]
Alpha 21064 (EV4S/EV45) 135 MIPS at 200 MHz 0.675 0.675 1993 [13][48]
MIPS R4400 85 MIPS at 150 MHz 0.567 0.567 1993 [49]
Gmicro/500 132 MIPS at 66 MHz 2 2 1993 [50]
IBM-Motorola PowerPC 601 157.7 MIPS at 80 MHz 1.971 1.971 1993 [51]
SGI Onyx RealityEngine2 (36-processor) 2,640 MIPS at 150 MHz 17.6 0.489 1993 [52]
Namco Magic Edge Hornet Simulator (36-processor) 2,880 MIPS at 150 MHz 19.2 0.533 1993 [49]
ARM7 40 MIPS at 45 MHz 0.889 0.889 1994 [53]
Intel DX4 70 MIPS at 100 MHz 0.7 0.7 1994 [14]
Motorola 68060 110 MIPS at 75 MHz 1.33 1.33 1994
Intel Pentium 188 MIPS at 100 MHz 1.88 1.88 1994 [54]
Microchip PIC16F 5 MIPS at 20 MHz 0.25 0.25 1995 [55]
IBM-Motorola PowerPC 603e 188 MIPS at 133 MHz 1.414 1.414 1995 [56]
ARM 7500FE 35.9 MIPS at 40 MHz 0.9 0.9 1996
IBM-Motorola PowerPC 603ev 423 MIPS at 300 MHz 1.41 1.41 1996 [56]
Intel Pentium Pro 541 MIPS at 200 MHz 2.7 2.7 1996 [57]
Hitachi SH-4 360 MIPS at 200 MHz 1.8 1.8 1997 [58][59]
IBM-Motorola PowerPC 750 525 MIPS at 233 MHz 2.3 2.3 1997
Zilog eZ80 80 MIPS at 50 MHz 1.6 1.6 1999 [60]
Intel Pentium III 2,054 MIPS at 600 MHz 3.4 3.4 1999 [54]
Sega Naomi Multiboard (32-processor) 6,400 MIPS at 200 MHz 32 1 1999 [61]
Freescale MPC8272 760 MIPS at 400 MHz 1.9 1.9 2000 [62]
AMD Athlon 3,561 MIPS at 1.2 GHz 3.0 3.0 2000
Silicon Recognition ZISC 78 8,600 MIPS at 33 MHz 260.6 260.6 2000 [63]
ARM11 515 MIPS at 412 MHz 1.25 1.25 2002 [64]
AMD Athlon XP 2500+ 7,527 MIPS at 1.83 GHz 4.1 4.1 2003 [54]
Pentium 4 Extreme Edition 9,726 MIPS at 3.2 GHz 3.0 3.0 2003
Microchip PIC10F 1 MIPS at 4 MHz 0.25 0.25 2004 [65][66]
ARM Cortex-M3 125 MIPS at 100 MHz 1.25 1.25 2004 [67]
Nios II 190 MIPS at 165 MHz 1.13 1.13 2004 [68]
MIPS32 4KEc 356 MIPS at 233 MHz 1.5 1.5 2004 [69]
VIA C7 1,799 MIPS at 1.3 GHz 1.4 1.4 2005 [70]
ARM Cortex-A8 2,000 MIPS at 1.0 GHz 2.0 2.0 2005 [71]
AMD Athlon FX-57 12,000 MIPS at 2.8 GHz 4.3 4.3 2005
AMD Athlon 64 3800+ X2 (2-core) 14,564 MIPS at 2.0 GHz 7.3 3.6 2005 [72]
PowerPC G4 MPC7448 3,910 MIPS at 1.7 GHz 2.3 2.3 2005 [73]
ARM Cortex-R4 450 MIPS at 270 MHz 1.66 1.66 2006 [74]
MIPS32 24K 604 MIPS at 400 MHz 1.51 1.51 2006 [75]
PS3 Cell BE (PPE only) 10,240 MIPS at 3.2 GHz 3.2 3.2 2006
IBM Xenon CPU (3-core) 19,200 MIPS at 3.2 GHz 6.0 2.0 2005
AMD Athlon FX-60 (2-core) 18,938 MIPS at 2.6 GHz 7.3 3.6 2006 [72]
Intel Core 2 Extreme X6800 (2-core) 27,079 MIPS at 2.93 GHz 9.2 4.6 2006 [72]
Intel Core 2 Extreme QX6700 (4-core) 49,161 MIPS at 2.66 GHz 18.4 4.6 2006 [76]
MIPS64 20Kc 1,370 MIPS at 600 MHz 2.3 2.3 2007 [77]
P.A. Semi PA6T-1682M 8,800 MIPS at 1.8 GHz 4.4 4.4 2007 [78]
Qualcomm Scorpion (Cortex A8-like) 2,100 MIPS at 1 GHz 2.1 2.1 2008 [64]
Intel Atom N270 3,846 MIPS at 1.6 GHz 2.4 2.4 2008 [79]
Intel Core 2 Extreme QX9770 (4-core) 59,455 MIPS at 3.2 GHz 18.6 4.6 2008 [76]
Intel Core i7 920 (4-core) 82,300 MIPS at 2.93 GHz 28.089 7.022 2008 [80]
ARM Cortex-M0 45 MIPS at 50 MHz 0.9 0.9 2009 [81]
ARM Cortex-A9 (2-core) 7,500 MIPS at 1.5 GHz 5.0 2.5 2009 [82]
AMD Phenom II X4 940 Black Edition 42,820 MIPS at 3.0 GHz 14.3 3.5 2009 [83]
AMD Phenom II X6 1100T 78,440 MIPS at 3.3 GHz 23.7 3.9 2010 [80]
Intel Core i7 Extreme Edition 980X (6-core) 147,600 MIPS at 3.33 GHz 44.7 7.46 2010 [84]
ARM Cortex A5 1,256 MIPS at 800 MHz 1.57 1.57 2011 [71]
ARM Cortex A7 2,850 MIPS at 1.5 GHz 1.9 1.9 2011 [64]
Qualcomm Krait (Cortex A15-like, 2-core) 9,900 MIPS at 1.5 GHz 6.6 3.3 2011 [64]
AMD E-350 (2-core) 10,000 MIPS at 1.6 GHz 6.25 3.125 2011 [85]
Nvidia Tegra 3 (Quad core Cortex-A9) 13,800 MIPS at 1.5 GHz 9.2 2.5 2011
Samsung Exynos 5250 (Cortex-A15-like 2-core) 14,000 MIPS at 2.0 GHz 7.0 3.5 2011 [86]
Intel Core i5-2500K (4-core) 83,000 MIPS at 3.3 GHz 25.152 6.288 2011 [87]
Intel Core i7 875K 92,100 MIPS at 2.93 GHz 31.4 7.85 2011 [80]
AMD FX-8150 (8-core) 90,749 MIPS at 3.6 GHz 25.2 3.15 2011 [88]
Intel Core i7 2600K (4-core) 117,160 MIPS at 3.4 GHz 34.45 8.61 2011 [89]
Intel Core i7-3960X (6-core) 176,170 MIPS at 3.3 GHz 53.38 8.89 2011 [90]
AMD FX-8350 (8-core) 97,125 MIPS at 4.2 GHz 23.1 2.9 2012 [88][91]
AMD FX-9590 (8-core) 115,625 MIPS at 5.0 GHz 23.1 2.9 2012 [80]
Intel Core i7 3770K (4-core) 106,924 MIPS at 3.9 GHz 27.4 6.9 2012 [88]
Intel Core i7 4770K (4-core) 133,740 MIPS at 3.9 GHz 34.29 8.57 2013 [88][91][92]
Intel Core i7 5960X (8-core) 298,190 MIPS at 3.5 GHz 85.2 10.65 2014 [93]
Raspberry Pi 2 (quad-core ARM Cortex A7) 4,744 MIPS at 1.0 GHz 4.744 1.186 2014 [94]
Intel Core i7 6950X (10-core) 320,440 MIPS at 3.5 GHz 91.55 9.16 2016 [95]
ARM Cortex A73 (4-core) 71,120 MIPS at 2.8 GHz 25.4 6.35 2016
ARM Cortex A75 ? ? 8.2-9.5 2017 [96]
ARM Cortex A76 ? ? 10.7-12.4 2018 [96]
ARM Cortex A53 2,300 MIPS at 1 GHz 2.3 2.3 2012 [97]
ARM Cortex A35 2,100 MIPS at 1 GHz 2.1 2.1 2015 [97]
ARM Cortex A72 15,750 to 18,375 at 2.5 GHz 6.3 to 7.35 6.3 to 7.35 2015 [97]
ARM Cortex A57 10,250 to 11,750 at 2.5 GHz 4.1 to 4.7 4.1 to 4.7 2012 [97]
Sitara AM64x ARM Cortex A53 (2-core) 5,992 MIPS at 1 GHz 6 3 2021 [98]
AMD Ryzen 7 1800X (8-core) 304,510 MIPS at 3.7 GHz 82.3 10.29 2017 [99]
Intel Core i7-8086K (6-core) 221,720 MIPS at 5.0 GHz 44.34 7.39 2018 [100]
Intel Core i9-9900K (8-core) 412,090 MIPS at 4.7 GHz 87.68 10.96 2018 [101]
AMD Ryzen 9 3950X (16-core) 749,070 MIPS at 4.6 GHz 162.84 10.18 2019 [101]
AMD Ryzen Threadripper 3990X (64 core) 2,356,230 MIPS at 4.35 GHz 541.66 8.46 2020 [102]
Intel Core i5-11600K (6-core) 346,350 MIPS at 4.92 GHz 57.72 11.73 2021 [103]
Processor / System Dhrystone MIPS / MIPS D instructions per clock cycle D instructions per clock cycle per core Year Source

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