Insurance Regulatory and Development Authority of India

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Insurance Regulatory and Development Authority of India
(बीमा विनियामक और विकास प्राधिकरण)
Abbreviation IRDAI
Headquarters 3rd Floor, Parisrama Bhavan, Basheer Bagh, Hyderabad, Telangana
Coordinates 17°23′06″N 78°29′10″E / 17.385°N 78.486°E / 17.385; 78.486Coordinates: 17°23′06″N 78°29′10″E / 17.385°N 78.486°E / 17.385; 78.486
Chairman, IRDA
T.S. Vijayan[1]

Insurance Regulatory and Development Authority of India (IRDAI) is an autonomous apex statutory body which regulates and develops the insurance industry in India. It was constituted by a Parliament of India act called Insurance Regulatory and Development Authority Act, 1999 [2][3] and duly passed by the Government of India.[4]

The agency operates from its headquarters at Hyderabad, Telangana where it shifted from Delhi in 2001.[5]

IRDA batted for a hike in the foreign direct investment (FDI) limit to 49 per cent in the insurance sector from the erstwhile 26 per cent.[6] The FDI limit in insurance sector was raised to 49% in July 2014.[7]

History of insurance in India
In India, insurance has a deep-rooted history. It finds mention in the writings of Manu ( Manusmrithi ), Yagnavalkya (Dharmasastra ) and Kautilya ( Arthasastra ). The writings talk in terms of pooling of resources that could be re-distributed in times of calamities such as fire, floods, epidemics and famine. This was probably a pre-cursor to modern day insurance. Ancient Indian history has preserved the earliest traces of insurance in the form of marine trade loans and carriers’ contracts. Insurance in India has evolved over time heavily drawing from other countries, England in particular.

1818 saw the advent of life insurance business in India with the establishment of the Oriental Life Insurance Company in Calcutta. This Company however failed in 1834. In 1829, the Madras Equitable had begun transacting life insurance business in the Madras Presidency. 1870 saw the enactment of the British Insurance Act and in the last three decades of the nineteenth century, the Bombay Mutual (1871), Oriental (1874) and Empire of India (1897) were started in the Bombay Residency. This era, however, was dominated by foreign insurance offices which did good business in India, namely Albert Life Assurance, Royal Insurance, Liverpool and London Globe Insurance and the Indian offices were up for hard competition from the foreign companies.

In 1914, the Government of India started publishing returns of Insurance Companies in India. The Indian Life Assurance Companies Act, 1912 was the first statutory measure to regulate life business. In 1928, the Indian Insurance Companies Act was enacted to enable the Government to collect statistical information about both life and non-life business transacted in India by Indian and foreign insurers including provident insurance societies. In 1938, with a view to protecting the interest of the Insurance public, the earlier legislation was consolidated and amended by the Insurance Act, 1938 with comprehensive provisions for effective control over the activities of insurers.

The Insurance Amendment Act of 1950 abolished Principal Agencies. However, there were a large number of insurance companies and the level of competition was high. There were also allegations of unfair trade practices. The Government of India, therefore, decided to nationalize insurance business.

An Ordinance was issued on 19 January 1956 nationalising the Life Insurance sector and Life Insurance Corporation came into existence in the same year. The LIC absorbed 154 Indian, 16 non-Indian insurers as also 75 provident societies—245 Indian and foreign insurers in all. The LIC had monopoly till the late 90s when the Insurance sector was reopened to the private sector.

The history of general insurance dates back to the Industrial Revolution in the west and the consequent growth of sea-faring trade and commerce in the 17th century. It came to India as a legacy of British occupation. General Insurance in India has its roots in the establishment of Triton Insurance Company Ltd., in the year 1850 in Calcutta by the British. In 1907, the Indian Mercantile Insurance Ltd, was set up. This was the first company to transact all classes of general insurance business.

1957 saw the formation of the General Insurance Council, a wing of the Insurance Associaton of India. The General Insurance Council framed a code of conduct for ensuring fair conduct and sound business practices.

In 1968, the Insurance Act was amended to regulate investments and set minimum solvency margins. The Tariff Advisory Committee was also set up then.

In 1972 with the passing of the General Insurance Business (Nationalisation) Act, general insurance business was nationalized with effect from 1 January 1973. 107 insurers were amalgamated and grouped into four companies, namely National Insurance Company Ltd., the New India Assurance Company Ltd., the Oriental Insurance Company Ltd and the United India Insurance Company Ltd. The General Insurance Corporation of India was incorporated as a company in 1971 and it commence business on January 1sst 1973.

This millennium has seen insurance come a full circle in a journey extending to nearly 200 years. The process of re-opening of the sector had begun in the early 1990s and the last decade and more has seen it been opened up substantially. In 1993, the Government set up a committee under the chairmanship of RN Malhotra, former Governor of RBI, to propose recommendations for reforms in the insurance sector.The objective was to complement the reforms initiated in the financial sector. The committee submitted its report in 1994 wherein, among other things, it recommended that the private sector be permitted to enter the insurance industry. They stated that foreign companies be allowed to enter by floating Indian companies, preferably a joint venture with Indian partners.

Following the recommendations of the Malhotra Committee report, in 1999, the Insurance Regulatory and Development Authority (IRDA) was constituted as an autonomous body to regulate and develop the insurance industry. The IRDA was incorporated as a statutory body in April, 2000. The key objectives of the IRDA include promotion of competition so as to enhance customer satisfaction through increased consumer choice and lower premiums, while ensuring the financial security of the insurance market.

The IRDA opened up the market in August 2000 with the invitation for application for registrations. Foreign companies were allowed ownership of up to 26%. The Authority has the power to frame regulations under Section 114A of the Insurance Act, 1938 and has from 2000 onwards framed various regulations ranging from registration of companies for carrying on insurance business to protection of policyholders’ interests.

In December, 2000, the subsidiaries of the General Insurance Corporation of India were restructured as independent companies and at the same time GIC was converted into a national re-insurer. Parliament passed a bill de-linking the four subsidiaries from GIC in July, 2002.

Today there are 28 general insurance companies including the ECGC and Agriculture Insurance Corporation of India and 24 life insurance companies operating in the country.

The insurance sector is a colossal one and is growing at a speedy rate of 15-20%. Together with banking services, insurance services add about 7% to the country’s GDP. A well-developed and evolved insurance sector is a boon for economic development as it provides long- term funds for infrastructure development at the same time strengthening the risk taking ability of the country.

Organizational structure or Composition of Authority[edit]

As per the section 4 of IRDA Act' 1999, Insurance Regulatory and Development Authority (IRDA, which was constituted by an act of parliament) specify the composition of Authority.[8] IRDAI is a ten-member body consisting of:[8]

  • A Chairman,-(T.S. Vijayan)
  • Five whole-time members,-(R.K. Nair,M. Ram Prasad,S. Roy Chowdhary,D.D. Singh)
  • Four part-time members,-(Anup Wadhawan,S.B. Mathur,Prof. V.K.Gupta,CA. Subodh Kr. Agarwal)

All members are appointed by the Government of India.[8]

Insurance Repository[edit]

Recently the Finance Minister of India announced the setting of insurance repository system. An Insurance Repository is a facility to help policy holders buy and keep insurance policies in electronic form, rather than as a paper document. Insurance Repositories, like Share Depositories or mutual fund Transfer Agencies, will hold electronic records of insurance policies issued to individuals and such policies are called "electronic policies" or "e Policies", e.g. CDSL Insurance Repository Limited ( CDSL IR )

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "Press Release". IRDA. 21 February 2013. Retrieved 15 December 2013. 
  2. ^ GOI. "IRDA ACT 1999". GOI. Retrieved 19 June 2012. 
  3. ^ GOI. "IRDA ACT 1999" (PDF). Department of Financial Services, GOI. Retrieved 19 June 2012. 
  4. ^ "Lok Sabha passes insurance bill with 4 amendments". 02/12/1999. Rediff News. Retrieved 19 June 2012. 
  5. ^ PTI (Nov 21, 2001). "IRDA to shift HQ to Hyderabad by Feb". The Times of India. Retrieved June 20, 2012. 
  6. ^ "IRDA chief bats for 49 per cent FDI". The Hindu. 4 October 2012. Retrieved 14 December 2013. 
  7. ^ "Govt allows 100% FDI in telecom, hikes insurance cap to 49%". Times of India. 16 July 2013. Retrieved 14 December 2013. 
  8. ^ a b c "Composition of Authority". Insurance Regulatory and Development Authority. Retrieved 18 December 2012. 

Term Policy which company introduced

External links[edit]