Inter-Services Intelligence activities in India

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Inter-Services Intelligence activities in India
Part of Indo-Pakistani wars, Kashmir conflict
State emblem of Pakistan.svg
Inter-Services Intelligence activities in India include activities like insurgency in Jammu and Kashmir, insurgency in Northeast India and Khalistan movement.
Planned byPakistan

The Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI), intelligence agency of Pakistan has been involved in planning, preparing and carrying-out terrorist attacks against the people of Indian and running so-called "military intelligence" programs in India, with one of the subsections of its Joint Intelligence Bureau (JIB) department devoted to carrying out these acts of terrorism in India.[1] The Joint Signal Intelligence Bureau (JSIB) department has also been involved in providing communications support to Pakistani terrorists operating in regions of the State of Jammu and Kashmir of India.[1] The Joint Intelligence North section of the Joint Counter-Intelligence Bureau (JCIB) wing deals particularly with India.[2] In the 1950s the ISI's Covert Action Division supplied arms to insurgents in Northeast India.[1][3]

India has also accused the ISI of reinvigorating terrorism in the country via support to pro-Khalistan militant groups such as the International Sikh Youth Federation (ISYF), in order to take revenge against India for its help in the liberation of Bangladesh as well as to destabilize the Indian State.[4][5] A report by India's Intelligence Bureau (IB) indicated that ISI was "desperately trying to revive Sikh" militant activity in India.[6] The ISI is also allegedly active in printing and supplying counterfeit Indian rupee notes.[7]


The ISI was created after the Indo-Pakistani War of 1947, due to the Military Intelligence of Pakistan's (MI) weak performance.[8] When Zia-ul-Haq seized power in July 1977, he started his K2 (Kashmir and Khalistan) strategy, initiating Operation Tupac.[9] He gave ISI the duty to make Jammu and Kashmir a part of Pakistan, and to send terrorists to Punjab.[9] According to arrested ISI agents, the intelligence agency's aims are to confound Indian Muslims using Kashmiri Muslims, extend the ISI network in India, cultivate terrorists and terrorist groups, cause attacks similar to the 1993 Bombay bombings in other cities, and create a state of insurgency in Muslim-dominated regions.[10] The ISI has allegedly set up bases in Nepal and Bangladesh, which are used for operations in North-East India.[10]

Operations in Jammu and Kashmir[edit]

About Rs. 24 million are paid out per month by the ISI, in order to fund its activities in Jammu and Kashmir.[1] Pro-Pakistani groups were reportedly favored over other militant groups.[1] Creation of six militant groups in Kashmir, which included Lashkar-e-Taiba (LeT), was aided by the ISI.[11][12] According to American Intelligence officials, ISI is still providing protection and help to LeT.[12] The Pakistan Army and ISI also LeT volunteers surreptitiously penetrate from Pakistan Administrated Kashmir to Jammu and Kashmir.[13] As of 2010, the degree of control that ISI retains over LeT's operations is not known.[14] The LeT was also reported to have been directed by the ISI to widen its network in the Jammu region where a considerable section of the populace comprised Punjabis.[15]

Alleged involvement in terrorist attacks[edit]

1993 Mumbai blasts[edit]

The 1993 Mumbai bombings were a series of 13 bomb explosions that took place in Bombay (now Mumbai), Maharashtra, India on Friday, 12 March 1993. The coordinated attacks were the most destructive bomb explosions in Indian history. The single-day attacks resulted in over 350 fatalities and 1,200 injuries.[16]

The attacks were coordinated by Dawood Ibrahim,[17] don of the Mumbai-based international organised crime syndicate named D-Company.[18][19]

Ibrahim is believed to have ordered and helped organise the bombings in Mumbai, through one of his subordinates, Tiger Memon. The bombings are also believed to have been financially assisted by the expatriate Indian smugglers, Hajji Ahmed, Hajji Umar and Taufiq Jaliawala, as well as the Pakistani smugglers, Aslam Bhatti and Dawood Jatt. The Indian authorities have also alleged the involvement of the Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI) agency, in the blasts.[19] On 16 June 2017 giving its verdict in the 1993 Mumbai bomb-blast case, a Special Terrorism and Disruptive Activities Act court pronounced gangster Mustafa Dossa and Firoz Khan guilty of conspiracy. The charges can draw the punishment of the death penalty. Accused Abu Salem also got convicted under charges of conspiracy and terror activities.

26/11 attacks[edit]

Zabiuddin Ansari, a Lashkar-e-Taiba militant accused for his involvement in the 2008 Mumbai attacks, said that ISI and Pakistani army officials were involved in planning the attacks and had attended the meetings.[20] An Indian report, summarising intelligence gained from India's interrogation of David Headley,[21] alleged that ISI had provided support for the attacks by providing funding for reconnaissance missions in Mumbai.[22] The report included Headley's claim that Lashkar-e-Taiba's chief military commander, Zaki-ur-Rahman Lakhvi, had close ties to the ISI.[21] He alleged that "every big action of LeT is done in close coordination with [the] ISI."[22]

In 2012 Pakistani civilian security agencies told Pakistan courts that "suspects in the Mumbai attacks case got training at various centres of the banned Lashkar-e-Taiba (LeT) militant organisation, including navigational training in Karachi" & "suspects, who allegedly participated in the attacks, were trained at the LeT training centres at Yousaf Goth in Karachi, Buttle in Mansehra, Mirpur Sakro in Thatta and Muzaffarabad" [23]

Mumbai train blasts[edit]

ISI was alleged of planning the 2006 Mumbai train bombings and the Indian government said that the ISI, LeT and SIMI planned the attacks.[24]

Counterfeit Indian rupee notes[edit]

The ISI has been alleged to print counterfeit Indian rupee notes, which are believed to be printed in Muzaffarabad.[25] In January 2000, the Nepal police raided Wasim Saboor's house, who was an official of the Pakistani embassy of Kathmandu.[26] They found fifty thousand Indian rupee notes, each of Rs. 50 denomination.[26]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b c d e Pike, John (25 July 2002). "Directorate for Inter-Services Intelligence". Federation of American Scientists. Retrieved 25 June 2012.
  2. ^ "Daily Describes Activities of ISI in India". The Pioneer. Federation of American Scientists. 30 June 1999. Retrieved 25 June 2012.
  3. ^ Raman, B. "PAKISTAN'S INTER-SERVICES INTELLIGENCE (ISI)". Archived from the original on 13 September 2012. Retrieved 25 June 2012.
  4. ^ "International Sikh Youth Federation (ISYF) South Asia Terrorism Portal article". The Institute for Conflict Management. Retrieved 25 June 2012.
  5. ^ Mehtab Ali Shah (1997). The foreign policy of Pakistan: ethnic impacts on diplomacy, 1971-1994. I.B.Tauris. pp. 149–. ISBN 978-1-86064-169-5.
  6. ^ Nanjappa, Vicky (10 June 2008). "200 Pak organisations raise funds for terror: IB". Retrieved 25 June 2012.
  7. ^ M. G. Chitkara (1 January 2003). Combating Terrorism. APH Publishing. p. 296. ISBN 978-81-7648-415-2. Retrieved 25 June 2012.
  8. ^ "Directorate for Inter-Services Intelligence". Retrieved 28 June 2012.
  9. ^ a b Ghosh 2000 pg.3
  10. ^ a b Ghosh 2000 pg.8
  11. ^ Does Obama understand his biggest foreign-policy challenge? Archived 15 February 2009 at the Wayback Machine,, 2008-12-12
  12. ^ a b Pakistani Militants Admit Role in Siege, Official Says, The New York Times, 2009-01-01
  13. ^ Ashley J. Tellis (11 March 2010). "Bad Company – Lashkar-e-Tayyiba and the Growing Ambition of Islamist Militancy in Pakistan" (PDF). Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 May 2012.
  14. ^ Curtis, Lisa (11 March 2010). "Testimony to US Congress Committee on Foreign Affairs". Washington, DC. |contribution= ignored (help)
  15. ^ Lashkar-e-Taiba Archived 12 February 2012 at the Wayback Machine, Eyespymag
  16. ^ Hansen, Thomas (2001). Wages of Violence: Naming and Identity in Postcolonial Mumbai. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press. p. 125. ISBN 978-0-691-08840-2.
  17. ^ TADA court accepts Dawood's role in 1993 blasts
  18. ^ James S. Robbins (12 July 2006). "The Mumbai Blasts". National Review. Archived from the original on 24 June 2007. Retrieved 15 March 2007.
  19. ^ a b Black Friday – The True Story of the Bombay Bomb Blasts, S. Hussain Zaidi, Penguin Books, 2002, p. 30
  20. ^ "Saudis helped India nab 26/11 handler Abu Jundal". The Times of India. 25 June 2012. Archived from the original on 25 June 2012. Retrieved 25 June 2012.
  21. ^ a b "Indian gov't: Pakistan spies tied to Mumbai siege". Associated Press. 19 October 2010. Archived from the original on 21 October 2010. Retrieved 20 October 2010.
  22. ^ a b "Report: Pakistan Spies Tied to Mumbai Siege". Fox News. Associated Press. 19 October 2010. Archived from the original on 22 November 2010. Retrieved 20 October 2010.
  23. ^
  24. ^ CNN (30 September 2006). "Pakistan spy agency behind Mumbai bombings". CNN. Retrieved 30 September 2006.
  25. ^ Ghosh 2000 pg.101
  26. ^ a b Ghosh 2000 pg.102