Inter-caste marriages in India

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The inter-caste marriages have been gradually gaining acceptance due to increasing education, employment, middle-class economic background, and urbanisation. According to the 2011 census, 5.8% of the marriages in India are inter-caste marriages.[1][2]

In India, inter-caste marriages were publicly encouraged and supported by the incumbent government under Narendra Modi by the offering of financial encouragement to those who marry people from lower castes,[3] C. N. Annadurai, the former Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu,[4] and social activists such as Periyar E. V. Ramasamy,[5] Raghupathi Venkataratnam Naidu[citation needed] and Manthena Venkata Raju.[citation needed] In the North Indian state of Uttar Pradesh, the Government offers a cash award for inter-caste couples.[6] The Supreme Court of India has also declared that inter-caste marriages are in the national interest and a unifying factor for the nation[7] and there has never been a bar on inter-caste or inter-religion marriages in India.[8]

In 2017, the Prime minister Narendra Modi started a scheme in which 2.5 lakh rupees will be given to inter-caste couples if one of them is a Dalit.[3]

Statistics and surveys[edit]

According to the 2017 Study conducted by the Indian Statistical Institute, inter-caste marriages are more frequent in Rural areas (5.2%) than Urban areas (4.9%). The Survey also found that the inter-caste marriages are more common among poor people (5.9%) than rich people (4.0%). [1]

According to the Studies conducted by the National Council of Applied Economic Research in 2016, about 5% of the marriages in India are inter-caste marriages. Mizoram had the highest number of inter-caste marriages, where about 55% of the marriages were inter-caste marriages and Madhya Pradesh had the lowest number of inter-caste marriages, where only 1% of the marriages were inter-caste marriage.[9]

According to a survey, the education of the husband’s mother has a significant effect on inter-caste marriages. The probability of inter-caste marriages was found to increase by 36% with a 10 year increase in education of the husband’s mother.[10]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b Tish Sanghera (22 October 2020). "Inter-caste marriages depend on education level, but not that of the couple". Business Standard. Retrieved 19 October 2020.
  2. ^ 'Caste no bar', in words if not in action
  3. ^ a b "Modi government push for inter-caste marriages; offers Rs 2.5 lakh for marrying Dalit". Financial Express. 6 December 2017. Retrieved 19 October 2020.
  4. ^ "Love in the time of caste". The Hindu. 2013-07-27. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 2015-11-06.
  5. ^ Anita Diehl. (1977). E. V. Ramaswami Periyar. A study of the influence of a personality in contemporary South India, Scandinavian University Books: Sweden. ISBN 91-24-27645-6.
  6. ^ India: Cash reward offered for inter-caste marriages
  7. ^ "Lawyer's Collective". Archived from the original on 2015-09-10.
  8. ^ "Infochange India".
  9. ^ Prachi Salve and Saumya Tewari (11 May 2016). "Mizoram Has Highest Number of Inter-Caste Marriages in India With 55%". The Wire. Retrieved 4 November 2020.
  10. ^ ARKA ROY CHAUDHURI, TRIDIP RAY and KOMAL SAHAI (20 October 2020). "Chances of an inter-caste marriage go up if groom's mother is educated, study". Retrieved 20 October 2020.

External links[edit]

Even as more and more cases challenging religious conversion laws enacted by several States reach the Supreme Court, Justice Kaul observed in the judgment on February 8 that “consent of the family or community or clan is not necessary once the two adult individuals agree to enter into a wedlock and that their consent has to be piously given primacy”.(1)

Fundamental right The Bench, also comprising Justice Hrishikesh Roy, referred to the Hadiya case and the Constitution Bench judgment in which privacy was declared a fundamental right guaranteed in the Constitution.

“Intimacies of marriage lie within a core zone of privacy,” Justice Kaul reproduced the core of the Hadiya case judgment. FEBRUARY 12, 2021