Civil conflict in the Philippines

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Civil conflict in the Philippines
Part of the Cold War and
the Global War on Terrorism
Communist hotspots in the Philippines.pngPhilippines Christian-Muslim Division Map (by majority).png
Date March 29, 1969 – present
Location Philippines
Status Ongoing

Supported by:
 United States[2]

Civilian militias

  • Red God Defenders[4][5](against BIFF)

Communist Party

Moro people:
Sulu Sultanate

Supported by:

 Malaysia (to MNLF and MILF)[6][7]
 People's Republic of China (1969–1976,[8] alleged continued support[citation needed]) (to NPA, NDF and the Makabayan)
 Libyan Arab Jamahiriya (1980s–2011)[9][10](to MNLF, NPA, NDF and the Makabayan)[11][12][13][14][15]
 North Korea (to NPA, NDF and the Makabayan)[16][17]
 Vietnam (1980s) (to NPA, NDF and the Makabayan)[12]
 Cuba (Alleged support[citation needed])(to NPA, NDF and the Makabayan)
 Kazakhstan (to NPA, NDF and the Makabayan)


 Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant

The Civil conflict in the Philippines is an ongoing civil war in the modern history of the Philippines:[20][21][22][23]


  1. ^ Philippines to be a Key Recipient of Australia's New Regional Counter-Terrorism Package
  2. ^ Trainers, Advisors Help Philippines Fight Terrorism
  3. ^ Cite error: The named reference peace was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  4. ^ Maitem, Jeoffrey (19 January 2016). [ "Armed Christian civilians vow to fight BIFF atrocities"] Check |url= value (help). Inquirer Mindanao. Retrieved 20 January 2016. 
  5. ^ Maitem, Jeoffrey (20 January 2016). "IN PHOTOS: Red God Defenders". Rappler. Retrieved 20 January 2016. 
  6. ^ Tan, Andrew T/H. (2009). A Handbook of Terrorism and Insurgency in Southeast Asia. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar Publishing. pp. 230, 238. ISBN 1847207189. 
  7. ^ Isak Svensson (27 November 2014). International Mediation Bias and Peacemaking: Taking Sides in Civil Wars. Routledge. pp. 69–. ISBN 978-1-135-10544-0. 
  8. ^ "Philippines (New Peoples Army) (1972– )" (PDF). Political Economy Research Institute. Retrieved 14 December 2014. 
  9. ^ "Libyan terrorism: the case against Gaddafi.". 
  10. ^ "WikiLeaks cable: Gaddafi funded, trained CPP-NPA rebels". Wikileaks. 9 July 2011. Retrieved 15 February 2015. 
  11. ^ "Khadafy admits aiding Muslim seccesionists". Philippine Daily Inquirer. 5 August 1986. p. 2. 
  12. ^ a b Paul J. Smith (21 September 2004). Terrorism and Violence in Southeast Asia: Transnational Challenges to States and Regional Stability. M.E. Sharpe. pp. 194–. ISBN 978-0-7656-3626-3. 
  13. ^ William Larousse (1 January 2001). A Local Church Living for Dialogue: Muslim-Christian Relations in Mindanao-Sulu, Philippines : 1965-2000. Gregorian Biblical BookShop. pp. 151 & 162. ISBN 978-88-7652-879-8. 
  14. ^ Michelle Ann Miller (2012). Autonomy and Armed Separatism in South and Southeast Asia. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. pp. 291–. ISBN 978-981-4379-97-7. 
  15. ^ "Moro National Liberation Front (MNLF)". Página acessada em 10 de fevereiro de 2014.
  16. ^ "World Page: Report: North Korea armed Islamic group in Philippines". Página acessada em 10 de fevereiro de 2014.
  17. ^ "1990 Global Terrorism: State-Sponsored Terrorism". 
  18. ^
  19. ^ "ISIS Now Has Military Allies in 11 Countries -- NYMag". Daily Intelligencer. Retrieved 25 November 2014. 
  20. ^ Guide to the Philippines conflict. BBC. October 8, 2012.
  21. ^ "The Fruit of Misuari's Capitulation", Bulatlat. Quezon City, Philippines. December 2–8, 2001.
  22. ^ Philippines. Uppsala Conflict Data Program. "...the Philippines has experienced the intra-state, non-state and one-sided categories of UCDP organised violence."
  23. ^ Comparative Politics: The politics of Asia - Google Books