Integrated Ocean Drilling Program
Field of research
The Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) was an international marine research program. The program used heavy drilling equipment mounted aboard ships to monitor and sample sub-seafloor environments. With this research, the IODP documented environmental change, Earth processes and effects, the biosphere, solid earth cycles, and geodynamics.
Scientific ocean drilling represented the longest running and most successful international collaboration among the Earth sciences. Scientific ocean drilling began in 1961 with the first sample of oceanic crust recovered aboard the CUSS 1, a modified U.S. Navy barge. American author John Steinbeck, also an amateur oceanographer, documented Project Mohole for LIFE Magazine.
The Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP), established in June 1966, operated the Glomar Challenger in drilling and coring operations in the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans, as well as in the Mediterranean and Red Seas. The Challenger’s coring operations enabled DSDP to provide the next intellectual step in verifying the hypothesis of plate tectonics associated with seafloor spreading, by dating basal sediments on transects away from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge.
|Deep Ocean Explorer: Glomar Challenger|
|Total distance penetrated below sea floor||325,548 m (1,068,071 feet)|
|Total interval cored||170,043 m (557,884 feet)|
|Total core recovered and stored||97,056 m (318,425 feet)|
|Overall core recovery||57%|
|Number of core samples recovered||19,119|
|Number of sites investigated||624|
|Deepest penetration into basaltic ocean crust||1,714 m (5,623 feet)|
|Maximum penetration into basaltic ocean crust||1,350 m (4,430 feet)|
|Deepest water (Leg 60, Site 461A)||7,044 m (23,110 feet)|
|Total distance traveled||375,632 nautical miles (695,670 km; 432,270 mi)|
In June 1970, the Challenger's DSDP engineers devised a way to replace worn drill bits and then re-enter boreholes for deeper drilling while in the Atlantic Ocean off the coast of New York, in 3,000 m (10,000 feet) of water. This required the use of sonar scanning equipment and a large-scale re-entry cone.
Process-oriented Earth studies continued from 1985 until 2003 aboard the JOIDES Resolution, which replaced the Glomar Challenger in January 1985 as DSDP morphed into the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP). The JOIDES Resolution is named for the 200-year-old HMS Resolution which explored the Pacific Ocean and Antarctica under the command of Captain James Cook.
The Ocean Drilling Program contributed significantly to increased scientific understanding of Earth history, climate change, plate tectonics, natural resources, and geohazards. ODP discoveries included validation of:
- fluids circulating through the ocean floor;
- the formation of gigantic volcanic plateaus at phenomenal rates unknown today;
- natural methane frozen deep within marine sediments as gas hydrate;
- a microbial community living deep within oceanic crust;
- climate change cycles
IODP funding agencies
National consortia and government funding agencies supported IODP science and drilling platform operations. Participation in IODP was proportional to investment in the program.
The European Consortium for Ocean Research Drilling (ECORD) was established in December 2003 with 13 European countries to represent the European contribution in IODP. The consortium grew into a collaborative group of 17 European nations (Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, The Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and The United Kingdom) and Canada that together comprise an IODP-funding agency. Working alongside Japan and the United States, ECORD provided the IODP scientific community with access to mission-specific platforms, which chosen to fulfill specific scientific objectives. These platforms have limited space on board for labs and scientists, and require an onshore science meeting to describe, process, and analyze the sediment samples collected immediately following a drilling expedition.
In April 2004, the People's Republic of China joined IODP as an Associate Member through sponsorship of China's Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST). China's participation in IODP has given the Chinese marine science community a new impetus and increased their opportunity for deep-sea research. Chinese scientists participated in research expeditions and represent China's interests in the IODP Science Advisory Structure.
The Republic of Korea joined IODP as an Associate Member in June 2006 through the sponsorship of the Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources [d] (KIGAM). South Korea's memorandum of understanding with the lead agencies created the Interim Asian Consortium.
Ministry of Earth Sciences (MoES), Government of India joined the IODP in 2008 as an Associate member. Since then, the National Centre for Antarctic and Ocean Research (NCAOR), Goa has been designated by India to look after all IODP related activities in India (IODP-India). In this direction, an international workshop on IODP drilling in Indian Ocean was organized in Goa during 17–18 October 2011. The workshop was co-hosted by IODP Management International and ANZIC.
Hundreds of international Earth and ocean scientists participated in IODP on a voluntary basis. Participation took many forms: submission of a drilling proposal; sailing on an expedition; participation in an advisory capacity; attendance at a planning workshop or topical symposium. The program's central management office, IODP Management International, coordinated an integrated work plan between and among all IODP organizational partners. An annual program plan was written each fiscal year and included objectives and tasks necessary for drilling vessel operation, from science coordination to publications, data management, and outreach.
IODP distinguishes itself from its legacy programs by employing multiple drilling technologies/platforms and science/drilling operators to acquire sediment and rock samples and to install monitoring instrumentation beneath the seafloor. Samples and data collected during IODP drilling expeditions are available to scientists and teachers on an open-access basis, once members of the expedition parties have completed their initial studies.
Planning IODP drilling: science advisory structure
Drilling proposal process
Drilling proposals originated with science proponents, often researchers in geology, geophysics, microbiology, paleontology, or seismology. Once submitted to IODP, the proposal was carefully evaluated by the Science Advisory Structure (SAS), a group of technical review panels. Only those proposals judged as the greatest value based on scientific and technical merit were scheduled for implementation.
SAS panels provided advice on drilling proposals to both proponents and IODP management. Drilling proposals were accepted twice a year, in April and October, and could be submitted to IODP electronically via their website.
The science plan
A ten-year program plan called the Initial Science Plan (ISP) guided IODP investigation. Specific scientific themes were emphasized in the ISP:
- investigation into the deep biosphere and subseafloor life;
- climate change;
- solid Earth cycles; and
As described in the ISP, IODP sought to develop better understandings of:
- the earthquake-generating zone beneath convergent continental margins;
- the complex microbial ecosystem that exists beneath the seafloor;
- the nature of gas hydrates that lie beneath continental margins;
- climate history, extreme climates;
- rapid climate change;
- the role of continental break-up in sedimentary basin formation;
- the formation of volcanic rifted margins and oceanic plateaus through time; and
- drilling to Earth's mantle to examine and monitor a complete section of oceanic crust
Tools critical to these goals included a riser-equipped drilling vessel, a riserless vessel, additional platforms suited to mission specific expeditions, enhanced downhole measurement devices, and long-term monitoring instrumentation.
An engineering proposal submission process, initiated in April 2007, facilitated the acquisition of existing or latent technology to be used in IODP operations.
Science and drilling operators
Drilling operations were conducted and managed by three IODP implementing organizations:
- United States Implementing Organization (USIO) carried out expeditions on the riserless drilling vessel JOIDES Resolution;
- ECORD Science Operator (ESO) managed mission specific expeditions on various platforms;
- Center for Deep Earth Exploration (CDEX) managed operations aboard the riser-equipped drilling vessel Chikyū.
Each drilling expedition was led by a pair of co-chief scientists, with a team of scientists supported by a staff scientist. Each implementing organization provided a combination of services: technical, operational, and financial management; logging; laboratory; core repository; data management; and publication. Although each implementing organization was responsible for its own platform operations and performance, its science operations was funded by the lead agencies.
The operators conducted the following expeditions during the IODP:
|310||Juan de Fuca Hydrogeology|
|302||Arctic Coring Expedition|
|303||North Atlantic Climate 1|
|304||Oceanic Core Complex Formation, Atlantis Massif 1|
|305||Oceanic Core Complex Formation, Atlantis Massif 2|
|306||North Atlantic Climate 2|
|307||Porcupine Basin Carbonate Mounds|
|308||Gulf of Mexico Hydrogeology|
|309||Superfast Spreading Rate Crust 2|
|310||Tahiti Sea Level|
|311||Cascadia Margin Gas Hydrates|
|312||Superfast Spreading Rate Crust 3|
|313||New Jersey Shallow Shelf|
|314||NanTroSEIZE Stage 1: LWD Transect|
|315||NanTroSEIZE Stage 1: Megasplay Riser Pilot|
|316||NanTroSEIZE Stage 1: Shallow Megasplay and Frontal Thrusts|
|317||Canterbury Basin Sea Level|
|318||Wilkes Land Glacial History|
|319||NanTroSEIZE Stage 2: Riser/Riserless Observa|
|320||Pacific Equatorial Age Transect I|
|321||Pacific Equatorial Age Transect II / Juan de Fuca|
|322||NanTroSEIZE Stage 2: Subduction Input|
|323||Bering Sea Paleoceanography|
|324||Shatsky Rise Formation|
|325||Great Barrier Reef Environmental Changes|
|326||NanTroSEIZE Stage 3: Plate Boundary Deep Riser 1|
|327||Juan de Fuca Hydrogeology|
|328||Cascadia ACORK Observatory|
|329||South Pacific Gyre Subseafloor Life|
|331||Deep Hot Biosphere|
|332||NanTroSEIZE Stage 2: Riserless Observatory|
|333||NanTroSEIZE Stage 2: Subduction Inputs 2 and Heat Flow|
|334||Costa Rica Seismogenesis Project (CRISP)|
|335||Superfast Spreading Rate Crust 4|
|336||Mid-Atlantic Ridge Microbiology|
|337||Deep Coalbed Biosphere off Shimokita|
|338||NanTroSEIZE Stage 3: Plate Boundary Deep Riser 2|
|340||Lesser Antilles Volcanism and Landslides|
|340T||Atlantis Massif Oceanic Core Complex|
|341||Southern Alaska Margin Tectonics, Climate & Sedimentation|
|342||Paleogene Newfoundland Sediment Drifts|
|343||Japan Trench Fast Drilling Project|
|343T||Japan Trench Fast Drilling Project II|
|344||Costa Rica Seismogenesis Project A Stage 2|
|345||Hess Deep Plutonic Crust|
|347||Baltic Sea Paleoenvironment|
|348||Nankai Trough Seismogenic Zone Experiment Stage 3, Plate Boundary Deep Riser|
Drilling vessels and platforms
IODP employed two dedicated drilling vessels, each sponsored by a lead agency and managed by their respective implementing organization:
JOIDES Resolution – riserless
The U.S.-sponsored drilling vessel was operated throughout the Ocean Drilling Program and the first phase of IODP. The vessel then underwent a rebuild, allowing for increased laboratory space; improved drilling, coring, and sampling capacity; and enhanced health, safety, and environmental protection systems on board.
Chikyū – riser-equipped
Japan began building a state-of-the-art scientific drilling vessel for research in 2001 with the intent of reaching Earth's mantle and drilling into an active seismogenic zone. The resulting drilling vessel, Chikyū (Japanese for "Planet Earth") features a riser drilling system, a dynamic positioning system, and a high-density mud circulation system to prevent borehole collapse during drilling, among other assets. Chikyu can berth 150 people, cruise at 12 knots (22 km/h; 14 mph), and drill more than 7,000 m (23,000 feet) below the seafloor in water depths exceeding 2,000 m (6,600 feet). Chikyū was damaged during the tsunami of 11 March 2011, and was out-of-service for several months. Chikyū returned to ocean drilling in April 2012.
ECORD commissioned ships on an expedition-by-expedition basis, depending on specific scientific requirements and environment. ECORD contracted the use of three icebreakers for the Arctic Coring Expedition (2004), drilling vessels diving for use in shallow Tahitian (2005) and Australian waters (2010), where scientists sampled fossil coral reefs to investigate the rise in global sea levels since the last ice age, and a liftboat for sampling the New Jersey Shallow Shelf (2009). Mission-specific expeditions required substantial flexibility.
Extending IODP to the science community
Publications, data management, online tools, and databases are in development to support information- and resource-sharing, so as to expand the ranks of scientists who engage in ocean drilling investigations.
Publication and data management
IODP publications are freely available online and a data management system integrates core and laboratory data collected by all three implementing organizations and the two IODP legacy programs. A web-based search system will eventually aggregate post-expedition data and related publications. Requests for data and samples can be made online.
Site Survey Data Bank (SSDB)
A web-based Site Survey Data Bank enabled proponents to access and deposit the large amounts of data required to document potential drill sites for evaluation. This data was reviewed to assure IODP expeditions could meet their objectives and comply with safety and environmental requirements.
Three IODP core repositories located in Bremen, Germany (IODP Bremen Core Repository), College Station, Texas (IODP Gulf Coast Repository), and Kochi, Japan, archive cores based on geographical origin. Scientists may visit any one of the facilities for onsite research or request a loan for analysis or for teaching purposes. Archived cores include not only IODP samples, but also those retrieved in the two IODP legacy programs (DSDP and ODP).
- "IODP Mission Page". iodp.org. Archived from the original on 7 May 2011.
- "IODP Science Plan 2013-2023 | About IODP | IODP". iodp.org. Retrieved 10 September 2020.
- Sweeney, Aaron. "Completed Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expeditions – IODP". www.iodp.org. Archived from the original on 7 March 2016. Retrieved 29 February 2016.
- "Riserless drilling vessel JOIDES Resolution" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 9 July 2007.
- Owens, Brian (16 March 2011). "Japanese Research Ship Damaged by Tsunami". nature.com. Archived from the original on 17 March 2011.
- Integrated Ocean Drilling Program official website
- European Consortium for Ocean Research Drilling official website
- Center for Deep Earth Exploration
- Ocean Drilling Program Legacy Website
- Learn more about IODP and the U.S. involvement
- An educational view of the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program
- JOI Learning – Education resources and programs associated with the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program