Intel Graphics Technology
|Direct3D||Direct3D 10.1+ (see capabilities)|
Shader Model 4.1+ (see capabilities)
|OpenCL||Depending on version (see capabilities)|
|OpenGL||OpenGL 2.1+ (see capabilities)|
|Vulkan||Depending on version|
Intel Graphics Technology (GT)[a] is the collective name for a series of integrated graphics processors (IGPs) produced by Intel that are manufactured on the same package or die as the central processing unit (CPU). It was first introduced in 2010 as Intel HD Graphics.
Intel Iris Graphics and Intel Iris Pro Graphics are the IGP series introduced in 2013 with some models of Haswell processors as the high-performance versions of HD Graphics. Iris Pro Graphics was the first in the series to incorporate embedded DRAM.
In the fourth quarter of 2013, Intel integrated graphics represented, in units, 65% of all PC graphics processor shipments. However, this percentage does not represent actual adoption as a number of these shipped units end up in systems with discrete graphics cards.
Before the introduction of Intel HD Graphics, Intel integrated graphics were built into the motherboard's northbridge, as part of the Intel's Hub Architecture. They were known as Intel Extreme Graphics and Intel GMA. As part of the Platform Controller Hub (PCH) design, the northbridge was eliminated and graphics processing was moved to the same die as the central processing unit (CPU).
The previous Intel integrated graphics solution, Intel GMA, had a reputation of lacking performance and features, and therefore was not considered to be a good choice for more demanding graphics applications, such as 3D gaming. The performance increases brought by Intel's HD Graphics made the products competitive with integrated graphics adapters made by its rivals, Nvidia and ATI/AMD. Intel HD Graphics, featuring minimal power consumption that is important in laptops, was capable enough that PC manufacturers often stopped offering discrete graphics options in both low-end and high-end laptop lines, where reduced dimensions and low power consumption are important.
Intel HD and Iris Graphics are divided into generations, and within each generation are divided into 'tiers' of increasing performance, denominated by the 'GTx' label. Each generation corresponds to the implementation of a Gen graphics microarchitecture with a corresponding GEN instruction set architecture since Gen4.
Fifth generation (Gen5)
In January 2010, Clarkdale and Arrandale processors with Ironlake graphics were released, and branded as Celeron, Pentium, or Core with HD Graphics. There was only one specification: 12 execution units, up to 43.2 GFLOPS at 900 MHz. It can decode a H264 1080p video at up to 40 fps.
|Model number||Tier||Execution Units||Shading Units||Base Clock (MHz)||Boost Clock (MHz)||GFLOPS (FP32)|
|HD Graphics||?||12||24||500||900||24.0 - 43.2|
Sixth generation (Gen6)
In January 2011, the Sandy Bridge processors were released, introducing the "second generation" HD Graphics:
|Model number||Tier||Execution units||Boost Clock (MHz)||max GFLOPS (FP32)|
|HD Graphics 2000||1350||129.6|
|HD Graphics 3000||GT2||12||1350||259.2|
Seventh generation (Gen7)
|Model number||Tier||Execution units||Shading units||Boost Clock (MHz)||max GFLOPS|
|HD Graphics [Mobile]||GT1||6||48||1050||100.8|
|HD Graphics 2500||1150||110.4|
|HD Graphics 4000||GT2||16||128||1300||332.8|
|HD Graphics P4000||GT2||16||128||1300||332.8|
For some low-power mobile CPUs there is limited video decoding support, while none of the desktop CPUs have this limitation. HD P4000 is featured on the Ivy Bridge E3 Xeon processors with the 12X5 v2 descriptor, and supports unbuffered ECC RAM.
On 12 September 2012, Haswell CPUs were announced, with four models of integrated GPUs:
|HD Graphics 4200||GT2||20||160||850||272|
|HD Graphics 4400||950 – 1150||304 – 368|
|HD Graphics 4600||900 – 1350||288 – 432|
|HD Graphics 5000||GT3||40||320||1000 – 1100||640 – 704|
|Iris Graphics 5100||1100 – 1200||704 – 768|
|Iris Pro Graphics 5200||GT3e||128||1300||832|
|Professional||HD Graphics P4600||GT2||20||160||N/A||1200 – 1250||384 – 400|
|HD Graphics P4700||1250 – 1300||400 – 416|
The 128 MB of eDRAM in the Iris Pro GT3e is in the same package as the CPU, but on a separate die manufactured in a different process. Intel refers to this as a Level 4 cache, available to both CPU and GPU, naming it Crystalwell. The Linux
drm/i915 driver is aware and capable of using this eDRAM since kernel version 3.12.
Integrated Iris Pro Graphics was adopted by Apple for their late-2013 15-inch MacBook Pro laptops (with Retina Display), which for a long time in the history of the series did not have discrete graphics cards, although only for the low-end model. It was also included on the late-2013 21.5-inch iMac.
Eighth generation (Gen8)
|HD Graphics 5300||GT2||24||192||900||345.6|
|HD Graphics 5500||950||364.8|
|HD Graphics 5600||1050||403.2|
|HD Graphics 6000||GT3||48||384||1000||768|
|Iris Graphics 6100||1100||844.8|
|Iris Pro Graphics 6200||GT3e||128||1150||883.2|
|Professional||HD Graphics P5700||GT2||24||192||–||1000||384|
|Iris Pro Graphics P6300||GT3e||48||384||128||1150||883.2|
|HD Graphics 400||E8000||GT1||12||320|
|N30xx||320 – 600|
|N31xx||320 – 640|
|J3xxx||320 – 700|
|HD Graphics 405||N37xx||16||400 – 700|
|J37xx||18||400 – 740|
Ninth generation (Gen9)
The Skylake line of processors, launched in August 2015, retires VGA support, while supporting multi-monitor setups of up to three monitors connected via HDMI 1.4, DisplayPort 1.2 or Embedded DisplayPort (eDP) 1.3 interfaces.
|Consumer||HD Graphics 510||GT1||12||96||–||950||182.4|
|HD Graphics 515||GT2||24||192||1000||384|
|HD Graphics 520||1050||403.2|
|HD Graphics 530||1150||441.6|
|Iris Graphics 540||GT3e||48||384||64||1050||806.4|
|Iris Graphics 550||1100||844.8|
|Iris Pro Graphics 580||GT4e||72||576||128||1000||1152|
|Professional||HD Graphics P530||GT2||24||192||–||1150||441.6|
|Iris Pro Graphics P555||GT3e||48||384||128||1000||768|
|Iris Pro Graphics P580||GT4e||72||576||1000||1152|
The Apollo Lake line of processors was launched in August 2016.
|HD Graphics 500||E3930||GT1||12||96||400 – 550|
|E3940||400 – 600|
|N3350||200 – 650|
|N3450||200 – 700|
|J3355||250 – 700|
|J3455||250 – 750|
|HD Graphics 505||E3950||18||144||500 – 650|
|N4200||200 – 750|
|J4205||250 – 800|
The Kaby Lake line of processors was introduced in August 2016. New features: speed increases, support for 4K UHD "premium" (DRM encoded) streaming services, media engine with full hardware acceleration of 8- and 10-bit HEVC and VP9 decode.
|Consumer||HD Graphics 610||GT1||12||96||–||300−350||900 − 1100||172.8 – 211.2||Desktop Celeron, Desktop Pentium G4560, i3-7101|
|HD Graphics 615||GT2||24||192||300||900 – 1050||345.6 – 403.2||m3-7Y30/32, i5-7Y54/57, i7-7Y75, Pentium 4415Y|
|HD Graphics 620||1000 – 1050||384 – 403.2||i3-7100U, i5-7200U, i5-7300U, i7-7500U, i7-7600U|
|HD Graphics 630||350||1000 – 1150||384 − 441.6||Desktop Pentium G46**, i3, i5 and i7, and Laptop H-series i3, i5 and i7|
|Iris Plus Graphics 640||GT3e||48||384||64||300||950 – 1050||729.6 − 806.4||i5-7260U, i5-7360U, i7-7560U, i7-7660U|
|Iris Plus Graphics 650||1050 – 1150||806.4 − 883.2||i3-7167U, i5-7267U, i5-7287U, i7-7567U|
|Professional||HD Graphics P630||GT2||24||192||–||350||1000 – 1150||384 − 441.6||Xeon E3-**** v6|
Kaby Lake Refresh / Amber Lake / Coffee Lake / Coffee Lake Refresh / Whiskey Lake / Comet Lake
The Kaby Lake line of processors was introduced in October 2017. New features: HDCP 2.2 support 
|Consumer||UHD Graphics 610||GT1||12||96||–||350||1050||201.6||Pentium Gold G54**, Celeron G49**
|UHD Graphics 615||GT2||24||192||300||900 – 1050||345.6 – 403.2||i7-8500Y, i5-8200Y, m3-8100Y|
|UHD Graphics 617||1050||403.2||i7-8510Y, i5-8310Y, i5-8210Y|
|UHD Graphics 620||1000 – 1150||422.4 – 441.6||i3-8130U, i5-8250U, i5-8350U, i7-8550U, i7-8650U, 3-8145U, i5-8265U, i5-8365U, i7-8565U, i7-8665U
i3-10110U, i5-10210U, i5-10310U, i7-10510U i7-10610U i7-10810U
|UHD Graphics 630||23||184||350||1100 – 1150||404.8 – 423.2||i3-8350K, i3-8100 with stepping B0|
|24||192||1050 – 1250||403.2 – 480||i9, i7, i5, i3, Pentium Gold G56**, G55**
i5-10300H, i5-10400H, i5-10500H, i7-10750H, i7-10850H, i7-10870H, i7-10875H, i9-10885H, i9-10980HK
|Iris Plus Graphics 645||GT3e||48||384||128||300||1050 – 1150||806.4 - 883.2||i7-8557U, i5-8257U|
|Iris Plus Graphics 655||1050 – 1200||806.4 – 921.6||i7-8559U, i5-8269U, i5-8259U, i3-8109U|
|Professional||UHD Graphics P630||GT2||24||192||–||350||1100 – 1200||422.4 – 460.8||Xeon E 21**G, 21**M, 22**G, 22**M, Xeon W-108**M|
|UHD Graphics 600||GT1||12||96|
|N4000||200 – 650||38.4 – 124.8|
|N4100||200 – 700||38.4 – 134.4|
|J4005||250 – 700||48.0 – 134.4|
|J4105||250 – 750||48.0 – 144.0|
|UHD Graphics 605||GT1.5||18|
|N5000||200 – 750||57.6 – 216|
|J5005||250 – 800||72.0 – 230.4|
Eleventh generation (Gen11)
New features: 10 nm Gen 11 GPU microarchitecture, two HEVC 10-bit encode pipelines, three 4K display pipelines (or 2x 5K60, 1x 4K120), variable rate shading (VRS), and integer scaling.
While the microarchitecture continues to support double-precision floating-point as previous versions did, the mobile configurations of it do not include the feature and therefore on these it is supported only through emulation.
|Consumer||UHD Graphics||G1||32||256||300||900 – 1050||921.6- 1075.2||460.8 – 537.6||N/A||Core i3-10**G1, i5-10**G1|
|Iris Plus Graphics||G4||48||384||300||900 – 1050||1382.4 - 1612.8||691.2 – 806.4||N/A||Core i3-10**G4, i5-10**G4|
|G7||64||512||300||1050 – 1100||2150.4 - 2252.8||1075.2- 1126.4||N/A||Core i5-10**G7, i7-10**G7|
|Clock speeds||Memory||Processing power (GFLOPS)||Notes|
|Iris Xe MAX||Intel 10SF||96||768||1650||4266||4||68||LPDDR4x||128||5069||2534||1267||10138|
|Max boost clock
|Processing power (GFLOPS)||Notes|
|Intel UHD Graphics 730||14 nm||24||192||1200–1300|
|Intel UHD Graphics 750||32||256||1200–1300|
|Intel UHD Graphics for 11th Gen Intel Processors G4||Intel 10SF||48||384||1100–1250||1690–1920||845-960||422–480||3379–3840|
|Iris Xe Graphics G7||80||640||1100–1300||2816–3328||1408–1664||704–832||5632–6656|
|Iris Xe Graphics G7||96||768||1100–1350||3379–4147||1690–2074||845–1037||6758–8294|
Intel Xe-HP and -HPG (DG2) is an in-development for gaming, enterprise and computing. Products expected to release products in 2021.
Intel Xe2 is a successor to Xe architecture.
Beginning with Sandy Bridge, the graphics processors include a form of digital copy protection and digital rights management (DRM) called Intel Insider, which allows decryption of protected media within the processor. Previously there was a similar technology called Protected Audio Video Path (PAVP).
Intel Graphics Technology supports the HDCP technology, but the actual HDCP support is depend on the computer's motherboard.
Intel Quick Sync Video
Intel Quick Sync Video is Intel's hardware video encoding and decoding technology, which is integrated into some of the Intel CPUs. The name "Quick Sync" refers to the use case of quickly transcoding ("syncing") a video from, for example, a DVD or Blu-ray Disc to a format appropriate to, for example, a smartphone. Quick Sync was introduced with the Gen 6 in Sandy Bridge microprocessors on 9 January 2011.
Graphics Virtualization Technology
- Direct passthrough (GVT-d): the GPU is available for a single virtual machine without sharing with other machines
- Paravirtualized API forwarding (GVT-s): the GPU is shared by multiple virtual machines using a virtual graphics driver; few supported graphics APIs (OpenGL, DirectX), no support for GPGPU
- Full GPU virtualization (GVT-g): the GPU is shared by multiple virtual machines (and by the host machine) on a time-sharing basis using a native graphics driver; similar to AMD's MxGPU and Nvidia's vGPU, which are available only on professional line cards (Radeon Pro and Nvidia Quadro)
HD 2500 and HD 4000 GPUs in Ivy Bridge CPUs are advertised as supporting three active monitors, but this only works if two of the monitors are configured identically, which covers many but not all three-monitor configurations. The reason for this is that the chipsets only include two phase-locked loops (PLLs) for generating the pixel clocks timing the data being transferred to the displays.
Therefore, three simultaneously active monitors can only be achieved when at least two of them share the same pixel clock, such as:
- Using two or three DisplayPort connections, as they require only a single pixel clock for all connections. Passive adapters from DisplayPort to some other connector do not count as a DisplayPort connection, as they rely on the chipset being able to emit a non-DisplayPort signal through the DisplayPort connector. Active adapters that contain additional logic to convert the DisplayPort signal to some other format count as a DisplayPort connection.
- Using two non-DisplayPort connections of the same connection type (for example, two HDMI connections) and the same clock frequency (like when connected to two identical monitors at the same resolution), so that a single unique pixel clock can be shared between both connections.
Capabilities (GPU hardware)
architecture - Socket
|Brand||Graphics||Vulkan||OpenGL||Direct3D||HLSL shader model||OpenCL|
|Westmere - 1156||i3/5/7-xxx||(G/P)6000 and U5000||P4000 and U3000||5.5th||HD||N/A||2.1||N/A||10.1||4.1||N/A|
|Sandy Bridge - 1155||i3/5/7-2000||(B)900, (G)800 and (G)600||(B)800, (B)700, G500 and G400||6th||HD 3000 and 2000||3.3||3.1|
|Ivy Bridge - 1155||i3/5/7-3000||(G)2000 and A1018||G1600, 1000 and 900||7th||HD 4000 and 2500||1.0||N/A||4.2||4.0||11.0||5.0||1.2 (Beignet)||1.2|
|Bay Trail - SoCs||N/A||J2000, N3500 and A1020||J1000 and N2000||HD Graphics (Bay Trail)|
|Haswell - 1150||i3/5/7-4000||(G)3000||G1800 and 2000||7.5th||HD 5000, 4600, 4400 and 4200; Iris Pro 5200, Iris 5000 and 5100||4.6||4.3||12 (fl 11_1)|
|Broadwell - 1150||i3/5/7-5000||3800||3700 and 3200||8th||Iris Pro 6200 and P6300, Iris 6100 and HD 6000, P5700, 5600, 5500, 5300 and HD Graphics (Broadwell)||4.4||9||1.2 (Beignet) / 2.1 (Neo)||2.0|
|Braswell - SoCs||N/A||N3700||N3000, N3050, N3150||HD Graphics (Braswell), based on Broadwell graphics||1.2 (Beignet)|
|(J/N)3710||(J/N)3010, 3060, 3160||(rebranded)|
HD Graphics 400, 405
|Skylake - 1151||i3/5/7-6000||(G)4000||3900 and 3800||9th||HD 510, 515, 520, 530 and 535; Iris 540 and 550; Iris Pro 580||1.2 Mesa 20.0||1.2||4.6||12 (fl 12_1)||6.0||2.0 (Beignet) / 3.0 (Neo)|
|Apollo Lake - SoCs||N/A||(J/N)4xxx||(J/N)3xxx||HD Graphics 500, 505||2.0 (Beignet) / 3.0 (Neo)|
|Gemini Lake - SoCs||N/A||Silver (J/N)5xxx||(J/N)4xxx||9.5th||UHD 600, 605|
|Kaby Lake - 1151||m3/i3/5/7-7000||(G)4000||(G)3900 and 3800||HD 610, 615, 620, 630, Iris Plus 640, Iris Plus 650||2.0 (Beignet) / 3.0 (Neo)||2.1|
|Kaby Lake Refresh - 1151||i5/7-8000U||N/A||N/A||UHD 620|
|Whiskey Lake - 1151||i3/5/7-8000U||N/A||N/A|
|Coffee Lake - 1151||i3/5/7/9-8000
|Gold (G)5xxx||(G)49xx||UHD 630, Iris Plus 655|
|Ice Lake - 1526||i3/5/7-10xx(N)Gx||N/A||N/A||11th||UHD, Iris Plus||3.0 (Neo)|
|Tiger Lake||i3/5/7-11xx(N)Gx||Gold (G)7xxx||TBA||12th||Iris Xe, UHD||3.0 (Neo)||3.0 (Neo)|
OpenCL 2.1 and 2.2 possible with software update on OpenCL 2.0 hardware (Broadwell+) with future software updates.
Support for Direct3D 9 in Mesa is only implemented for Gallium3D-style drivers, and is thus only available with the newer Gallium3D Iris driver, which is the default for Broadwell+ since Mesa 20.0. It is not supported in the classic Mesa i965 driver.
The classic Mesa i965 driver, which is the only one for Haswell and older on Linux, only supports core profile for OpenGL 3.1+, not compatibility profile. The Iris Gallium3D driver supports compatibility profile for OpenGL 4.6.
Capabilities (GPU video acceleration)
Intel developed a dedicated SIP core which implements multiple video decompression and compression algorithms branded Intel Quick Sync Video. Some are implemented completely, some only partially.
|Steps||video compression and decompression algorithms|
|Sandy Bridge||Decode||Profiles||✘||ConstrainedBaseline, Main, High, StereoHigh||Simple, Main||Simple, Main, Advanced||✘||✘||✘||✘|
|Encode||Profiles||ConstrainedBaseline, Main, High||✘||✘||✘||✘||✘||✘|
|Ivy Bridge||Decode||Profiles||✘||ConstrainedBaseline, Main, High, StereoHigh||Simple, Main||Simple, Main, Advanced||Baseline||✘||✘||✘|
|Encode||Profiles||ConstrainedBaseline, Main, High||Simple, Main||✘||✘||✘||✘||✘|
|Haswell||Decode||Profiles||Partial 8-bit||Main, High, SHP, MHP||Main||Simple, Main, Advanced||Baseline||✘||✘||✘|
|Levels||4.1||Main, High||High, 3|
|Broadwell||Decode||Profiles||Partial 8-bit & 10-bit||Main||Simple, Main, Advanced||0||Partial||✘|
|Levels||Main, High||High, 3||Unified|
|Skylake||Decode||Profiles||Main||Main, High, SHP, MHP||Main||Simple, Main, Advanced||Baseline||0||0||✘|
|Levels||5.2||5.2||Main, High||High, 3||Unified||Unified||Unified|
Coffee Lake Refresh
|Decode||Profiles||Main, Main 10||Main, High, MVC, Stereo||Main||Simple, Main, Advanced||Baseline||0||0, 1, 2||✘|
|Levels||5.2||5.2||Main, High||Simple, High, 3||Unified||Unified||Unified|
|Encode||Profiles||Main||Main, High||Main||✘||Baseline||Unified||Support 8 bits 4:2:0
BT.2020 may be obtained
the pre/post processing
|Tiger Lake||Decode||Profiles||up to Main 4:4:4 12||Main, High||Main||Simple, Main, Advanced||Baseline||✘||0, 1, 2||0|
|Levels||6.2||5.2||Main, High||Simple, High, 3||Unified||Unified||3|
16K×16K (still picture)
|Encode||Profiles||up to Main 4:4:4 10||Main, High||Main||✘||Baseline||✘||0, 1, 2, 3||✘|
Intel Pentium and Celeron family
|Intel Pentium & Celeron family||GPU video acceleration|
(Video Encode / Decode)
|Braswell[b][c][d]||Decode||Profile||Main||CBP, Main, High||Main, High||Advanced||850 MP/s 4:2:0
640 MP/s 4:2:2
420 MP/s 4:4:4
|Encode||Profile||✘||CBP, Main, High||Main, High||✘||850 MP/s 4:2:0
640 MP/s 4:2:2
420 MP/s 4:4:4
|Up to 720p30|
|Apollo Lake||Decode||Profile||Main, Main 10||CBP, Main, High||Main, High||Advanced||1067 MP/s 4:2:0
800 MP/s 4:2:2
533 MP/s 4:4:4
|Max. resolution||1080p240, 4k×2k/60p||1080/60p||1080/60p|
|Encode||Profile||Main||CBP, Main, High||✘||✘||1067 MP/s 4:2:0
800 MP/s 4:2:2
533 MP/s 4:4:4
|Max. resolution||4kx2k/30p||1080p240, 4k×2k/60p||4k×2k/30p||480p30 (SW only)|
|Gemini Lake||Decode||Profile||Main, Main 10||CBP, Main, High||Main, High||Advanced||1067 MP/s 4:2:0
800 MP/s 4:2:2
533 MP/s 4:4:4
|Max. resolution||1080p240, 4k×2k/60p||1080/60p||1080/60p|
|Encode||Profile||Main||CBP, Main, High||Main, High||✘||1067 MP/s 4:2:0
800 MP/s 4:2:2
533 MP/s 4:4:4
|Max. resolution||4kx2k/30p||1080p240, 4k×2k/60p||1080/60p||4k×2k/30p|
Intel Atom family
|Intel Atom family||GPU video acceleration|
(Video Encode / Decode)
|H.265/HEVC||H.264/MPEG-4 AVC||MPEG-4 Visual||H.263||H.262
|Bay Trail-T||Decode||Profile||✘||Main, High||Main||0||✘|
|Cherry Trail-T||Decode||Profile||Main||CBP, Main, High||Simple||Main||Advanced||1067 Mbit/s – 4:2:0
800 Mbit/s – 4:2:2
|Max. resolution||4k×2k/30p||4k×2k/60p, 1080@240p||480/30p||480/30p||1080/60p||1080/60p||4k×2k/30p||1080/30p|
|Encode||Profile||✘||Constrained Baseline, Main, High (MVC)||1067 Mbit/s – 4:2:0
800 Mbit/s – 4:2:2
|Max. resolution||4k×2k/30p, 1080@120p||480/30p||4k×2k/30p|
Intel releases programming manuals for most of Intel HD Graphics devices via its Open Source Technology Center. This allows various open source enthusiasts and hackers to contribute to driver development, and port drivers to various operating systems, without the need for reverse engineering.
- Video card
- Accelerated processing unit (APU)
- Free and open-source graphics device driver
- List of Intel graphics processing units
- List of Nvidia graphics processing units
- List of AMD graphics processing units
- The abbreviation "GT" appears in certain monitoring tools, such as Intel Power Gadget in reference to the graphics core on Intel processors.
- VP9 media codec GPU accelerator to be supported post TTM, for non-Windows operating systems only.
- Resolution details for media codec on open source Linux OS depends on platform features and drivers used. Decode/Encode features may not align to Table 8-4 that is specific to Win8.1 and Win7 operating systems.
- All capabilities dependent on OS. Here HW support is mentioned. For more info, see Table 8-4 on page 80 of PDF.
- "Supported APIs and Features for Intel Graphics Drivers". Intel. Retrieved 2016-05-19.
- Michael Larabel (18 October 2013). "OpenGL 3.3 Support Lands In Mesa! Possible Mesa 11.0". Phoronix.
- "The Khronos Group". The Khronos Group. July 18, 2020.
- "Experience Visual Perfection with Intel® Graphics Technology". Intel. Retrieved 31 July 2018.
- "Intel Iris Pro 5200 Graphics Review: Core i7-4950HQ Tested". AnandTech. Retrieved 2014-01-12.
- "GPU market up—Intel and Nvidia graphics winners in Q4, AMD down". Jon Peddie Research. 2014-02-18. Retrieved 2014-05-14.
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- Junkins, Stephen (14 August 2015). The Compute Architecture of Intel Processor Graphics Gen9 (PDF) (White Paper). Intel. p. 2. Retrieved 9 September 2020.
At Intel, architects colloquially refer to Intel processor graphics architecture as simply "Gen", shorthand for Generation.
- Intel OpenSource HD Graphics Programmer's Reference Manual (PRM) Volume 4 Part 3: Execution Unit ISA (Ivy Bridge) - For the 2012 Intel Core Processor Family (PDF) (Manual). Intel. May 2012. p. 29. Retrieved 9 September 2020.
The GEN instruction set is a general-purpose data-parallel instruction set optimized for graphics and media computations.
- Ioffe, Robert (22 January 2016). Introduction to GEN Assembly (Article). Intel. Retrieved 9 September 2020.
- Larabel, Michael (6 September 2019). "Intel Graphics Compiler Changes For Gen12 - Biggest Changes To The ISA Since i965". Phoronix. Retrieved 9 September 2020.
- Intel 965 Express Chipset Family and Intel G35 Express Chipset Graphics Controller PRM - Programmer’s Reference Manual (PRM) Volume 1: Graphics Core (PDF) (Manual). Revision 1.0a. Intel. January 2008. p. 24. Retrieved 9 September 2020.
The GEN4 ISA describes the instructions supported by a GEN4 EU.
- J. F. Amprimoz (2009-02-22). "The Delayed Mobile Nehalems: Clarksfield, Arrandale, and the Calpella Platform". Bright Hub. Retrieved 2014-01-15.
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