Insulitis

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

Insulitis is an inflammation of the islets of Langerhans, a collection of endocrine tissue located in the pancreas.[1][2][3] The islets containing the pancreatic β-cells, and in some cases, the exocrine tissues, become infiltrated by T and B lymphocytes, macrophages and dendritic cells.[4][5][6] This innate immune cell and lymphocyte infiltration can result in destruction of the insulin producing beta cells of the islets,[7] and clinical diabetes. Insulitis is often studied in the multiple low dose streptozotocin (MLDS) mouse model or the non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse model of type 1 diabetes. The chemokine family of proteins may play a key role in promoting leukocytic infiltration into the pancreas prior to pancreatic beta-cell destruction.[8]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Campbell-Thompson ML, Atkinson MA, Butler AE, Chapman NM, Frisk G, Gianani R, Giepmans BN, von Herrath MG, Hyöty H, Kay TW, Korsgren O, Morgan NG, Powers AC, Pugliese A, Richardson SJ, Rowe PA, Tracy S, In't Veld PA (Nov 2013). "The diagnosis of insulitis in human type 1 diabetes". Diabetologia. 56 (11): 2541–3. doi:10.1007/s00125-013-3043-5. PMID 24006089. 
  2. ^ Coppieters KT, Dotta F, Amirian N, Campbell PD, Kay TW, Atkinson MA, Roep BO, von Herrath MG (2012). "Demonstration of islet-autoreactive CD8 T cells in insulitic lesions from recent onset and long-term type 1 diabetes patients". J Exp Med. 209: 51–60. doi:10.1084/jem.20111187. 
  3. ^ Willcox A, Richardson SJ, Bone AJ, Foulis AK, and Morgan NG (Feb 2009). "Analysis of islet inflammation in human type 1 diabetes". Clin Exp Immunol. 155 (2): 173–81. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2249.2008.03860.x. PMC 2675247Freely accessible. PMID 19128359. 
  4. ^ Campbell-Thompson M, Fu Ann, Wasserfall Clive, Kaddis John, Schatz Desmond, Pugliese Alberto, Atkinson Mark (Nov 2015). "Insulitis and beta cell mass in the natural history of type 1 diabetes". Diabetes. 
  5. ^ Rodriguez-Calvo T, Ekwall O, Amirian N, Zapardiel-Gonzalo J, von Herrath MG (2014). "Increased Immune Cell Infiltration of the Exocrine Pancreas: A Possible Contribution to the Pathogenesis of Type 1 Diabetes". Diabetes. 63 (11): 3880–3890. doi:10.2337/db14-0549. 
  6. ^ Campbell-Thompson M, Rodriguez-Calvo R, Battaglia M (Oct 2015). "Abnormalities of the exocrine pancreas in type 1 diabetes". Curr Diab Rep. 15 (10): 79. doi:10.1007/s11892-015-0653-y. 
  7. ^ Foulis AK, Stewart JA (June 1984). "The pancreas in recent-onset type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus: insulin content of islets, insulitis and associated changes in the exocrine acinar tissue". Diabetologia. 26 (6): 456–61. doi:10.1007/bf00262221. PMID 6381192. 
  8. ^ Burke SJ, Collier JJ (May 2015). "Transcriptional regulation of chemokine genes: a link to pancreatic islet inflammation?". Biomolecules. 26 (5): 1020–34. doi:10.3390/biom5021020. PMC 4496708Freely accessible. PMID 26018641.