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Insulitis is an inflammation of the islets of Langerhans, a collection of endocrine tissue located in the pancreas.[1][2][3] The islets containing the pancreatic β-cells, and in some cases, the exocrine tissues, become infiltrated by T and B lymphocytes, macrophages and dendritic cells.[4][5][6] This innate immune cell and lymphocyte infiltration can result in destruction of the insulin producing beta cells of the islets,[7] and clinical diabetes. Insulitis is often studied in the multiple low dose streptozotocin (MLDS) mouse model or the non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse model of type 1 diabetes. The chemokine family of proteins may play a key role in promoting leukocytic infiltration into the pancreas prior to pancreatic beta-cell destruction.[8]


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  2. ^ Coppieters KT, Dotta F, Amirian N, Campbell PD, Kay TW, Atkinson MA, Roep BO, von Herrath MG (2012). "Demonstration of islet-autoreactive CD8 T cells in insulitic lesions from recent onset and long-term type 1 diabetes patients". J Exp Med. 209 (1): 51–60. doi:10.1084/jem.20111187. PMC 3260877. PMID 22213807.
  3. ^ Willcox A, Richardson SJ, Bone AJ, Foulis AK, and Morgan NG (Feb 2009). "Analysis of islet inflammation in human type 1 diabetes". Clin Exp Immunol. 155 (2): 173–81. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2249.2008.03860.x. PMC 2675247. PMID 19128359.
  4. ^ Campbell-Thompson M; Fu Ann; Wasserfall Clive; Kaddis John; Schatz Desmond; Pugliese Alberto; Atkinson Mark (Nov 2015). "Insulitis and beta cell mass in the natural history of type 1 diabetes". Diabetes. 65 (3): 719–731. doi:10.2337/db15-0779. PMC 4764143. PMID 26581594.
  5. ^ Rodriguez-Calvo T, Ekwall O, Amirian N, Zapardiel-Gonzalo J, von Herrath MG (2014). "Increased Immune Cell Infiltration of the Exocrine Pancreas: A Possible Contribution to the Pathogenesis of Type 1 Diabetes". Diabetes. 63 (11): 3880–3890. doi:10.2337/db14-0549. PMC 4207385. PMID 24947367.
  6. ^ Campbell-Thompson M, Rodriguez-Calvo R, Battaglia M (Oct 2015). "Abnormalities of the exocrine pancreas in type 1 diabetes". Curr Diab Rep. 15 (10): 79. doi:10.1007/s11892-015-0653-y. PMC 5072278. PMID 26318606.
  7. ^ Foulis AK, Stewart JA (June 1984). "The pancreas in recent-onset type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus: insulin content of islets, insulitis and associated changes in the exocrine acinar tissue". Diabetologia. 26 (6): 456–61. doi:10.1007/bf00262221. PMID 6381192.
  8. ^ Burke SJ, Collier JJ (May 2015). "Transcriptional regulation of chemokine genes: a link to pancreatic islet inflammation?". Biomolecules. 5 (2): 1020–34. doi:10.3390/biom5021020. PMC 4496708. PMID 26018641.