Intelligence Bureau (Pakistan)

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Intelligence Bureau
IB
IB Pakistan logo.jpg
Agency overview
Formed August 17, 1947; 67 years ago (1947-08-17)
Preceding Agency
Jurisdiction Government of Pakistan
Headquarters Islamabad, Pakistan
Annual budget Classified
Agency executive

The Intelligence Bureau (Urdu:انٹليجنس بيورو; reporting name:IB), is an internal and counterespionage intelligence agency responsible for conducting domestic deep infiltration and extraction operations in the country.[2]

The IB is the oldest in its intelligence community created in 1947, immediately after the partition of India by the British Empire.[3] The IB was established from the division of the Intelligence Bureau of India and performs its operations under the Ministry of Interior (MoI). Appointments and the supervision of its operations are authorized by the Prime Minister's Secretariat.

Serving since 2013, Aftab Sultan, is the current Director-General of the Intelligence Bureau (IB), who previously had served in the CID bureau of the Lahore Metro Police.[1][4] The National Intelligence Directorate (NID) is formed in 2014 in order to pool intelligence gathered by over 30 Pakistan's intelligence agencies.[5]

History[edit]

The Intelligence Bureau originally part of the India's Intelligence Bureau which was established by the British Army's Major General Sir Charles MacGregor who, at that time, was Quartermaster General and head of the Intelligence Department for the Indian Army at Shimla, in 1885.[6] Prior to this appointment, Major General Sir MacGregor was sent to India by the Queen Victoria.[6] The IB's objectives were to monitor Russian troops deployments in Afghanistan, fearing a Russian invasion of British India through the North-West during the late 19th century.[6]

In the aftermath of the partition of India by the British Crown, the IB was formed out of Pakistan's share of the India's Intelligence Bureau.[3] Since, the IB is the oldest intelligence community; others being the Military Intelligence (MI) of Pakistan's military.[3] The IB was initially Pakistan's only and main intelligence agency with the responsibility for strategic and foreign intelligence, as well as counter-espionage and domestic affairs.[3]

Its poor performance with the MI and unsatisfactory detailing of the war with India in 1947 was however considered less than exemplary. Due to the fact, IB was concerned with internal security matters, and was not set up for foreign intelligence collection.[7] These considerations ultimately led to the creation of the ISI in 1948 as it quickly took the charge of gathering strategic and foreign intelligence at all levels of command.[8]

Appointment for IB's Director-General are made by the Prime Minister but the appointment has to be confirmed by the President.[1][9] The IB is a civilian intelligence agency, and its DG have been appointed from the civil bureaucracy and the police; as well as retired military officials have also served as DG IB.[10]

Operations[edit]

Since 1950s–1980s, the IB, along with the FIA, was running active operations to monitor politicians, political activists, suspected terrorists, and suspected foreign intelligence agents.[11] The IB keeps tabs on political operatives from countries it considers hostile to Pakistan's interests.[11] In 1990s, the IB gained international reputation when its agents, with the undercover FIA agents, had successfully infiltrated many of the terrorist organizations.[11]

In 1996, the IB was granted control of government censorship programs, controlling information dissemination via mail, wire, or electronic medium.ref name="Carnegie Endowment for International Peace"/> In 1990s, the IB remained actively involved to curb sectarianism and the fundamentalism in the country. Many of its operations were directed towards infiltration, conducting espionage, counterespionage, and providing key information on terrorist organizations to FIA.[12] After the disastrous 9/11 terrorist attacks in the United States, the IB played its role as a stakeholder of the government.[12] IB's successful infiltration techniques has led to the capture and detainment of many of high profile terrorists and sectarian militants.[12] Moreover it has been instrumental in efforts to break terrorist networks and organised crime rackets throughout the country especially Karachi through its sophisticated human and technical intelligence apparatus.[12] The agency had also been blamed for its belligerent role in Operation Clean-up at Karachi in 1991-92 and 1994-96.[12]

The IB is considered to be a main tool of the government to pacify opposition elements and is sometimes viewed as a government toppling machine. One case under discussion in the Supreme Court of Pakistan is for the alleged involvement of the agency in destabilising the Punjab Government in 2008.

Constitutionality and powers[edit]

The IB agents have no formal arrest powers, and its suspects are often apprehended and interrogated by the FIA agents at the request of the IB officials.[13]

The IB also passes on intelligence gained through infiltration between other Pakistan's intelligence community, police, and other Law enforcement units.[11] The Bureau also grants the necessary security clearances to Pakistani diplomats and judges before they take the oath. Powers granted by the government, the IB also intercepts and opens regular mails and letters on a daily basis.[11]

List of martyred IB officers in operational duties[edit]

  1. 1993 - Abdul Latif Baloch
  2. 1994 - Kareem Chaudhry
  3. 1994 - Afzal Rajpoot
  4. 1995 - Haseem ud Din Rana
  5. 1996 - Habibullah
  6. 2000 - Akhtar zaidi Inspector
  7. 2004 - Khubaz Khan, Inspector Bannu {KPK}
  8. 2008 - Nisar Khan, Director
  9. 2008 - Ibrahim
  10. 2008 - Fazl ur Rehman
  11. 2008 - Abdul kabir, Assistant Director
  12. 2009 - Tanveer Raza, Inspector
  13. 2010 - Abdullah Jan Tareen, Inspector
  14. 2010 - Pervaiz Malik, Assistant Director
  15. 2010 - Kashif khan
  16. 2011 - Hassan Raza
  17. 2011 - Alam Khan, Sub Inspector
  18. 2011 - Abdul Razzaq, Inspector
  19. 2011 - Siraj, Deputy Director
  20. 2012 - Qamar Raza, Inspector
  21. 2012 - Bashir Khan, Inspector
  22. 2012 - Arshad Ghayas, Assistant Sub Inspector
  23. 2013 - Muhammad Ali, Sub-Inspector
  24. 2013 - Shakeel Ahmed Awan, Sub Inspector
  25. 2013 - Khawaja Abdul Wahab, Sub Inspector Sargodha
  26. 2014 - Manan Shah, Inspector
  27. 2014 - Rana M.Saad
  28. 2008 - Khaliq uz zaman, inspector Charsadda
 2009 - Qamar Anees Shaheed ASI ATTOCK

List of IB chiefs[edit]

  1. Maj.(R) Masood Shareef - 1996
  2. Col (R) Iqbal Niazi, August 1998-October 1999
  3. Maj Gen (R) Talat Munir, - October 2002
  4. Col (R) Bashir Wali Mohmand, October 2002 - February 2004
  5. Brig (R) Ijaz Shah, February 2004 - March 2008
  6. Tariq Ahmed Lodhi, March 2008-August 2008
  7. Shoaib Suddle, August 2008 - May 2009
  8. Javed Noor, May 2009 - October 2011
  9. Aftab Sultan, October 2011 - July 2012
  10. Akhter Hussain Gorchani, July 2012 -March 2013
  11. Aftab Sultan, June 2013 – present

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Rana, Asim Qadeer (7 June 2013). "Nawaz makes Aftab Sultan new IB chief". Report written by the Nation's reporter A.Q. Rana (The Nation, 2013). The Nation. Retrieved 4 January 2015. 
  2. ^ Bennett, Richard (2012). Espionage: Spies and Secrets. [u.s]: Random House. ISBN 1448132142. 
  3. ^ a b c d Raman, B. (2002). "Pakistan's Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI)". Intelligence: Past, Present & Future (google books) (2 ed.). New Delhi, India: Sona Printers (Pvt) ltd. p. 417. ISBN 8170622220. Retrieved 4 January 2015. 
  4. ^ Butt, Tariq (8 June 2013). "Aftab Sultan gets the top IB job, twice in a year". Report published by the News International's correspondent Tariq Butt (News International, 2013). News International. Retrieved 4 January 2015. 
  5. ^ Intelligence: Pakistan Tries A DNI
  6. ^ a b c MacGregor,, Sir Charles Metcalfe; MacGregor, Lady Charlotte Mary Jardine (1888). The Life and Opinions of Major-General Sir Charles MacGregor. 2. Edinburgh, [u.k.]: Stanford University Press, 1888. p. 441. o7ILAAAAIAAJ. 
  7. ^ Duthel, Heinz (2008). "Pakistan". Global Secret and Intelligence Service (googlebooks). Lulu publications. p. 407. ISBN 1409210898. Retrieved 4 January 2015. 
  8. ^ Todd, Paul; Bloch, Jonathan (2003). Global intelligence : the world's secret services today (1. publ. ed.). London: Zed Press. ISBN 1842771132. Retrieved 4 January 2015. 
  9. ^ Ghauri, Irfan (7 June 2013). "Aftab Sultan appointed DG Intelligence Bureau". Irfan Ghauri published the report at the tribune.com.pk (Express Tribune, 2013). Express Tribune. Retrieved 4 January 2015. 
  10. ^ Wikileaks. "Overview of Intelligence Services" (PDF). Wikileaks. Retrieved 4 January 2015. 
  11. ^ a b c d e Usa Ibp (2006). Pakistan Intelligence, Security Activities & Operations. USA International Business Publications. ISBN 1438737211. Retrieved 4 January 2015. 
  12. ^ a b c d e Haqqani, Husain (2005). Pakistan between mosque and military. Washington, D.C.: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. ISBN 0870032852. 
  13. ^ Lyon, Peter (2008). Conflict between India and Pakistan : an encyclopedia. Santa Barbara, Calif.: ABC-CLIO. ISBN 1576077128. Retrieved 4 January 2015. 

Bibliography[edit]

  • Jaffrelot, Christophe. A History of Pakistan and Its Origins. Translated by Gillian Beaumont. New York: Anthem Press, 2002.
  • Jones, Owen Bennett. Pakistan: Eye of the Storm. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2002.
  • Ziring, Lawrence. Pakistan in the Twentieth Century: A Political History. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998.

Periodicals[edit]

  • Gauhar, Altaf. "How Intelligence Agencies Run Our Politics". The Nation. September 1997: 4.

External links[edit]

IB officer shot dead at Karachi [1] IB officer killed at Peshawar [2] Supreme Court hearing case for involvement of IB in toppling Provincial Government [3]