Intel HD and Iris Graphics

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Intel HD and Iris Graphics
Rendering support
Direct3D Direct3D 10+ (see capabilities)[1]
Shader Model 4+ (see capabilities)[1]
OpenCL Depending on version (see capabilities)[1]
OpenGL OpenGL 2.1+ (see capabilities)[1][2][3]
History
Predecessor Intel GMA
Core i5 processor with integrated HD Graphics 2000

Intel HD Graphics is a series of Intel's integrated graphics processors (IGPs) introduced in 2010 that are manufactured on the same package or die as the central processing unit (CPU).

Intel Iris Graphics and Intel Iris Pro Graphics are the IGP series introduced in 2013 with some models of Haswell processors as the high-performance versions of HD Graphics. Iris Pro Graphics was the first in the series to incorporate embedded DRAM.[4]

In the fourth quarter of 2013, Intel integrated graphics represented, in units, 65% of all PC graphics processor shipments.[5] However, this percentage does not represent actual adoption as a number of these shipped units end up in systems outfitted with discrete graphics cards.

History[edit]

Before the introduction of Intel HD Graphics, Intel integrated graphics were built into the motherboard's northbridge, as part of the Intel's Hub Architecture. This included Intel Extreme Graphics and the Intel Graphics Media Accelerator. As part of the Platform Controller Hub (PCH) design, the northbridge was eliminated and graphics processing was moved to the same die with the central processing unit (CPU).

The previous Intel integrated graphics solution, Intel GMA, had a reputation of lacking performance and features, and therefore was not considered to be a good choice for more demanding graphics applications, such as 3D gaming. The performance increases brought by Intel's HD Graphics made the products competitive with integrated graphics adapters made by its rivals, Nvidia and ATI/AMD.[6] Intel HD Graphics, featuring minimal power consumption that is important in laptops, was capable enough that PC manufacturers often stopped offering discrete graphics options in their low-end and mid-range laptop lines.

With the introduction of "Iris Graphics" and "Iris Pro Graphics" lines, the "HD Graphics" name has been relegated to denoting Intel's lower-end and mid-range integrated graphics products.

Generations[edit]

Westmere[edit]

In January 2010, Clarkdale and Arrandale processors with Ironlake graphics were released, and branded as Celeron, Pentium, or Core with HD Graphics:[7]

  • HD Graphics – 12 execution units, up to 43.2 GFLOPS at 900 MHz

Sandy Bridge[edit]

In January 2011, the Sandy Bridge processors were released, introducing the "second generation" HD Graphics:

Model number Tier Execution units Clock speed (MHz) GFLOPS
HD Graphics GT1 6
HD Graphics 2000 GT1 6 1350 64.8
HD Graphics 3000 GT2 12 1350 129.6

Celeron and Pentium have Intel HD, while Core i3 and above have either HD 2000 or HD 3000. HD Graphics 2000 and 3000 include hardware video encoding and HD postprocessing effects.

Ivy Bridge[edit]

On 24 April 2012, Ivy Bridge was released, introducing the "third generation" of Intel's HD graphics:[8]

Model number Tier Execution units Clock speed (MHz) GFLOPS
HD Graphics GT1 6 350/1000 95?
HD Graphics 2500 GT1 6 1150 110.4
HD Graphics 4000 GT2 16 1300 332.8

Celeron and Pentium have Intel HD, while Core i3 and above have either HD 2500 or HD 4000. HD Graphics 2500 and 4000 include hardware video encoding and HD postprocessing effects.

For some low-power mobile CPUs there is limited video decoding support, while none of the desktop CPUs have this limitation.

Haswell[edit]

On 12 September 2012, Haswell CPUs were announced, with four models of integrated GPUs:

Market Model number Tier Execution units eDRAM (MB) Clock speed (MHz) GFLOPS
Consumer HD Graphics GT1 10 1150 184
HD Graphics 4200 GT2 20 850 272
HD Graphics 4400 GT2 20 950 – 1150 304 – 368
HD Graphics 4600 GT2 20 900 – 1350 288 – 432
HD Graphics 5000 GT3 40 1000 – 1100 640 – 768
Iris Graphics 5100 GT3 40 1100 – 1200 704 – 768
Iris Pro Graphics 5200 GT3e 40 128 1200 832
Server HD Graphics P4600 GT2 20 1200 – 1250 384 – 400
HD Graphics P4700 GT2 20 1250 – 1300 400 – 416
Intel Haswell i7-4771 CPU, which contains integrated HD Graphics 4600 (GT2)

The 128 MB of eDRAM is on the same package as the CPU, but in a separate die manufactured in a different process. Intel refers to this as a Level 4 cache that is available to both CPU and GPU, naming it Crystalwell. Linux support for this eDRAM is expected in kernel version 3.12, by making the drm/i915 driver aware and capable of using it.[9][10][11]

Integrated Iris Pro Graphics was adopted by Apple for their late-2013 15-inch MacBook Pro laptops (with Retina Display), which for the first time in the history of the series did not have discrete graphics, although only for the low-end model.[12] It was also included on the late-2013 21.5-inch iMac.[13]

Broadwell[edit]

In November 2013, it was announced that Broadwell-K desktop processors (aimed at enthusiasts) will also carry Iris Pro Graphics.[14]

The following models of integrated GPU are announced for Broadwell processors:[15][better source needed]

Market Model number Tier Execution units eDRAM (MB) Clock speed (MHz) GFLOPS
Consumer HD Graphics GT1 12 850 163.2
HD Graphics 5300 GT2 24 900 345.6
HD Graphics 5500 GT2 24 950 364.8
HD Graphics 5600 GT2 24 1050 403.2
HD Graphics 6000 GT3 48 1000 768
Iris Graphics 6100 GT3 48 1100 844.8
Iris Pro Graphics 6200 GT3e 48 128 1150 883.2
Server HD Graphics P5700 GT2 24 1000 384
Iris Pro Graphics P6300 GT3e 48 128 1150 883.2

Airmont / Braswell[edit]

Model number CPU model Tier Execution units Clock speed (MHz)
HD Graphics 400 E8000 GT1 12 320
N30xx 320-600
N31xx 320-640
J3xxx 320-700
HD Graphics 405 N37xx 16 400-700
J37xx 18 400-740

Skylake[edit]

The Skylake line of processors, launched in August 2015, retires VGA support, while supporting multi-monitor setups of up to three monitors connected via HDMI 1.4, DisplayPort 1.2 or Embedded DisplayPort (eDP) 1.3 interfaces.[16][17]

The following models of integrated GPU are available or announced for the Skylake processors:[18][19][better source needed]

Market Model number Tier Execution units eDRAM (MB) Clock speed (MHz) GFLOPS
Consumer HD Graphics 510 GT1 12 950 182.4
HD Graphics 515 GT2 24 1000 384
HD Graphics 520 GT2 24 1050 403.2
HD Graphics 530 GT2 24 1150[16] 441.6
Iris Graphics 540 GT3e 48 64 1050 806.4
Iris Graphics 550 GT3e 48 64 1100 844.8
Iris Pro Graphics 580 GT4e 72 128 1000 1152
Server HD Graphics P530 GT2 24 1150 441.6
Iris Pro Graphics P555 GT3e 48 128 1000[20] 768
Iris Pro Graphics P580 GT4e 72 128 1000 1152

Goldmont[edit]

Model number CPU model Tier Execution units Clock speed (MHz)
HD Graphics 500 E3930 GT1 12 400–550
E3940 400–600
E3950 500–650
N3350 200–650
N3450 200–700
J3355 250–700
J3455 250–750
HD Graphics 505 N4200 18 200–750
J4205 250–800

Kaby Lake[edit]

New Features: fast 4K UHD, VP9 and more H.265, "360-degree clips up to 15 times faster"[21]

Market Model number Tier Execution units eDRAM (MB) Base clock (MHz) Boost clock (MHz) GFLOPS Used in
Consumer HD Graphics 615 GT2 24 300 900–1050 345.6 – 403.2 m3-7Y30, i5-7Y54, i7-7Y75
HD Graphics 620 1000–1050 384 – 403.2 i3-7100U, i5-7200U, i7-7500U

Features[edit]

Intel Insider[edit]

Beginning with Sandy Bridge, the graphics processors include a form of digital copy protection and digital rights management (DRM) called Intel Insider, which allows decryption of protected media within the processor.[22][23] Previously there was a similar technology called Protected Audio Video Path (PAVP).

Intel Quick Sync Video[edit]

Intel Quick Sync Video is Intel's hardware video encoding and decoding technology, which is integrated into some of the Intel CPUs. The name "Quick Sync" refers to the use case of quickly transcoding ("syncing") a video from, for example, a DVD or Blu-ray Disc to a format appropriate to, for example, a smartphone. Quick Sync was introduced with the Sandy Bridge CPU microarchitecture on 9 January 2011.

Graphics Virtualization Technology[edit]

Graphics Virtualization Technology was announced 1 January 2014 and is supported by Iris Pro GPUs.[24]

Multiple monitors[edit]

Ivy Bridge[edit]

HD 2500 and HD 4000 GPUs in Ivy Bridge CPUs are advertised as supporting three active monitors, but many users have found that this does not work for them due to the chipsets only supporting two active monitors in many common configurations. The reason for this is that the chipsets only include two phase-locked loops (PLLs); a PLL generates a pixel clock at a certain frequency which is used to sync the timings of data being transferred between the GPU and displays.[25]

Therefore, three simultaneously active monitors can only be achieved by a hardware configuration that requires only two unique pixel clocks, such as:

  • Using two or three DisplayPort connections, as they require only a single pixel clock for all connections.[26] Passive adapters from DisplayPort to some other connector rely on the chipset being able to emit a non-DisplayPort signal through the DisplayPort connector, and thus do not count as a DisplayPort connection. Active adapters that contain additional logic to convert the DisplayPort signal to some other format count as a DisplayPort connection.
  • By using two non-DisplayPort connections of the same connection type (for example, two HDMI connections) and the same clock frequency (like when connected to two identical monitors at the same resolution), so that a single unique pixel clock can be shared between both connections.[27]
  • Using the Embedded DisplayPort on a mobile CPU along with any two other outputs.[26]

Haswell[edit]

ASRock Z87- and H87-based motherboards support three displays simultaneously.[28] Asus H87-based motherboards are also advertised to support three independent monitors at once.[29]

Capabilities[edit]

Micro-
architecture
Brand Graphics Vulkan OpenGL Direct3D HLSL shader model OpenCL
"Core" "Pentium" "Celeron" Gen Graphics brand Linux Windows Linux Windows Linux Windows Linux Windows
Westmere i3/5/7-xxx (G/P)6000 and U5000 P4000 and U3000 5th[30] HD N/A 2.1 N/A 10.0 4.0 N/A
Sandy Bridge i3/5/7-2000 (B)900, (G)800 and (G)600 (B)800, (B)700, G500 and G400 6th[31] HD 3000 and 2000 3.1/3.3,[1][32][33] (Mesa) 3.1 10.1 4.1
Ivy Bridge i3/5/7-3000 (G)2000 and A1018 G1600, 1000 and 900 7th[34][35] HD 4000 and 2500 1.0 3.3 (4.x in work 90% of Features done)[36] 4.0[1][37] 11.0 5.0 1.2 1.2[38]
Silvermont N/A J2000, N3500 and A1020 J1000 and N2000 HD Graphics (Bay Trail)[39] 4.0[1]
Haswell i3/5/7-4000 (G)3000 G1800 and 2000 7.5th[40] HD 5000, 4600, 4400 and 4200; Iris 5200 and 5100 4.3[41] 12.0 (11_1)
Broadwell i3/5/7-5000 3800 3700 and 3200 8th[42] Iris Pro 6200[43] and P6300, Iris 6100[44] and HD 6000,[45] P5700, 5600,[46] 5500,[47] 5300[48] and HD Graphics (Broadwell)[49] 4.5 4.4 2.0
Airmont N/A N3700 N3000, N3050, N3150 HD Graphics (Braswell),[50] based on Broadwell graphics 4.4 11.2
(J/N)3710 (J/N)3010, 3060, 3160 (rebranded)
HD Graphics 400, 405
Skylake i3/5/7-6000 (G)4000 3900 and 3800 9th HD 510, 515, 520, 530 and 535; Iris 540 and 550; Iris Pro 580 4.4[1] 12 (fl 12_1) 5.1
Goldmont N/A (J/N)4xxx (J/N)3xxx HD Graphics 500, 505 4.4
Kaby Lake m3/i3/5/7-7000 TBA TBA 9.5th[51] HD 615, 620 4.4

Linux Mesa 13: OpenGL 4.5 with Broadwell and higher Gen. [52]

OpenCL 2.1 and 2.2 possible with software Update on OpenCL 2.0 Hardware (Broadwell+) with Future software updates.[53]

While Mesa does support Direct3D 9.3, this is only implemented for Gallium3D-style drivers and not for the Mesa Intel driver.

Capabilities (GPU video acceleration)[edit]

Intel developed a dedicated SIP core which implements multiple video decompression and compression algorithms branded Intel Quick Sync Video. Some are implemented completely, some only partially.

Hardware-accelerated algorithms[edit]

hardware-accelerated video compression and decompression algorithms present in Intel Quick Sync Video
CPU's
microarchitecture
Steps video compression and decompression algorithms
H.265
(HEVC)
H.264
(MPEG-4 AVC)
H.262
(MPEG-2)
VC-1/WMV9 JPEG
/
MJPEG
VP8 VP9
Westmere Decode
Encode
Sandy Bridge Decode Profiles ConstrainedBaseline, Main, High, StereoHigh Simple, Main Simple, Main, Advanced
Levels
Max. resolution
Encode Profiles ConstrainedBaseline, Main, High
Levels
Max. resolution
Ivy Bridge Decode Profiles ConstrainedBaseline, Main, High, StereoHigh Simple, Main Simple, Main, Advanced Baseline
Levels
Max. resolution
Encode Profiles ConstrainedBaseline, Main, High Simple, Main
Levels
Max. resolution
Haswell Decode Profiles Partial 8-bit [54] Main, High, SHP, MHP Main Simple, Main, Advanced Baseline
Levels 4.1 Main, High High, 3
Max. resolution 1080/60p 1080/60p 16k×16k
Encode Profiles Main, High Main Baseline
Levels 4.1 High -
Max. resolution 1080/60p 1080/60p 16k×16k
Broadwell[55][56] Decode Profiles Partial 8-bit & 10-bit[54] Main Simple, Main, Advanced 0 Partial[54]
Levels Main, High High, 3 Unified
Max. resolution 1080/60p 1080p
Encode Profiles Main -
Levels Main, High
Max. resolution 1080/60p
Skylake[57] Decode Profiles Main Main, High, SHP, MHP Main Simple, Main, Advanced Baseline 0 0
Levels 5.1 5.1 Main, High High, 3 Unified Unified Unified
Max. resolution 2160/60p 2160/60p 1080/60p 3840×3840 16k×16k 1080p 4k/24p@15Mbit/s
Encode Profiles Main Main, High Main Baseline Unified
Levels 5.1 5.1 High - Unified
Max. resolution 2160/60p 2160/60p 1080/60p 16k×16k -
Kaby Lake[58] Decode Profiles Main, Main 10 Main, High, MVC, Stereo Main Simple, Main, Advanced Baseline 0 0, 2
Levels 5.1 5.1 Main, High Simple, High, 3 Unified Unified Unified
Max. resolution 2160/60p 2160/60p 1080/60p 3840×3840 16k×16k 1080p 2160p
Encode Profiles Main Main, High Main Baseline Unified Support 8 bits 4:2:0
BT2020 may be obtained
the pre/post processing
Levels 5.1 5.1 High - Unified
Max. resolution 2160/60p 2160/60p 1080/60p 16k×16k -

Intel Pentium and Celeron family[edit]

Intel Pentium & Celeron family GPU video acceleration
VED
(Video Encode / Decode)
H.265/HEVC H.264/MPEG-4 AVC MPEG-4 Visual H.263 H.262
(MPEG-2)
VC-1/WMV9 JPEG/MJPEG VP8 VP9
Braswell[59][a][b][c] Decode Profile Main CBP, Main, High Main, High Advanced 850 MP/s 4:2:0
640 MP/s 4:2:2
420 MP/s 4:4:4
Level 5 5.2 High 4
Max. resolution 4k×2k/30p 4k×2k/60p 1080/60p 1080/60p 4k×2k/60p 1080/30p
Encode Profile N/A CBP, Main, High Main, High N/A 850 MP/s 4:2:0
640 MP/s 4:2:2
420 MP/s 4:4:4
Up to 720p30
Level 5.1 High
Max. resolution 4k×2k/30p 1080/30p 4k×2k/30p
Apollo Lake

Intel Atom family[edit]

Intel Atom family GPU video acceleration
VED
(Video Encode / Decode)
H.265/HEVC H.264/MPEG-4 AVC MPEG-4 Visual H.263 H.262
(MPEG-2)
VC-1/WMV9 JPEG/MJPEG VP8 VP9
Bay Trail-T Decode[60] Profile - Main, High Main 0 -
Level - 5.1 High Unified -
Max. resolution - 4k×2k/30p 1080/60p 4k×2k/30p 4k×2k/30p 1080p/60p -
Encode[60] Profile - Main, High Main - - - -
Level - 5.1 High - - - -
Max. resolution - 4k×2k/30p 1080/60p 1080/30p - 1080/30p -
Cherry Trail-T[61] Decode Profile Main CBP, Main, High Simple Main Advanced 1067 Mbit/s - 4:2:0

800 Mbit/s - 4:2:2

Level 5 5.2 High 4
Max. resolution 4k×2k/30p 4k×2k/60p, 1080@240p 480/30p 480/30p 1080/60p 1080/60p 4k×2k/30p 1080/30p
Encode Profile N/A Constrained Baseline, Main, High (MVC) 1067 Mbit/s - 4:2:0

800 Mbit/s - 4:2:2

N/A
Level 5.1 (4.2)
Max. resolution 4k×2k/30p, 1080@120p 480/30p 4k×2k/30p

Documentation[edit]

Intel releases programming manuals for most of Intel HD Graphics devices via its Open Source Technology Center.[62] This allows various open source enthusiasts and hackers to contribute to driver development, and port drivers to various operating systems, without the need for reverse engineering.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ VP9 media codec GPU accelerator to be supported post TTM, for non-Windows operating systems only.
  2. ^ Resolution details for media codec on open source Linux OS depends on platform features and drivers used. Decode/Encode features may not align to Table 8-4 that is specific to Win8.1 and Win7 operating systems.
  3. ^ All capabilities depended on OS. Here HW support is mentioned. To be able to use HW acceleration, see PDF at Table 8-4 on page 78.

References[edit]

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External links[edit]