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Integrated ticketing

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Integrated ticketing allows a person to make a journey that involves transfers within or between different transport modes with a single ticket that is valid for the complete journey,[1] modes being buses, trains, subways, ferries, etc. The purpose of integrated ticketing is to encourage people to use public transport by simplifying switching between transport modes and by increasing the efficiency of the services.

In most cases, integrated ticketing is made possible by electronic ticketing technologies such as magnetic stripe cards or smart cards. Some smart card systems are also used for paying for goods and other services such as the Octopus card.[2] Some public transport systems also use paper cash tickets that allow transfers within a specified area, and in some cases (such as the Transperth FamilyRider), allow unlimited travel during specified times.

Countries such as Switzerland have national integrated ticket systems, which not only extend across transport modes but can encompass entry into museums or leisure destinations.[3] The UK, Australia and Sweden use such systems on public transport in major cities or metropolitan areas.

Deploying integrated ticketing requires a high-level of coordination and co-operation between all public transport providers and the suppliers. Political, technological and project management issues have resulted in long delays in some cases. In Sydney the project has had to be restarted.[4] In Dublin, the system has also suffered serious delays from the project start date in 2002 but the TFI Leap Card system launched on 12 December 2011.[5] In Stockholm, the task of replacing the existing magnetic stripe cards system with smart cards is finally nearing completion after the project was started in 2002.[6]


Examples of integrated ticketing around the world:

Asia Pacific[edit]

Area Transport Authority System Name Ticket Type Operational Since Transport Types Comment
Adelaide Adelaide Metro MetroCARD Smart card November 2012 Buses, trains & trams
Auckland Auckland Transport AT HOP card Smart card 27 October 2012 Buses, ferries & trains
Snapper card Smart card 2011[7] Buses (NZ Bus-operated services only) To be phased out from April 2013
Canberra Transport Canberra MyWay Smart card February 2011 Buses, light rail
Jakarta PT Jakarta Lingko Indonesia Jak Lingko Smart card December 2017 Commuter rail, LRT, MRT, BRT, Angkot
Kuala Lumpur Land Public Transport Commission Touch 'n Go Smart card 1997 Commuter rail, LRT, MRT, Monorail, BRT, Buses, Parking, Toll fare
Melbourne Public Transport Victoria myki Smart card 2009 Buses, trains, trams & restricted regional rail services Replaced the Metcard system in the Melbourne metro area in 2012
Perth Transperth[8] SmartRider Smart card January 2007 Buses, ferries & trains Replaced the MultiRider magnetic stripe card system. Paper tickets are also available. SmartRider is also available for use in Bunbury, Busselton, Geraldton & Kalgoorlie[9]
Singapore Land Transport Authority EZ-Link Smart card 2001 MRT (subway), bus, parking CEPAS-compliant EZ-Link cards have replaced original EZ-Link cards in 2009
South East Queensland Translink[10] go card Smart card January 2008[11] Buses, ferries, trams & trains
Sydney Transport for NSW Opal card Smart card December 2012 Buses, ferries, light rail, trains


Area Transport Authority System Name Ticket Type Operational Since Transport Types Comment
Netherlands Trans Link Systems[12] OV-chipkaart[13] Smart card 2002 All public transport on the Dutch mainland (trains, metros, trams, buses, ferries, ships, etc.).[14] The OV-chipkaart was launched in 2002[15] but only fully replaced the national strippenkaart of the 1980s for buses, trams, and metro trains in 2011,[16] and the paper ticket system for rail travel in July 2014.[17] In 2022, a new system has been gradually rolled out called OVpay, which allows travellers to also use their bank cards, smartphones and smartwatches in addition to the already existing smart card to use the public transportation system.[18]
Greater Dublin Area National Transport Authority TFI Leap Card[19] Smart card 2011 Buses, trains, LUAS and the future Metro[20] * Integrated ticketing not currently available. Journeys involving change of bus or transfer from Luas/DART/Bus are charged as separate journeys
Greater London TfL[21] Oyster card Smart card July 2003 Bus, tube, trams, DLR, London Overground & most National Rail services[21]
Travelcard Paper ticket, or loaded into an Oyster card
Greater Stockholm SL[22] Unknown Magnetic stripe card Unknown Buses, Metro, rail, tram, ferries Will be replaced by the SL Access smart card system.
Lombardy (Italian region) Regione Lombardia Io Viaggio Ovunque[23] Paper ticket / Magnet-Electronic paper ticket (SBME) / Smart Card (Io Viaggio) 2011 for travel on the entire local public transport network in the region of Lombardy: urban, suburban and intercity buses, trams, subways/metro, regional trains,[24] boats (on Lake Iseo only), and more 1 to 7 days tickets can be purchased by anyone;[25] monthly and more long[26] have different features, and require subscription that provides / enable personal smart card.
Northern Ireland Translink[27] Smartlink Smart card October 2009 Bus In Belfast, Bus In Derry, Regional & Intercity Bus, Railways services[27]
Paris RATP/SNCF Navigo pass, Mobilis/Jeunes one-day tickets Smart card / magnetic ticket 2006 Subway, commuter rail (RER and Transilien), tramway, bus
Switzerland Swiss Federal Railways[28] Swiss Pass Magnetic stripe card 1989[29] Buses, trains, ships and tramways
Subotica Subotica-Trans[30] SuBus Smart card 2012 Buses

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "Integrated Ticketing". Dublin Bus. 2008-02-07. Archived from the original on 2009-04-24. Retrieved 2009-05-07.
  2. ^ "Octopus Products". Octopus Cards Limited. Archived from the original on 2007-02-24. Retrieved 2009-05-07.
  3. ^ Example of combined ticket for entry into thermal spas, Valais, Switzerland.http://www.carpostal.ch/en/pag-startseite/pag-kundenservice/pag-postauto-in-ihrer-naehe/pag-wallis/pag-sparangebote-wallis.htm
  4. ^ "Tcard: here we go again". The Sydney Morning Herald. 2008-07-03. Retrieved 2009-05-08.
  5. ^ "Integrated ticket chaos". The Sunday Business Post Online. 2007-11-18. Retrieved 2009-05-07.[permanent dead link]
  6. ^ Grahn, Albin (2008-09-01). "SL sjösatte försenat biljettsystem". Svenska Dagbladet (in Swedish). SvD. Retrieved 2009-05-08.
  7. ^ "Auckland Integrated Fares System (AIFS) Programme". Auckland Regional Transport Authority. Archived from the original on April 16, 2009. Retrieved 2009-05-07.
  8. ^ "General Fare Information". Transperth. Retrieved 2009-10-23.
  9. ^ Regional town services Transperth
  10. ^ "go card". TransLink. Archived from the original on April 28, 2009. Retrieved 2009-05-08.
  11. ^ Phipps, Julia (2008-01-29). "TransLink GoCard finally launched". couriermail.com.au. Retrieved 2009-05-08.
  12. ^ ons, Over. "Over ons". www.translink.nl. Retrieved 2024-02-05.
  13. ^ "Personal OV-chipkaart - OV-Chipkaart.nl". www.ov-chipkaart.nl. Retrieved 2024-02-05.
  14. ^ "Personal OV-chipkaart - OV-Chipkaart.nl". www.ov-chipkaart.nl. Retrieved 2024-02-05.
  15. ^ Dekker, Vincent (2008-04-22). "OV-chip was in 1992 prachtidee". Trouw (in Dutch). Retrieved 2024-03-05.
  16. ^ janvdm (2011-11-03). "Strippenkaart disappears from all buses, trams and metros". DutchNews.nl. Retrieved 2024-02-05.
  17. ^ Pascoe, Robin (2014-07-09). "Paper train tickets vanish". DutchNews.nl. Retrieved 2024-02-05.
  18. ^ Sanou, Hanneke (2023-01-26). "OV-chipkaart out? Pay for your train trip by phone or bank card". DutchNews.nl. Retrieved 2024-02-05.
  19. ^ "Great Leap forward as commuter card unveiled". Independent.ie. 2011-06-11. Retrieved 2011-08-13.
  20. ^ "Dublin Metro North and Metro West, Republic of Ireland". Kable, a trading division of Kable Intelligence Limited. Retrieved 2009-07-24.
  21. ^ a b "What is Oyster?". Transport for London. Retrieved 2009-05-07.
  22. ^ "Travelling with SL". Storstockholms Lokaltrafik. Archived from the original on April 3, 2010. Retrieved 2009-05-07.
  23. ^ (in Italian) Io Viaggio / Io Viaggio Ovunque http://www.ioviaggio.regione.lombardia.it/
  24. ^ "Io Viaggio Ovunque in Lombardia" tickets are valid for journeys between places inside the region Lombardy only with the follows kind of trains: Regionale Veloce "RV", Regio Express "RE", Regionale / TiLo "R" (with some limitations about journeys starting or ending in Malpensa Airport stations, see .pdf files about "MXP" limitations scheme below linked), Suburbano "S", and partially for the Malpensa Express "MXP" special train ( usually are not allowed journeys from or to Malpensa Airport stations, never allowed with 1 to 7 days tickets; see limitations scheme - in Italian language - at http://www.trenord.it/media/1979484/avvisotrenord_2017_059_prosp_tab_mxp-mi_rl_new.pdf Archived 2020-06-05 at the Wayback Machine and http://www.trenord.it/media/1979487/avvisotrenord_2017_060_prosp_tab_bellinz-_mxp_t2_rl.pdf[permanent dead link] linked in web page http://www.trenord.it/it/circolazione-e-linee/le-linee/malpensa-express.aspx Archived 2015-01-06 at the Wayback Machine). 1 to 7 days tickets allows use of 1st and 2nd class (The 1st class is present on almost all of "RV" and "RE" trains, very rarely on "R" trains, never on "S" trains; 1st class is also present in the "MXP" trains, but remind that with "Io Viaggio 1-7 days" tickets "MXP" trains are accessible only for journeys that not start or end at Malpensa Airport Station. Note that trains can however display in their onboard indications 1st and 2nd class zones, but this not matter if the trains are programmed for "2nd class only" by the paper form timetable in force). Monthly and more long subscription allows use of 2nd class only.
  25. ^ "Trenord - Single Tickets - MULTI-DAY PASSES [Io Viaggio in Lombardia] (Io Viaggio Ovunque in Lombardia, I.V.O.L., IVOL)". TRENORD S.r.l. Retrieved 2016-11-13.
  26. ^ "Trenord - Integrated Rail Passes - IO VIAGGIO OVUNQUE IN PROVINCIA/IO VIAGGIO OVUNQUE IN LOMBARDIA". TRENORD S.r.l. Archived from the original on 2016-11-21. Retrieved 2016-11-21.
  27. ^ "Swiss Travel System". Switzerland Travel Centre. Retrieved 2009-05-15.
  28. ^ Furlaud, Alice (1991-09-29). "TRAVEL ADVISORY; City Rides Added To Swiss Pass". The New York Times. Retrieved 2010-05-05.
  29. ^ "Subotica-Trans". Subotica Trans. Archived from the original on 2009-09-18. Retrieved 2014-07-15.