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Insulitis is an inflammation of the islets of Langerhans of the pancreas. The pancreas and in some cases the pancreatic β-cells become infiltrated by polymorphonuclear leukocytes and mononuclear cells, leading to inflammation. This innate immune cell and lymphocyte infiltration can result in destruction of the insulin producing beta cells of the islets, and clinical diabetes. Insulitis can be studied in the multiple low doses streptozotocin (MLDS) mouse model or the NOD mouse model of type 1 diabetes. The chemokine family of proteins plays a key role in promoting leukocytic infiltration into the pancreas prior to pancreatic beta-cell destruction.